North Borneo

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North Borneo from the Japanese. References to it and the Papar River can be found in reports on covert intelligence operations ''Agas'' and ''Semut'', and later in attack plans ''Stallion'' and ''Oboe 6''. http: www.awm.gov.au journal j37 borneo.htm Whitehead travelled in Malacca, North Borneo, Java, and Palawan between 1885 and 1888, where he collected a number of zoological specimens new to science, including Whitehead's Broadbill


presence quot

Sea via the Suez Canal, alternatively round the Cape of Good Hope to India (British India), and on to East Asia (Brunei (History of Brunei), Burma, British Malaya, Hong Kong, North Borneo, Sarawak (Kingdom of Sarawak)) and Australia. With the end of empire, which began with Indian independence (1947), there was a gradual draw down of the military presence "east of Suez". North Borneo-born Beattie earned a total of 25 caps playing for Scotland (Scotland national rugby union team) as Career Seven years later, Lee set up his own rubber smoking house in Muar (district) Muar (Rugby_union_positions#8._Number_eight), which became the Nam Aik Rubber Company in 1928. His enterprises of rubber planting and manufacture, pineapple planting and canning soon expanded to other parts of Southeast Asia, including Singapore-Malaya (British Malaya), North Borneo, Indonesia and Thailand. He was known as Southeast Asia's Rubber and Pineapple King. He became one of the richest men in the region, with the Lee Rubber Company becoming a multi-million dollar business which he started in 1931. :Dominions: Australia, Canada, Newfoundland (Dominion of Newfoundland), New Zealand, Southern Rhodesia (not a dominion but supervised by the Dominion office) and Union of South Africa :Colonies: Aden, Antigua, Ascension Island, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Ceylon, Cyprus, Dominica, Egypt, Falkland Islands, Fiji, Gambia, Gibraltar, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Gold Coast (Gold Coast (British colony)), Gibraltar, Granada, British Guiana, British Honduras, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Kenya, Malaya (British Malaya), Malta, Mauritius, Montserrat, New Hebrides, Nigeria, North Borneo, Northern Rhodesia, Nyasaland, Palestine (Palestine (mandate)), Penang, St. Helena, St. Lucia, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Vincent (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), Sarawak, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, British Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sudan, Tanganyika, Trinidad, Tonga, Uganda, Virgin Islands and Zanzibar, Brace married Nellie Humphreys in 1890. The couple had had two sons and a daughter. The younger son, Ivor Llewellyn Brace, became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Sarawak, North Borneo and Brunei. ''Storstad'' The ''Pinguin'' headed north-eastwards towards the Sunda Strait to the shipping lanes between India and Australia. On 27 September the sea was calm enough to allow the spare seaplane to be assembled. Ernst-Felix Krüder and his navigation officer Leutnant Wilhelm Michaelson conceived and developed a plan to lay mines in six Australian and Tasmanian sea lanes but it would require two ships. On 7 October off Christmas Island a vessel crossing the raider's path was flagged down and ordered to stop with a 75 mm warning shot. The vessel stopped and surrendered. The vessel was identified as the Norwegian motor-tanker ''Storstad'' carrying a cargo of 12,000 tons of diesel oil and 500 tons of heavy fuel oil. She was on her way from British North Borneo to Melbourne. The ''Storstad'' was suitable for use as an auxiliary minelayer. CAPE OTWAY LIGHTSTATION Under a prize crew the ''Storstad'' was taken to a remote spot between Java and the north-west tip of Australia to be converted into an auxiliary minelayer. The ''Storstad'' was stripped and her after accommodation space was transformed into a mine deck with launching rails. One hundred and ten mines were transferred from the ''Pinguin'' in the motorboat that was taken from the ''Morviken''. 1,200 tons of the diesel oil was transferred from the ''Storstad'' to the ''Pinguin''. Norwegian Victims of Pinguin The '''Battle of North Borneo''' took place during the Second World War (World War II) between Allied (Allies of World War II) and Japanese forces. Part of the wider Borneo campaign (Borneo Campaign (1945)) of the Pacific War, it was fought between 10 June and 15 August 1945 in North Borneo (later known as Sabah). The battle involved a series of amphibious landings by Australian forces on various points on the mainland around Brunei Bay and upon islands situated around the bay. Japanese opposition to the landings was sporadic initially, although as the campaign progressed a number of considerable clashes occurred and both sides suffered relatively significant casualties. Ultimately, however, the Australians were successful in seizing control of the region, although to a large extent the strategic gains that possession of North Borneo provided the Allies with were ultimately negated by the sudden conclusion of the war in August 1945. Throughout much of World War II, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak (Kingdom of Sarawak) were under '''Japanese occupation'''. On 18 January 1942, using small fishing boats, the Japanese landed at Sandakan, the seat of government of British North Borneo. On the morning of the 19 January, Governor Charles Robert Smith surrendered British North Borneo and was interned with other staff.


term+called

of a tribe or ethnic and linguistic group in the Malaysian state of Sabah of North Borneo. Due to similarities in culture and language with the Kadazan ethnic group, a new unified term called "Kadazan-Dusun" was created. Collectively, they form the largest ethnic group in Sabah. A small minority of Dusuns can also be found in Brunei where they are defined by the constitution to be one of the seven Bumiputera (Bumiputera (Brunei)) groups. '''Sandakan


building showing

of a stone building, showing a central arch, flanked by two columns, with a stone relief above the arch, also flanked by two columns, and a second free-standing arch perched on the very top of the ruin. A Famosa fortress in Malacca was built by the Portuguese in the 16th century. In 1511 Malacca was conquered by Portugal (Portuguese Malacca), after which it was taken by the Dutch (Dutch Malacca) in 1641. In 1786 the British Empire established


made numerous

to Balikpapan. ''Salmon'' departed from Fremantle on 21 July for her fourth war patrol in the South China Sea-Sulu Sea area. Sailing via Lombok Strait and Makassar Strait, the Sibutu Passage, and the Balabac Strait, she stationed herself between North Borneo and Palawan, Philippine Islands. During this patrol, ''Salmon'' was unable to gain a favorable position for successful attack, but made numerous sightings and reports of shipping movements to sister subs in the vicinity. She returned to Fremantle on 8 September. - 1900 – The '''Mat Salleh Rebellion''', a series of major disturbances in North Borneo, now the Malaysian state of Sabah, ended when its leader Datu Muhammad Salleh was shot dead in Tambunan. Career Seven years later, Lee set up his own rubber smoking house in Muar (Muar (district)), which became the Nam Aik Rubber Company in 1928. His enterprises of rubber planting and manufacture, pineapple planting and canning soon expanded to other parts of Southeast Asia, including Singapore-Malaya (British Malaya), North Borneo, Indonesia and Thailand. He was known as Southeast Asia's Rubber and Pineapple King. He became one of the richest men in the region, with the Lee Rubber Company becoming a multi-million dollar business which he started in 1931. :Dominions: Australia, Canada, Newfoundland (Dominion of Newfoundland), New Zealand, Southern Rhodesia (not a dominion but supervised by the Dominion office) and Union of South Africa :Colonies: Aden, Antigua, Ascension Island, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Ceylon, Cyprus, Dominica, Egypt, Falkland Islands, Fiji, Gambia, Gibraltar, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Gold Coast (Gold Coast (British colony)), Gibraltar, Granada, British Guiana, British Honduras, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Kenya, Malaya (British Malaya), Malta, Mauritius, Montserrat, New Hebrides, Nigeria, North Borneo, Northern Rhodesia, Nyasaland, Palestine (Palestine (mandate)), Penang, St. Helena, St. Lucia, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Vincent (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), Sarawak, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, British Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sudan, Tanganyika, Trinidad, Tonga, Uganda, Virgin Islands and Zanzibar, Brace married Nellie Humphreys in 1890. The couple had had two sons and a daughter. The younger son, Ivor Llewellyn Brace, became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Sarawak, North Borneo and Brunei. ''Storstad'' The ''Pinguin'' headed north-eastwards towards the Sunda Strait to the shipping lanes between India and Australia. On 27 September the sea was calm enough to allow the spare seaplane to be assembled. Ernst-Felix Krüder and his navigation officer Leutnant Wilhelm Michaelson conceived and developed a plan to lay mines in six Australian and Tasmanian sea lanes but it would require two ships. On 7 October off Christmas Island a vessel crossing the raider's path was flagged down and ordered to stop with a 75 mm warning shot. The vessel stopped and surrendered. The vessel was identified as the Norwegian motor-tanker ''Storstad'' carrying a cargo of 12,000 tons of diesel oil and 500 tons of heavy fuel oil. She was on her way from British North Borneo to Melbourne. The ''Storstad'' was suitable for use as an auxiliary minelayer. CAPE OTWAY LIGHTSTATION Under a prize crew the ''Storstad'' was taken to a remote spot between Java and the north-west tip of Australia to be converted into an auxiliary minelayer. The ''Storstad'' was stripped and her after accommodation space was transformed into a mine deck with launching rails. One hundred and ten mines were transferred from the ''Pinguin'' in the motorboat that was taken from the ''Morviken''. 1,200 tons of the diesel oil was transferred from the ''Storstad'' to the ''Pinguin''. Norwegian Victims of Pinguin The '''Battle of North Borneo''' took place during the Second World War (World War II) between Allied (Allies of World War II) and Japanese forces. Part of the wider Borneo campaign (Borneo Campaign (1945)) of the Pacific War, it was fought between 10 June and 15 August 1945 in North Borneo (later known as Sabah). The battle involved a series of amphibious landings by Australian forces on various points on the mainland around Brunei Bay and upon islands situated around the bay. Japanese opposition to the landings was sporadic initially, although as the campaign progressed a number of considerable clashes occurred and both sides suffered relatively significant casualties. Ultimately, however, the Australians were successful in seizing control of the region, although to a large extent the strategic gains that possession of North Borneo provided the Allies with were ultimately negated by the sudden conclusion of the war in August 1945. Throughout much of World War II, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak (Kingdom of Sarawak) were under '''Japanese occupation'''. On 18 January 1942, using small fishing boats, the Japanese landed at Sandakan, the seat of government of British North Borneo. On the morning of the 19 January, Governor Charles Robert Smith surrendered British North Borneo and was interned with other staff.


term success

was then established here which was of importance for the interest of Britain in the east Asia region, namely, trade with China. The port however failed to become a long term success due to constant pirate attacks (Moro Pirates) as well as other reasons and the British left in 1805. State of North Borneo thumb left :de:Joseph William Torrey Joseph William Torrey (File:Concession-Torrey-Page1.PNG) been given a permission by the Sultanate of Brunei to operating from the entire northern portion of the island of Borneo from Sulaman on the west to river Pietan on the East and the states of Paitan, Sugot, Banggayan, Labuk, Sandakan, China Bantangan, Gagayan Mumiang, Benuni and Kimanis, together with the islands of Banguey, Palawan and Balabao on 24 November 1865. In 1865, the United States Consul to Brunei, Charles Lee Moses, obtained a 10-year lease for the territory of North Borneo from the Sultan of Brunei. However, the post-Civil War (American Civil War) United States wanted nothing to do with Asian colonies, so Moses sold his rights to the Hong Kong-based American Trading Company of Borneo owned by Joseph William Torrey (:de:Joseph William Torrey), Thomas Bradley Harris, Tat Cheong and possibly other Chinese merchants. Torrey began a settlement at the Kimanis River mouth, which he named Ellena. Attempts to find financial backing for the settlement were futile, and disease, death and desertion by the immigrant labourers led to the abandonment of the settlement towards the end of 1866. Harris died in 1866 and Torrey returned to America in 1877. He died in Boston, Massachusetts, in March 1884. With the imminent termination of the lease at hand in January 1875, Torrey managed to sell his rights to the Consul of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in Hong Kong, Baron Gustav von Overbeck. Von Overbeck managed to get a 10-year renewal of the lease from the Temenggong of Brunei, and a similar treaty from the Sultan of Sulu (Sultanate of Sulu) on 22 January 1878. To finance his plans for North Borneo, Overbeck found financial backing from the Dent brothers (Alfred and Edward). However, he was unable to interest his government in the territory. After efforts to sell the territory to Italy for use as a penal colony, von Overbeck withdrew in 1880, leaving Alfred Dent in control. Dent was supported by Sir Rutherford Alcock, and Admiral Sir Harry Keppel. thumb Civil Ensign flag of the North Borneo (File:Flag of North Borneo (Civil Ensign).svg) In July 1881, Alfred Dent and his brother formed the British North Borneo Provisional Association Ltd and obtained an official Royal Charter 1 November the same year. In May 1882, the North Borneo Chartered Company replaced the Provisional Association. Sir Rutherford Alcock became the first President, and Alfred Dent became Managing director. In spite of some diplomatic protests by the Dutch, Spanish and Sarawak (Kingdom of Sarawak) governments, the North Borneo Chartered Company proceeded to organise settlement and administration (Local government) of the territory. The company subsequently acquired further sovereign and territorial rights from the sultan of Brunei (List of Sultans of Brunei), expanding the territory under control to the Putatan river (May 1884), the Padas district (November 1884), the Kawang river (February 1885), the Mantanani Islands (April 1885), and additional minor Padas territories (March 1898). The Company established a foundation for economic growth in North Borneo by restoring peace to a land where piracy and tribal feuds had grown rampant. It abolished slavery and set up transport, health and education services for the people. Chinese (Overseas Chinese) immigrants were wooed to boost the small population of less than 100,000. Through the combined effort of the locals and immigrants, towns, farms, a timber industry (Logging), tobacco and rubber plantations began to thrive. Protectorate of Britain thumb left Board of directors of the North Borneo Chartered Company (File:BritishNorthBorneoCharteredCompany.png) in 1899 In 1888, North Borneo became a protectorate of Great Britain, but its administration remained entirely in the hands of the North Borneo Chartered Company, with the crown reserving only control of defence and foreign relations. From 1890 to 1905 the British government placed the colony of Labuan (Labuan Territory) under the administration of North Borneo. The Company's rule in North Borneo had great impact on the development of the region. Although was generally peaceful, the local population occasionally resented the imposition of taxes and the loss of land to European plantations. The most serious resistance was the Mat Salleh (Mat Salleh Rebellion) (Mahomet Saleh) War from 1894 to 1900, and the Rundum Uprising by the Murut (Murut people) in 1915. The Chartered Company's system of administration was based on standard British colonial (British Empire) administration structures, with the land divided into Residencies, and sub-divided into Districts. Initially, there were only two Residencies: East Coast and West Coast, with Residents based at Sandakan and Jesselton respectively. Each Residency was divided into Provinces, later known as Districts, which were run by District Officers. By 1922, there were five Residencies to accommodate new areas that were opened up for development. These were the West Coast, Kudat, Tawau, Interior and East Coast Residencies. These Residencies were in turn divided into 17 Districts. Under this system, British held top posts, while native chiefs managed the people at grassroots level. This was not a conscious attempt by the British to instil indirect rule but a convenient arrangement for the District Officers who were unfamiliar with local customs and politics. The North Borneo Chartered Company effectively ruled until 1 January 1942. Japanese forces occupied North Borneo (Japanese occupation of British Borneo) from 1942 to 1945. The North Borneo Armed Constabulary with only 650 men hardly provided any resistance to slow down the Japanese invasion. During Japanese military (Imperial Japanese Army) occupation, the Europeans were interned, public services ceased to exist, and there were widespread poverty, disease and malnutrition. In June 1945 the Australian 9th Division landed in Brunei and liberated much of North Borneo before the end of the war. North Borneo was placed under British Military (British Armed Forces) Administration until restoration of civil government on 15 July 1946. Crown Colony of British North Borneo Career Seven years later, Lee set up his own rubber smoking house in Muar (Muar (district)), which became the Nam Aik Rubber Company in 1928. His enterprises of rubber planting and manufacture, pineapple planting and canning soon expanded to other parts of Southeast Asia, including Singapore-Malaya (British Malaya), North Borneo, Indonesia and Thailand. He was known as Southeast Asia's Rubber and Pineapple King. He became one of the richest men in the region, with the Lee Rubber Company becoming a multi-million dollar business which he started in 1931. :Dominions: Australia, Canada, Newfoundland (Dominion of Newfoundland), New Zealand, Southern Rhodesia (not a dominion but supervised by the Dominion office) and Union of South Africa :Colonies: Aden, Antigua, Ascension Island, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Ceylon, Cyprus, Dominica, Egypt, Falkland Islands, Fiji, Gambia, Gibraltar, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Gold Coast (Gold Coast (British colony)), Gibraltar, Granada, British Guiana, British Honduras, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Kenya, Malaya (British Malaya), Malta, Mauritius, Montserrat, New Hebrides, Nigeria, North Borneo, Northern Rhodesia, Nyasaland, Palestine (Palestine (mandate)), Penang, St. Helena, St. Lucia, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Vincent (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), Sarawak, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, British Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sudan, Tanganyika, Trinidad, Tonga, Uganda, Virgin Islands and Zanzibar, Brace married Nellie Humphreys in 1890. The couple had had two sons and a daughter. The younger son, Ivor Llewellyn Brace, became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Sarawak, North Borneo and Brunei. ''Storstad'' The ''Pinguin'' headed north-eastwards towards the Sunda Strait to the shipping lanes between India and Australia. On 27 September the sea was calm enough to allow the spare seaplane to be assembled. Ernst-Felix Krüder and his navigation officer Leutnant Wilhelm Michaelson conceived and developed a plan to lay mines in six Australian and Tasmanian sea lanes but it would require two ships. On 7 October off Christmas Island a vessel crossing the raider's path was flagged down and ordered to stop with a 75 mm warning shot. The vessel stopped and surrendered. The vessel was identified as the Norwegian motor-tanker ''Storstad'' carrying a cargo of 12,000 tons of diesel oil and 500 tons of heavy fuel oil. She was on her way from British North Borneo to Melbourne. The ''Storstad'' was suitable for use as an auxiliary minelayer. CAPE OTWAY LIGHTSTATION Under a prize crew the ''Storstad'' was taken to a remote spot between Java and the north-west tip of Australia to be converted into an auxiliary minelayer. The ''Storstad'' was stripped and her after accommodation space was transformed into a mine deck with launching rails. One hundred and ten mines were transferred from the ''Pinguin'' in the motorboat that was taken from the ''Morviken''. 1,200 tons of the diesel oil was transferred from the ''Storstad'' to the ''Pinguin''. Norwegian Victims of Pinguin The '''Battle of North Borneo''' took place during the Second World War (World War II) between Allied (Allies of World War II) and Japanese forces. Part of the wider Borneo campaign (Borneo Campaign (1945)) of the Pacific War, it was fought between 10 June and 15 August 1945 in North Borneo (later known as Sabah). The battle involved a series of amphibious landings by Australian forces on various points on the mainland around Brunei Bay and upon islands situated around the bay. Japanese opposition to the landings was sporadic initially, although as the campaign progressed a number of considerable clashes occurred and both sides suffered relatively significant casualties. Ultimately, however, the Australians were successful in seizing control of the region, although to a large extent the strategic gains that possession of North Borneo provided the Allies with were ultimately negated by the sudden conclusion of the war in August 1945. Throughout much of World War II, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak (Kingdom of Sarawak) were under '''Japanese occupation'''. On 18 January 1942, using small fishing boats, the Japanese landed at Sandakan, the seat of government of British North Borneo. On the morning of the 19 January, Governor Charles Robert Smith surrendered British North Borneo and was interned with other staff.


1962

which has never been fully reversed. Since 1970 the "National Front (National Front (Malaysia)) coalition" headed by United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) has governed Malaysia. Economic growth dramatically increased living standards (Standard of living) by the 1990s. This growing prosperity helped minimise political discontent. On 12 September 1962, during President Diosdado Macapagal's administration, the territory of North

* September 16 ** Malaysia is formed through the merging of the Federation of Malaya and the British crown colony of Singapore, North Borneo (renamed Sabah) and Sarawak. ** In Fort-Lamy, Chad, demonstrations are quelled with 300 dead. # Malaya (Federation of Malaya), North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore federated as Malaysia in 1963. Singapore left

. *Humphrey Trevelyan, Baron Trevelyan (1905–1985), British Chargé d'affaires to China (List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to the People's Republic of China) (1953–1955), British Ambassador to Egypt (List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Egypt) (1955–1956), British Ambassador to Iraq (List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Iraq) (1958–1961), British Ambassador to Russia (List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Russia) (1962–1965), last Aden High


based political

Nasional ) coalition of three racially-based political parties, namely the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), and Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC). UMNO has dominated the coalition from its inception. ref>


fact book

of two distinct geographical regions: Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. Malaysia was formed when the Federation of Malaya merged with North Borneo (today the province of Sabah), Sarawak, and Singapore (seceded 1965) in 1963, and cultural differences between Peninsular and East Malaysia remain. During the formation of Malaysia, executive power was vested in the Perikatan (Alliance Party (Malaysia)) (later the Barisan

North Borneo

'''North Borneo''' was a British protectorate under the sovereign North Borneo Chartered Company from 1882 to 1941. From 1942 to 1945, North Borneo was occupied by Japanese military forces (Imperial Japanese Army), before they were driven out by Australian troops (Australian Army). From 1946 "Sabah" in ''The New Encyclopaedia Britannica (Encyclopædia Britannica)''. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 15th edn., 1992, Vol. 10, p. 278. to 1963, North Borneo was a Crown Colony of Great Britain, known in this time as '''British North Borneo'''. Located in the northeastern part of Borneo, it is now part of Malaysia as the state (States and federal territories of Malaysia) of Sabah, apart from the island group of Labuan which was separated from the rest in 1984 to form a Federal Territory (Federal Territories (Malaysia)), administered directly from the federal government.

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