Nehardea

What is Nehardea known for?


time made

). Nehardea at the end of the Tannaitic period Nehardea emerges clearly into the light of history at the end of the tannaitic period. Shela's (Rav Shela) school was then prominent, and served to pave the way for the activity of the Babylonian academies (yeshiva). Samuel ben Abba, whose father, Abba ben Abba, was an authority in Nehardea, established the reputation of its academy, while Abba Arika, who likewise taught there for a time, made Sura


legendary+stories

in Babylonia, known as an Amora of the first generation; son of Abba bar Abba and head of the Yeshiva (Talmudic Academies in Babylonia) at Nehardea. He was a teacher of halakha, judge, physician, and astronomer. He was born about 165 at Nehardea, in Babylonia and died there about 257. As in the case of many other great men, a number of legendary stories are connected with his birth (comp. ''Halakot Gedolot,'' Giṭṭin (Gittin), end; Tos. Ḳid. s.v. ). In Talmudic


special historical

on Sabbath (Shabbat): "the books written by minnims for controversies may or may not be saved" (Shab. 116a). Of special historical interest is the observation of Abbahu in regard to the benediction "Baruk Shem Kebod Malkuto" (Blessed be the Name of His glorious Kingdom) after the "Shema' Yisrael," that in Palestine, where the Christians look for points of controversy, the words should be recited aloud (lest the Jews be accused of tampering with the unity of God proclaimed in the Shema'), whereas in the Babylonian city of Nehardea, where there are no Christians, the words are recited with a low voice (Pesahim 56a). Preaching directly against the Christian dogma, Abbahu says: "A king of flesh and blood may have a father, a brother, or a son to share in or dispute his sovereignty, but the Lord saith, 'I am the Lord thy God! I am the first; that is, I have no father, and I am the last; that is, I have no brother, and besides me there is no God; that is, I have no son'" (Isaiah 44:6; Ex. R. 29). His comment on Numbers 23:19 has a still more polemical tone: “God is not a man that he should lie; neither the son of man, that he should repent; if a man says: ‘I am a god’ he is a liar; if he says: ‘I am a son of man’ he will have cause to regret it; and if he says, ‘I will go up to heaven’ he has said something but will not keep his word” this last phrase is borrowed from B'midbar 23:19 (Yer. Ta'anit, folio 9a, chapter II, halachah 1, end). thumb right 300px A full set of the Babylonian Talmud. (Image:Talmud set.JPG) The Talmud Bavli consists of documents compiled over the period of Late Antiquity (3rd to 5th centuries).


contemporary

). This was the synagogue called "Shaf we-Yatib," to which there are several references dating from the third and fourth centuries (R. H. 24b; Avodah Zarah 43b; Niddah 13a), and which Abaye asserts (Meg. 29a) was the seat of the Shekhinah in Babylonia. The Aaronic (Kohen) portion of the Jewish population of Nehardea was said to be descended from the slaves of Pashur ben Immer (Pashhur), the contemporary of King Jehoiachin (Kiddushin (Nashim) 70b). Mention by Josephus

. In 95–96 Akiva was in Rome (Ancient Rome) (H. Grätz, ''Gesch. d. Juden,'' iv. 121), and some time before 110 he was in Nehardea (Yeb. xvi. 7), which journeys cannot be made to coincide with revolutionary plans. Nathan 'Ukban, however, who is none other than Mar 'Ukban (Mar 'Ukban (exilarch)), the contemporary of Rab and Samuel, also occupied a prominent position among the scholars of Babylon' (see Bacher, "Aggadoth of the Babylonian Amoraim" pp. 34–36

an existing Babylonian academy at Nehardea to his friend Samuel, Rab founded the Sura Academy, where he held property. Thus, there existed in Babylonia two contemporary academies, so far removed from each other, however, as not to interfere with each other's operations. Since Rab and Samuel were acknowledged peers in position and learning, their academies likewise were accounted of equal rank and influence. Thus both Babylonian rabbinical schools opened their lectures brilliantly


humor'

. On a journey to Babylon he was ill-treated at Nehardea by the Jewish-Persian (Persian Jews) authorities, and took revenge by giving a satirical description of the latter. The account of the affair is preserved in two different versions (Giṭ. 14a, b; Yer. Giṭ. i. 43d; Yer. Ḳid. iii. 64a). Examples of Dosetai's humor are to be found in his answers to his pupils' questions on the differences between man and woman (Niddah 31b), and in his reply to the question why Jerusalem did not have


tenure

, destroying its great yeshiva. Conjointly with his disciples and the scholars who gathered in Sura for the "Kallah", or semi-annual college conference, he completed this task. The kindly attitude of King Yazdegerd I, as well as the devoted and respectful recognition of his authority by the academies of Nehardea and Pumbedita, greatly favored the undertaking. A particularly important element in Ashi's success was the length of his tenure of office as head of Sura


title early

is borrowed from B'midbar 23:19 (Yer. Ta'anit, folio 9a, chapter II, halachah 1, end). thumb right 300px A full set of the Babylonian Talmud. (Image:Talmud set.JPG) The Talmud Bavli consists of documents compiled over the period of Late Antiquity (3rd to 5th centuries).


centuries

). This was the synagogue called "Shaf we-Yatib," to which there are several references dating from the third and fourth centuries (R. H. 24b; Avodah Zarah 43b; Niddah 13a), and which Abaye asserts (Meg. 29a) was the seat of the Shekhinah in Babylonia. The Aaronic (Kohen) portion of the Jewish population of Nehardea was said to be descended from the slaves of Pashur ben Immer (Pashhur), the contemporary of King Jehoiachin (Kiddushin (Nashim) 70b). Mention by Josephus

Halevy, ''Dorot ha-Rishonim,'' ii. 515 et seq., iii. 68 et seq.). Other scholars of the 4th and 5th centuries who are mentioned in the Talmud as natives of Nehardea are: * Dimi (Rav Dimi) (Ḥul. 113a), who subsequently presided at Pumbedita as second successor to Ḥama (Letter of Sherira Gaon, l.c.) * Zebid (M. Ḳ. 27b) * Nahman (Rav Nachman) (Ḥul. 95b) * Ḥanan (Ḳid. 81b; Niddah 66b) * Simai (Sheb. 12b; Mak. 16a) * Adda b. Minyomi was called

to the academy at Nehardea a high degree of prosperity; in fact, it was at the school of Rav that Jewish learning in Babylonia found its permanent home and center. Rav's activity made Babylonia independent of Palestine, and gave it that predominant position which it was destined to occupy for several centuries. Abbahu made a notable exception with reference to the Tosefta's statement that the Gilionim (Evangels) and other books of the Mineans are not to be saved from a conflagration


254

Sura, situated on the Euphrates about twenty parasangs from Nehardea, the seat of an academy destined to achieve a still greater reputation. The history of Nehardea is summed up in that of Samuel's activity. Soon after his death (254) it was destroyed by Papa ben Neser (Odenathus), in 259, and its place as seat of the second academy was taken by Pumbedita. Nahman ben Jacob Nehardea, however, soon regained its importance, for the eminent Nahman ben Jacob dwelt

) and, according to Sherira Gaon (who quotes Talmud Shabbat 55a), was also exilarch. As 'Ukban's successor is mentioned in the list his son Huna (Huna II (Huna II (exilarch))), whose chief advisers were Rab (d. 247) and Samuel (d. 254), and in whose time Papa ben Nazor destroyed Nehardea. Huna's son and successor, Nathan (Nathan 'Ukban II (exilarch)), whose chief advisers were Judah ben Ezekiel (d. 299) and Shesheth, was called, like his grandfather, " Mar 'Ukban II (exilarch) Mar 'Ukban


ancient tradition

in Palestine, and Nehardea are mentioned in the 3rd century as cities whose inhabitants were proud and ignorant (Yer. Pes. 32a; comp. Bab. Pes. 62b; see Bacher, ''Ag. Pal. Amor.'' i. 60). Nehardea is famous in the history of the Masorah (Masoretes) because of an ancient tradition relating to the number of verses in the Bible; it is here said that Hamnuna (Hamnuna (disambiguation)) (Bacher, l.c. i. 2) brought this tradition from Nehardea, where he had received it from Naḳḳai (see ''M. J. C.'' i. 174; Strack, ''Diḳduḳ Ṭe'amim,'' p. 56). Certain readings of the Biblical text are characterized by tradition—especially by the Masorah to the Pentateuch Targum (Onkelos)—as being those of Sura, and certain others as of Nehardea (see Berliner, ''Die Massorah zum Targum Onkelos,'' pp. xiii. et seq., 61-70, Leipsic, 1877). Bibliography * Barak S. Cohen, "‘In Nehardea Where There Are No Heretics’: The Purported Jewish Response to Christianity in Nehardea (A Re-examination of the Talmudic Evidence)," in Dan Jaffé (ed), ''Studies in Rabbinic Judaism and Early Christianity: Text and Context'' (Leiden: Brill, 2010) (Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity Arbeiten zur Geschichte des antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums, 74), See also *Nehardea Academy *Anbar (town) (Firuz Shapur) *Fallujah *Talmudic Academies in Babylonia *Pumbedita Academy *Pumbedita (City) *Mahuza *Pum-Nahara Academy *Sura (city) *Sura Academy *Talmudic Academies in the Land of Israel Notes

Nehardea

'''Nehardea''' or '''Nehardeah''' ( "river of knowledge") was a city of Babylonia, situated at or near the junction of the Euphrates with the Nahr Malka (also known as Nâr Sharri, Ar-Malcha, Nahr el-Malik, and King's Canal), one of the earliest centers of Babylonian Judaism (History of the Jews in Iraq). As the seat of the exilarch it traced its origin back to King Jehoiachin. According to Sherira Gaon (Letter of Sherira Gaon, in Neubauer, ''M. J. C.'' i. 26), Jehoiachin and his coexilarchs built a synagogue at Nehardea, for the foundation of which they used earth and stones which they had brought, in accordance with the words of Psalms 102:15, from Jerusalem (comp. a similar statement in regard to the founding of the Jewish neighbourhood in the Persian city of Ispahan, in ''Monatsschrift,'' 1873, pp. 129, 181). This was the synagogue called "Shaf we-Yatib," to which there are several references dating from the third and fourth centuries (R. H. 24b; Avodah Zarah 43b; Niddah 13a), and which Abaye asserts (Meg. 29a) was the seat of the Shekhinah in Babylonia. The Aaronic (Kohen) portion of the Jewish population of Nehardea was said to be descended from the slaves of Pashur ben Immer (Pashhur), the contemporary of King Jehoiachin (Kiddushin (Nashim) 70b).

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