National Recovery Administration

What is National Recovery Administration known for?


creation programs

breaking_news 2006 11 nobel_lauriet_e.html publisher The Boston Globe accessdate February 20, 2008 At this stage, Friedman said that he and his wife "regarded the job-creation programs such as the WPA (Works Progress Administration), CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps), and PWA (Public Works Administration) appropriate responses to the critical situation," but not "the price- (price-fixing) and wage-fixing measures of the National Recovery Administration and the Agricultural Adjustment Administration."


bringing+industry

The '''National Recovery Administration''' ('''NRA''') was the primary New Deal agency established by U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) in 1933. The goal was to eliminate "cut-throat competition" by bringing industry, labor and government together to create codes of "fair practices" and set prices. The NRA was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) and allowed industries to get together and write "codes of fair competition." The codes were intended to reduce "destructive competition" and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours, as well as minimum prices at which products could be sold. The NRA also had a two-year renewal charter and was set to expire in June 1935 if not renewed. http: www.novelguide.com a discover egd_02 egd_02_00388.html In 1935, the U.S. Supreme Court (Supreme Court of the United States) unanimously declared that the NRA law was unconstitutional, ruling that it infringed the separation of powers under the United States Constitution. The NRA quickly stopped operations, but many of its labor provisions reappeared in the National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act), passed later the same year. The long-term result was a surge in the growth and power of unions (Trade union), which became a core of the New Deal Coalition that dominated national politics for the next three decades. The NRA, symbolized by the Blue Eagle, was popular with workers. Businesses that supported the NRA put the symbol in their shop windows and on their packages, though they did not always go along with the regulations entailed. Though membership to the NRA was voluntary, businesses that did not display the eagle were very often boycotted, making it seem mandatory for survival to many. Background As part of the "First New Deal," the NRA was based on the premise that the Great Depression was caused by market instability and that government intervention was necessary to balance the interests of farmers, business and labor. The NIRA, which created the NRA, declared that codes of fair competition should be developed through public hearings, and gave the Administration the power to develop voluntary agreements with industries regarding work hours, pay rates, and price fixing. National Recovery Administration. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07 The NRA was put into operation by an executive order (Executive order (United States)), signed the same day as the passage of the NIRA. New Dealers who were part of the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt saw the close analogy with the earlier crisis handling the economics of World War I. They brought ideas and experience from the government controls and spending of 1917-18. In his June 16, 1933 "Statement on the National Industrial Recovery Act," President Roosevelt described the spirit of the NRA: "On this idea, the first part of the NIRA proposes to our industry a great spontaneous cooperation to put millions of men back in their regular jobs this summer." Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum - Our Documents Franklin D. Roosevelt Statement on N.I.R.A. He further stated, "But if all employers in each trade now band themselves faithfully in these modern guilds--without exception-and agree to act together and at once, none will be hurt and millions of workers, so long deprived of the right to earn their bread in the sweat of their labor, can raise their heads again. The challenge of this law is whether we can sink selfish interest and present a solid front against a common peril." Inception thumb right 200px Director Hugh S. Johnson on the cover of Time Magazine (File:1933 Time Man of the Year cover.jpg) in 1933.thumb right 200px The film industry supported the NRA (File:NRA film 1934.JPG) The first director of the NRA was Hugh S. Johnson, a retired United States Army general and a successful businessman. He was named ''Time (Time (magazine))'' magazine's "Man of the Year (Time Person of the Year)" in 1933. Johnson saw the NRA as a national crusade designed to restore employment and regenerate industry. Johnson called on every business establishment in the nation to accept a stopgap "blanket code": a minimum wage of between 20 and 45 cents per hour, a maximum workweek of 35 to 45 hours, and the abolition of child labor. Johnson and Roosevelt contended that the "blanket code" would raise consumer purchasing power and increase employment. To mobilize political support for the NRA, Johnson launched the "NRA Blue Eagle" publicity campaign to boost his bargaining strength to negotiate the codes with business and labor. Historian Clarence B. Carson noted: At this moment in time from the early days of the New Deal, it is difficult to recapture, even in imagination, the heady enthusiasm among a goodly number of intellectuals for a government planned economy. So far as can now be told, they believed that a bright new day was dawning, that national planning would result in an organically integrated economy in which everyone would joyfully work for the common good, and that American society would be freed at last from those antagonisms arising, as General Hugh Johnson put it, from "the murderous doctrine of savage and wolfish individualism, looking to dog-eat-dog and devil take the hindmost." Carson, Clarence B. ''The Relics of Intervention'' part 4. ''New Deal Collective Planning'' Roosevelt replaced Johnson in September 1934. Coal The negotiations of a code for the bituminous coal industry came against the background of a rapidly swelling union, the United Mine Workers headed by John L. Lewis and an unstable truce in the Pennsylvania coal fields. The NRA tried to get the principles to compromise with a national code for a decentralized industry in which many companies were antiunion, sought to keep wage differentials, and tried to escape the collective bargaining provisions of section 7A. Agreement among the parties was finally reached only after the NRA threatened that it would impose a code. The code did not establish price stabilization, nor did it resolve questions of industrial self-government versus governmental supervision or of centralization versus local autonomy, but it made dramatic changes in abolishing child labor, eliminating the compulsory scrip wages and company store, and establishing fair trade practices. It paved the way for an important wage settlement. James P. Johnson, "Drafting the NRA Code of Fair Competition for the Bituminous Coal Industry," ''Journal of American History,'' Vol. 53, No. 3 (Dec., 1966), pp. 521-541 in JSTOR Price controls In early 1935 the new chairman, Samuel Williams announced that the NRA would stop setting prices, but businessmen complained. Chairman Williams told them plainly that, unless they could prove it would damage business, NRA was going to put an end to price control. Williams said, "Greater productivity and employment would result if greater price flexibility were attained." Of the 2,000 businessmen on hand probably 90% opposed Mr. Williams' aim, reported ''Time'' magazine: "To them a guaranteed price for their products looks like a royal road to profits. A fixed price above cost has proved a lifesaver to more than one inefficient producer." However, it was also argued NRA's price control method promoted monopolies. The National Recovery Administration Economic History Services The business position was summarized by George A. Sloan, head of the Cotton Textile Code Authority: "Maximum hours and minimum wage provisions, useful and necessary as they are in themselves, do not prevent price demoralization. While putting the units of an industry on a fair competitive level insofar as labor costs are concerned, they do not prevent destructive price cutting in the sale of commodities produced, any more than a fixed price of material or other element of cost would prevent it. Destructive competition at the expense of employees is lessened, but it is left in full swing against the employer himself and the economic soundness of his enterprise....But if the partnership of industry with Government which was invoked by the President were terminated (as we believe it will not be), then the spirit of cooperation, which is one of the best fruits of the NRA equipment, could not survive.


political support

The '''National Recovery Administration''' ('''NRA''') was the primary New Deal agency established by U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) in 1933. The goal was to eliminate "cut-throat competition" by bringing industry, labor and government together to create codes of "fair practices" and set prices. The NRA was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) and allowed industries to get together and write "codes of fair competition." The codes were intended to reduce "destructive competition" and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours, as well as minimum prices at which products could be sold. The NRA also had a two-year renewal charter and was set to expire in June 1935 if not renewed. http: www.novelguide.com a discover egd_02 egd_02_00388.html In 1935, the U.S. Supreme Court (Supreme Court of the United States) unanimously declared that the NRA law was unconstitutional, ruling that it infringed the separation of powers under the United States Constitution. The NRA quickly stopped operations, but many of its labor provisions reappeared in the National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act), passed later the same year. The long-term result was a surge in the growth and power of unions (Trade union), which became a core of the New Deal Coalition that dominated national politics for the next three decades. The NRA, symbolized by the Blue Eagle, was popular with workers. Businesses that supported the NRA put the symbol in their shop windows and on their packages, though they did not always go along with the regulations entailed. Though membership to the NRA was voluntary, businesses that did not display the eagle were very often boycotted, making it seem mandatory for survival to many. Background As part of the "First New Deal," the NRA was based on the premise that the Great Depression was caused by market instability and that government intervention was necessary to balance the interests of farmers, business and labor. The NIRA, which created the NRA, declared that codes of fair competition should be developed through public hearings, and gave the Administration the power to develop voluntary agreements with industries regarding work hours, pay rates, and price fixing. National Recovery Administration. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07 The NRA was put into operation by an executive order (Executive order (United States)), signed the same day as the passage of the NIRA. New Dealers who were part of the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt saw the close analogy with the earlier crisis handling the economics of World War I. They brought ideas and experience from the government controls and spending of 1917-18. In his June 16, 1933 "Statement on the National Industrial Recovery Act," President Roosevelt described the spirit of the NRA: "On this idea, the first part of the NIRA proposes to our industry a great spontaneous cooperation to put millions of men back in their regular jobs this summer." Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum - Our Documents Franklin D. Roosevelt Statement on N.I.R.A. He further stated, "But if all employers in each trade now band themselves faithfully in these modern guilds--without exception-and agree to act together and at once, none will be hurt and millions of workers, so long deprived of the right to earn their bread in the sweat of their labor, can raise their heads again. The challenge of this law is whether we can sink selfish interest and present a solid front against a common peril." Inception thumb right 200px Director Hugh S. Johnson on the cover of Time Magazine (File:1933 Time Man of the Year cover.jpg) in 1933.thumb right 200px The film industry supported the NRA (File:NRA film 1934.JPG) The first director of the NRA was Hugh S. Johnson, a retired United States Army general and a successful businessman. He was named ''Time (Time (magazine))'' magazine's "Man of the Year (Time Person of the Year)" in 1933. Johnson saw the NRA as a national crusade designed to restore employment and regenerate industry. Johnson called on every business establishment in the nation to accept a stopgap "blanket code": a minimum wage of between 20 and 45 cents per hour, a maximum workweek of 35 to 45 hours, and the abolition of child labor. Johnson and Roosevelt contended that the "blanket code" would raise consumer purchasing power and increase employment. To mobilize political support for the NRA, Johnson launched the "NRA Blue Eagle" publicity campaign to boost his bargaining strength to negotiate the codes with business and labor. Historian Clarence B. Carson noted: At this moment in time from the early days of the New Deal, it is difficult to recapture, even in imagination, the heady enthusiasm among a goodly number of intellectuals for a government planned economy. So far as can now be told, they believed that a bright new day was dawning, that national planning would result in an organically integrated economy in which everyone would joyfully work for the common good, and that American society would be freed at last from those antagonisms arising, as General Hugh Johnson put it, from "the murderous doctrine of savage and wolfish individualism, looking to dog-eat-dog and devil take the hindmost." Carson, Clarence B. ''The Relics of Intervention'' part 4. ''New Deal Collective Planning'' Roosevelt replaced Johnson in September 1934. Coal The negotiations of a code for the bituminous coal industry came against the background of a rapidly swelling union, the United Mine Workers headed by John L. Lewis and an unstable truce in the Pennsylvania coal fields. The NRA tried to get the principles to compromise with a national code for a decentralized industry in which many companies were antiunion, sought to keep wage differentials, and tried to escape the collective bargaining provisions of section 7A. Agreement among the parties was finally reached only after the NRA threatened that it would impose a code. The code did not establish price stabilization, nor did it resolve questions of industrial self-government versus governmental supervision or of centralization versus local autonomy, but it made dramatic changes in abolishing child labor, eliminating the compulsory scrip wages and company store, and establishing fair trade practices. It paved the way for an important wage settlement. James P. Johnson, "Drafting the NRA Code of Fair Competition for the Bituminous Coal Industry," ''Journal of American History,'' Vol. 53, No. 3 (Dec., 1966), pp. 521-541 in JSTOR Price controls In early 1935 the new chairman, Samuel Williams announced that the NRA would stop setting prices, but businessmen complained. Chairman Williams told them plainly that, unless they could prove it would damage business, NRA was going to put an end to price control. Williams said, "Greater productivity and employment would result if greater price flexibility were attained." Of the 2,000 businessmen on hand probably 90% opposed Mr. Williams' aim, reported ''Time'' magazine: "To them a guaranteed price for their products looks like a royal road to profits. A fixed price above cost has proved a lifesaver to more than one inefficient producer." However, it was also argued NRA's price control method promoted monopolies. The National Recovery Administration Economic History Services The business position was summarized by George A. Sloan, head of the Cotton Textile Code Authority: "Maximum hours and minimum wage provisions, useful and necessary as they are in themselves, do not prevent price demoralization. While putting the units of an industry on a fair competitive level insofar as labor costs are concerned, they do not prevent destructive price cutting in the sale of commodities produced, any more than a fixed price of material or other element of cost


hot oil

) of the NIRA against producers of "hot oil", oil produced in violation of production restrictions established pursuant to the NIRA, Congress passed , which amended the False Claims Act of 1863 to read:


including giving

economists, including giving one to Labor Secretary Frances Perkins and asking her give copies to her cabinet. Martin, ''Madam Secretary: Frances Perkins,'' 1976, p. 335. The NRA involved organizing thousands of businesses under codes drawn up by trade associations and industries. He was recognized for his efforts when ''Time (Time (magazine))'' named him Man of the Year (Time Magazine Person of the Year) of 1933—choosing him instead of FDR. Hillman was a supporter of the New Deal and Roosevelt from the outset. FDR named him to the Labor Advisory Board of the National Recovery Administration in 1933 and to the National Industrial Recovery Board in 1934. Hillman provided key assistance to Senator Robert F. Wagner in the drafting of the National Labor Relations Act and to Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins in winning enactment of the Fair Labor Standards Act. In 1932, Morrison graduated from Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge. In 1934, he completed his law degree from LSU. After graduation, he moved to New Orleans, where he became an attorney with the National Recovery Administration, a New Deal agency. Thereafter, he was a law partner with both Jacob Morrison and the future Democratic U.S. Representative Thomas Hale Boggs, Sr (Hale Boggs). He was a second cousin of Marie Corinne Morrison Claiborne Boggs (Lindy Boggs), who succeeded her husband Hale Boggs in Congress in 1973. Loyalty oaths were common during World War II. In support of Roosevelt's National Recovery Administration, 100,000 school children marched to Boston Common and swore a loyalty oath administered by the mayor, "I promise as a good American citizen to do my part for the NRA. I will buy only where the Blue Eagle flies." Another use of loyalty oaths in the United States was during the 1950s and 1960s. The Red Scare (Second Red Scare) during the 1950s and the Congressional hearings chaired by Senator Joseph McCarthy helped to sustain a national mood of concern about communist agent (espionage)s and a fear such agents may injure the U.S. government through espionage or outright violence. Heintzleman was made head of the National Recovery Administration forest conservation efforts in 1934. In 1937, he was appointed Alaskan Representative of the Federal Power Commission. The same year he was promoted to Regional Forester for Alaska, a post he held till 1953. As Regional Forester he also held the position of Alaskan Commissioner of the United States Department of Agriculture. In this role he encouraged the development of lumber and pulp mills along with other industrial development. From 1939 to 1940 he served as chairman of the Alaska Territorial Planning Board. In 1933, the National Industrial Recovery Act created the National Recovery Administration (NRA). The NRA allowed industries to create "codes of fair competition," intended to reduce destructive competition and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours. Flanders was appointed to the industrial advisory board of the NRA. In a speech before a 1934 conference of the code authority members, attended by President Roosevelt (Franklin D. Roosevelt), Flanders opposed a proposal by the Roosevelt administration to require that businesses cut worker hours by 10 percent and raise wages by 10 percent in order to spread employment more widely. Ultimately, economic policy moved away from the codes system.


business+position

; The business position was summarized by George A. Sloan, head of the Cotton Textile Code Authority: "Maximum hours and minimum wage provisions, useful and necessary as they are in themselves, do not prevent price demoralization. While putting the units of an industry on a fair competitive level insofar as labor costs are concerned, they do not prevent destructive price cutting in the sale of commodities produced, any more than a fixed price of material


summer quot

on the National Industrial Recovery Act," President Roosevelt described the spirit of the NRA: "On this idea, the first part of the NIRA proposes to our industry a great spontaneous cooperation to put millions of men back in their regular jobs this summer." Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum - Our Documents ref name "


national industry

; that were negotiated by industries and submitted for government approval under the National Industry Recovery Act of 1933. The argument boils down to assumptions that progressives at the NRA allowed majority coalitions of small, high-cost firms to impose codes in heterogeneous industries, and that these codes were designed by the high-cost firms under an ultimately erroneous belief that they would be enforced by the NRA. Barbara J. Alexander, "Failed Cooperation in Heterogeneous


made+dramatic

-government versus governmental supervision or of centralization versus local autonomy, but it made dramatic changes in abolishing child labor, eliminating the compulsory scrip wages and company store, and establishing fair trade practices. It paved the way for an important wage settlement. James P. Johnson, "Drafting the NRA Code of Fair Competition for the Bituminous Coal Industry," ''Journal of American History,'' Vol. 53, No. 3 (Dec., 1966), pp. 521-541 in JSTOR Price controls In early 1935 the new chairman, Samuel Williams announced that the NRA would stop setting prices, but businessmen complained. Chairman Williams told them plainly that, unless they could prove it would damage business, NRA was going to put an end to price control. Williams said, "Greater productivity and employment would result if greater price flexibility were attained." Of the 2,000 businessmen on hand probably 90% opposed Mr. Williams' aim, reported ''Time'' magazine: "To them a guaranteed price for their products looks like a royal road to profits. A fixed price above cost has proved a lifesaver to more than one inefficient producer." However, it was also argued NRA's price control method promoted monopolies. The National Recovery Administration Economic History Services The business position was summarized by George A. Sloan, head of the Cotton Textile Code Authority: "Maximum hours and minimum wage provisions, useful and necessary as they are in themselves, do not prevent price demoralization. While putting the units of an industry on a fair competitive level insofar as labor costs are concerned, they do not prevent destructive price cutting in the sale of commodities produced, any more than a fixed price of material or other element of cost would prevent it. Destructive competition at the expense of employees is lessened, but it is left in full swing against the employer himself and the economic soundness of his enterprise....But if the partnership of industry with Government which was invoked by the President were terminated (as we believe it will not be), then the spirit of cooperation, which is one of the best fruits of the NRA equipment, could not survive.


poor quot

of the Pennsylvania Commission for the Unemployed. In the mid-1930s, Roosevelt appointed him to the state recovery board of the National Recovery Administration. James Cox became known as Pittsburgh's "Pastor of the Poor". Cox was also a mentor to Father Charles Owen Rice, who would inherit his mantle as Pittsburgh's labor priest for the rest of the 20th century. The NIRA established the National Recovery Administration (NRA), and General Hugh S. Johnson (Hugh Samuel Johnson) was named the agency's administrator. year 1903 nota Brigadier General (Brigadier general (United States)); lawyer in Judge Advocate General's Corps; instrumental in implementing the Selective Service Act of 1917; Deputy Provost Marshal General (United States Army Provost Marshal General) (1971–1918); Director of the Purchase and Supply Branch of the General Staff (1918); commander of 15th Infantry Brigade; Director of the National Recovery Administration; named Time Person of the Year in 1933 ref

National Recovery Administration

The '''National Recovery Administration''' ('''NRA''') was the primary New Deal agency established by U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) in 1933. The goal was to eliminate "cut-throat competition" by bringing industry, labor and government together to create codes of "fair practices" and set prices. The NRA was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) and allowed industries to get together and write "codes of fair competition." The codes were intended to reduce "destructive competition" and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours, as well as minimum prices at which products could be sold. The NRA also had a two-year renewal charter and was set to expire in June 1935 if not renewed. http: www.novelguide.com a discover egd_02 egd_02_00388.html

In 1935, the U.S. Supreme Court (Supreme Court of the United States) unanimously declared that the NRA law was unconstitutional, ruling that it infringed the separation of powers under the United States Constitution. The NRA quickly stopped operations, but many of its labor provisions reappeared in the National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act), passed later the same year. The long-term result was a surge in the growth and power of unions (Trade union), which became a core of the New Deal Coalition that dominated national politics for the next three decades.

The NRA, symbolized by the Blue Eagle, was popular with workers. Businesses that supported the NRA put the symbol in their shop windows and on their packages, though they did not always go along with the regulations entailed. Though membership to the NRA was voluntary, businesses that did not display the eagle were very often boycotted, making it seem mandatory for survival to many.

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