throughout its reign. *A RAF (Royal Air Force) Panavia Tornado is brought down by "friendly fire" by a US Patriot missile (MIM-104 Patriot) battery. *Coalition forces took control of a large complex of buildings in An Najaf Province near the city of Najaf. Some news sources proclaimed that this was a "huge chemical weapons plant" but The Pentagon Pentagon officials called such announcements "
; It is the capital of Najaf Governorate. It is widely considered the third holiest city of Shi'a Islam and the center of Shia political power in Iraq. The city is home to the Imam Ali Shrine, and hosts millions of pilgrims yearly. Religious significance Najaf is considered sacred by both Shi'a and Sunni Muslims. Najaf is renowned as the site of the tomb of Alī ibn Abī Tālib (Ali) also known as "Imām Alī"the First Imam of the Shiites, the cousin and son-in-law
in important Shia shrine , ''The Boston Globe (Boston Globe)'', April 2, 2003. "For the world's nearly 120 million Muslim Shiites, Najaf is the third holiest city behind Mecca and Medina in Saudi Arabia." ''Religious rivalries and political overtones in Iraq'' CNN.com, April 23, 2003 "Miscellaneous
a city that possessed a multicultural and religious people. Below is a qoute taken from the Iraq Center for Investigative Journalism, "Mohammed al-Mayali Director of Inspectorate Effects of the province of Najaf said , "The excavations which we have had for years and we still, on the graves confirm that the Najaf contains the largest Christian cemetery in Iraq, cemetery area of 1416 acres called (or Khashm), and the cemetery has a large extension of the province of Najaf " Mayali adds
of James Loney (James Loney (peace activist)) and Harmeet Singh Sooden, both members of the organization Christian Peacemaker, garnered wide attention, as did their rescue the following year by Task Force Black, a multi-national operation that consisted of British, American, and Canadian special forces, supported by Task Force Maroon,
(''khāk-i shifa'') and Najaf and drink the water (''āb-i shifā'') as a cure for illness, both spiritual and physical. The Ismaili tradition involves the practice of drinking water blessed by the Imam of the time. This water is taken in the name of the Imam and has a deep spiritual significance. This is evident from the names used to designate the water, including light (''nūr'') and ambrosia (''amṛt, amī, amīras, amījal''). This practice is recorded from the 13th and 14th centuries and continues to the present day. The ceremony is known as ''ghat-pat'' in South Asia. Sadr was suspected by U.S. and Iraqi authorities of ordering the assassination of a returning moderate Shia cleric, Imam Abdul Majid al-Khoei, in Najaf on April 12, 2003. "The moderate mullah who knew the Shias must change" ''The Guardian'' April 13, 2003; "Shiite groups call on forces to protect top clerics" ''USA Today'' 4 13 2003 On April 5, 2004, a warrant was issued for Sadr's arrest in connection with this killing; this, in addition to the closing of his newspaper al-Hawza on March 29, the arrest of one of his aides and other actions to suppress his movement, led to an armed attack by the Mahdi Army in April 2004. This initial attack in southern Iraq was suppressed by June. A second attack by his militia, centered in a mosque in Najaf, began in August; this was resolved in an agreement brokered by Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani. Since that point, Sadr's opposition to the multinational occupation has been mainly in the realm of politics. Since the handover of sovereignty, the Mahdi Army has been maintained as an organized force. Sadr supporters also continue to engage in peaceful resistance such as the large protests in Baghdad on April 9, 2005. *Conflict in Iraq (Iraqi resistance): Near the Sunni city of Fallujah, seven U.S. (United States of America) Marines (United States Marine Corps) and three Iraqi soldiers are killed in an ambush. Elsewhere, U.S. troops, backed by U.S. planes and Iraqi forces, raid the city of Najaf. The U.S. military tells residents to flee, mounts a pincer movement to trap the Mahdi army in the city center, and raids Moqtada al-Sadr's house again. (News Interactive Australia ) (BBC) * The heart bypass surgery being performed on former United States President (President of the United States) Bill Clinton is successfully completed. Clinton will spend the night in the intensive care unit of New York-Presbyterian Hospital before being moved to the general care unit tomorrow. Full recovery from the surgery could take a month. (CNN) birth_date 1948 birth_place Najaf, Iraq order Chief Justice of Iran (Judicial system of Iran) Grand Ayatollah '''Seyyed Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi''' (آیت الله سید محمود هاشمی شاهرودی) (Born 1948 in Najaf, Iraq ulama ) is a moderate Hardliners delay Khatami's inauguration Iraqi-Iranian politician and Twelver Shi'a Marja. اعلام مرجعیت آیت الله هاشمی شاهرودی هاشمی شاهرودی اعلام مرجعیت کرد ورود رسمی آیت الله هاشمی شاهرودی به جرگه مرجعیت Hashemi Shahroudi was the leader of the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq), which has caused objections to his serving as the head of Iran's Judiciary System upon his appointment to the post. He served as head of the Judicial System till 2009. He is currently a member of the Guardian Council. DATE OF BIRTH 1948 PLACE OF BIRTH Najaf, Iraq DATE OF DEATH At roughly 23:00 local time, on August 13, 2004 in Basra, Brandon was snatched from his room at the Diafa hotel by about 30 masked gunmen, some in police uniform. Later a video tape was released, featuring Brandon and a hooded militant, threatening to kill him within 24 hours unless US forces withdrew from Najaf, where they had cordoned off Moqtada al-Sadr's (Moqtada al-Sadr) Mahdi Army militia. Brandon was released after less than a day, following intervention by Moqtada al-Sadr. At a press conference immediately after his release, Brandon commented on his treatment and thanked his kidnappers: "Initially I was treated roughly, but once they knew I was a journalist I was treated very well and I want to say thank you to the people who kidnapped me." A spokesman for al-Sadr said: "We apologise for what happened to you. This is not our tradition, not our rules. It is not the tradition of Islam." lessons learned from Urban Warrior were applied in the 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent occupation (Post-invasion Iraq, 2003–present). Fighting in Najaf and Fallujah has once again made it clear that local irregular forces (irregular military) tend to have the advantage of home territory (Home advantage) and plentiful local support. wikipedia:Najaf
: www.turkishairlines.com en-int corporate news 8562 basra-and-najaf-iraq-flights.aspx accessdate - Education His father sent him to Mula-Ebrahim School in 1940. He went for High Education to Qom in 1943 and was there until 1946. His teachers were Grand Ayatollah Kazem Haeeri and Mohammad-Reza Golpayegani. He travelled to Najaf in 1946 for cleric studies and studied about Islam and Religion. He was in Najaf until 1948 when his father died and he returned to Qom
are important elements of religious devotion. Portraits of Ali — with veiled and unveiled face alike — can be bought in Iran around shrines and in the streets, to be hung in homes or carried with oneself, while in Pakistan, India and Bangladesh they notoriously ornate trucks, Saudi Aramco World : Masterpieces to Go: The Trucks of Pakistan buses and rickshaws. The Rickshaw Arts of Bangladesh Contrary to the Sunni tradition, a photographic picture of the deceased can be placed on the Shi'ite tombs. Picture of Golestan e Shohoda cemetery Esfahan -Esfahan, Iran Mashad Martyrs Cemetery at Best Iran Travel.com A curiosity in Iran is an Orientalist (Orientalism) photography supposed to represent Muhammad as a young boy. Photography by Lehnert & Landrock, titled "Mohamed", Tunis, c. 1906. Nicole Canet, ''Lehnert & Landrock. Photographies orientatlistes 1905-1930.'' (Paris: Galerie Au Bonheur du Jour, 2004): cover, p. 9. dead link. Historical context described in wikipedia:Najaf
-asghar.org PDF FIQH%20and%20FUQAHA.pdf FIQH and FUQAHA - An Introduction to Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) Containing Forty Four Life Sketches of the Great Past Masters, Published by the WORLD FEDERATION OF KHOJA SHIA ITHNAASHERI MUSLIM COMMUNITIES the Hawza 'Ilmiyya Najaf remained the main centre of learning for the Shi'ahs for over 1000 years until its decline in the 20th century starting with the establishment of modern Iraq in 1921. ref name
, died in 1977 while in exile in Najaf, Iraq with his father and was rumored by supporters of his father to have been murdered by SAVAK. Moin, ''Khomeini'', (2001), 184–5 Ahmad Khomeini, who died in 1995 at the age of 49, was also rumoured to be a victim of foul play, but at the hands of Islamic regime.
Infobase Publishing isbn 978-0-8160-5767-2 page 140 It contains the tombs of several prophets and many of the devout from around the world aspire to be buried there, to be raised from the dead with Imām Alī on Judgement Day (Last Judgement). Over the centuries, numerous hospices, schools, libraries and Sufi convents were built around the shrine to make the city the center of Shīʻa learning and theology. The Najaf seminary is one of the most important teaching centres in the Islamic world. Ayatollah Khomeini (Ruhollah Khomeini) lectured there from 1964 to 1978. wikipedia:Najaf
'''Najaf''' ( ; BGN (United States Board on Geographic Names): ''An Najaf'') is a city in Iraq about 160 km (roughly 100 miles) south of Baghdad. Its estimated population in 2008 is 560,000 people. It is the capital of Najaf Governorate. It is widely considered the third holiest city of Shi'a Islam and the center of Shia political power in Iraq. The city is home to the Imam Ali Shrine, and hosts millions of pilgrims yearly.