Nag Hammadi

What is Nag Hammadi known for?


collection

; Skeat ''The Birth of the Codex'' (Oxford University 1983). From Robert A Kraft (see link): "A fragment of a Latin parchment codex of an otherwise unknown historical text dating to about 100 CE was also found at Oxyrhynchus (P. Oxy. 30 (Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 30); see Roberts & Skeat 28). Papyrus fragments of a "Treatise of the Empirical School" dated by its editor to the centuries 1-2 CE is also attested in the Berlin collection (inv. # 9015, Pack\2 # 2355) — Turner, Typology

from fragments of papyrus found at Oxyrhynchus in the 1890s. The '''Gospel According to Thomas''', commonly shortened to the '''Gospel of Thomas''', is a well preserved early Christian (early Christianity), non-canonical sayings-gospel (Logia) discovered near Nag Hammadi, Egypt, in December 1945, in one of a group of books known as the Nag Hammadi library. The Gospel of Thomas was found among a collection of fifty-two writings that included, in addition

translation in fourteen tracts, of which eight early printed (incunabulum) editions appeared before 1500 and a further twenty-two by 1641. Noted by George Sarton, review of Walter Scott (Walter Scott (scholar))'s ''Hermetica'', ''Isis'' '''8'''.2 (May 1926:343-346) p. 345 This collection, which includes the ''Pœmandres (Poemandres)'' and some addresses of Hermes to disciples Tat, Ammon and Asclepius, was said to have originated in the school of Ammonius Saccas


quot discovery

of the ''Hermetica'' appeared in the 4th-century Gnostic library found in Nag Hammadi. Other works in Syriac (Syriac language), Arabic (Arabic language), Armenian (Armenian language), Coptic (Coptic language) and other languages may also be termed "Hermetica" - another famous tract is the ''Emerald Tablet'', which teaches the doctrine "as above, so below". Discovery The Gospel of Peter was recovered in 1886, by the French archaeologist, Urbain Bouriant


teaching

and strands of thought emanating from Jesus' life and teaching or which may be contemporary with them, some of which can be contrasted with Paul's thought. Of the more significant are Ebionism (Ebionites) and Gnosticism. However, there is no universal agreement as to Gnosticism's relationship either to Christianity in general or the writings of Paul (Paul and Gnosticism). The expression is used by modern Christian scholars, such as Ziesler Ziesler John, ''Pauline Christianity

to immorality. Worst of all, they despised and hated the material universe and denied its goodness and the goodness of its maker . For a Platonist, is utter blasphemy -- and all the worse because it obviously derives to some extent from the sharply other-worldly side of Plato's own teaching (e.g. in the Phaedo). At this point in his attack Plotinus comes very close in some ways to the orthodox Christian opponents of Gnosticism, who also insist that this world is the work of God in his goodness

. But, here as on the question of salvation, the doctrine which Plotinus is defending is as sharply opposed on other ways to orthodox Christianity as to Gnosticism: for he maintains not only the goodness of the material universe but also its eternity and its divinity. A.H. Armstrong introduction to II 9. Against the Gnostics Pages 220-222 erroneously arriving at misotheism as the solution to the problem of evil, taking all their truths over from Plato. The teaching


written

Coptic-bound codices (codex) were written in Coptic (Coptic language), though the works were probably all translations from Greek (Greek language). The Nag Hammadi codices contain the only complete copy of the ''Gospel of Thomas''. The city was the site of the Nag Hammadi massacre in January 2010, wherein eight Copts

to an excerpt from Plato's ''Republic'' (The Republic (Plato)), gospels claiming to have been written by Jesus' disciple Philip (Philip the Apostle). Scholars have speculated that the works were buried in response to a letter from Bishop Athanasius (Athanasius of Alexandria) who for the first time declared a strict canon (Biblical canon) of Christian scripture. Bound by a method now called Coptic binding, the books (technically called codices (codex)) were found

in an earthenware jar by a group of peasants who broke open the jar and otherwise subjected the books to careless treatment resulting in significant damage In 1945, Hermetic writings were among those found near Nag Hammadi, in the form of one of the conversations between Hermes and Asclepius from the Corpus Hermeticum, and a text about the Hermetic mystery schools, ''On the Ogdoad and Ennead'', written in the Coptic language, the last form in which the Egyptian language


quot short

the translations now available. The fact that four manuscript "editions" of this text survived—two "long" versions and two "short" versions—suggests how important this text was in early gnostic Christian circles. It should also be noted that in the three Nag Hammadi codices where the ''Apocryphon of John'' appears, the text in each case is the first text of the collection. Oxyrhynchus 654 had a heading which seems to describe the work as a collection of "sayings


single long" AND "1"="2

Coptic Christians (Christianity) were shot dead by three men. 1 hi 8478397.stm "Egypt's anxious Copts 'await next catastrophe <

; Skeat ''The Birth of the Codex'' (Oxford University 1983). From Robert A Kraft (see link): "A fragment of a Latin parchment codex of an otherwise unknown historical text dating to about 100 CE was also found at Oxyrhynchus (P. Oxy. 30 (Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 30); see Roberts & Skeat 28). Papyrus fragments of a "Treatise of the Empirical School" dated by its editor to the centuries 1-2 CE is also attested in the Berlin collection (inv. # 9015, Pack\2 # 2355) — Turner, Typology

archéologique française au Caire'' 1892. occasioned intense interest. An early reaction was E. N. Bennett, "The Gospel according to Peter" ''The Classical Review'' '''7'''.1 2 (February 1893), pp. 40-42. From the passion sequence (Passion (Christianity)) that is preserved, it is clear that the gospel was a narrative gospel, but whether a complete narrative similar to the canonical gospels or simply a Passion cannot be said. N Nabta Playa - Nag


contribution made

'' (OUP 2001) Zielsler comments "Pauline Christianity is the earliest for which we have direct documentary evidence..." and Mount, whose interest is in the recovery of Christian origins and the contribution made by Paul to Christian doctrine (Paleo-orthodoxy), Christian Reconstructionism and Restorationism (Restorationism (Christian primitivism)). The ''Gospel of Thomas'' found at Nag Hammadi mentions among the "disciples (Disciple (Christianity))"


early

were highly esteemed. A well-known Gnostic apocryphal book is the Gospel of Thomas, the only complete text of which was found in the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945. The Gospel of Judas, a Gnostic gospel, also received much media attention when it was reconstructed in 2006. As far back as the early 2nd century, there is evidence that the codex—usually of papyrus—was the preferred format among Christians (Christianity): in the library of the Villa of the Papyri

in the development of early codices, or if they simply adopted the format to distinguish themselves from Jews. The earliest surviving fragments from codices come from Egypt and are variously dated (always tentatively) towards the end of the 1st century or in the first half of the 2nd. This group includes the Rylands Library Papyrus P52, containing part of St John's Gospel, and perhaps dating from between 125 and 160. Turner ''The Typology of the Early Codex'', U Penn 1977, and Roberts &

comments by Plotinus and Porphyry (Porphyry (philosopher)) regarding the Gnostics. More importantly, the texts help to distinguish different kinds of early Gnostics. It now seems clear that "Sethian" and "Valentinian (Valentinus (Gnostic))" This is what the scholar A. H. Armstrong wrote as a footnote in his translation of Plotinus' Enneads in the tract named against the Gnostics. Footnote from Page 264 1. From this point to the end of ch.12 Plotinus


single long" AND "1"="1

rebuffed by some Neoplatonists (Neoplatonism), including Plotinus. Plotinus considered his opponents "heretics" Introductory Note This treatise (No.33 in Porphyry's chronological order) is in fact the concluding section of a single long treatise which Porphyry, in order to carry out the design of grouping his master's works, more or less according to subject, into six sets of nine treatise, hacked roughly into four parts which he put into different Enneads, the other

Coptic Christians (Christianity) were shot dead by three men. 1 hi 8478397.stm "Egypt's anxious Copts 'await next catastrophe <

; Skeat ''The Birth of the Codex'' (Oxford University 1983). From Robert A Kraft (see link): "A fragment of a Latin parchment codex of an otherwise unknown historical text dating to about 100 CE was also found at Oxyrhynchus (P. Oxy. 30 (Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 30); see Roberts & Skeat 28). Papyrus fragments of a "Treatise of the Empirical School" dated by its editor to the centuries 1-2 CE is also attested in the Berlin collection (inv. # 9015, Pack\2 # 2355) — Turner, Typology


extraordinary

climate, like that of Egypt, papyrus is stable, formed as it is of highly rot-resistant cellulose; but storage in humid conditions can result in molds attacking and destroying the material. In European conditions, papyrus seems to have lasted only a matter of decades; a 200-year-old papyrus was considered extraordinary. Imported papyrus that was once commonplace in Greece and Italy has since deteriorated beyond repair, but papyrus is still being found in Egypt; extraordinary

Nag Hammadi

thumbnail Naga' Hammadi sugar refinary plate date 1901 (File:Raffinerie Say.JPG)

'''Nag Hammadi''' ( meaning "geese grazing grounds". It is located on the west bank of the Nile in the Qena Governorate, about 80 kilometres north-west of Luxor.

It has a population of about 30,000, who are mostly farmers. Sugar and aluminium are produced in Nag Hammadi.

The town of Nag Hammadi was established by Mahmoud Pasha Hammadi, who was a member of the Hammadi family in Sohag, Egypt. Mahmoud Pasha Hammadi was a major landholder in Sohag, and known for his strong opposition to the British occupation.

Mahmoud Pasha Hammadi created Nag Hammadi for the indigenous people from Sohag who were forced to abandon their homeland by the British occupation. In recognition of this, the new town was given the name "Hammadi".

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