NKVD

What is NKVD known for?


amp national

or Espionage?" ''Intelligence & National Security,'' Apr 1998, Vol. 13 Issue 2, p 20 Verne W. Newton, author of ''FDR and the Holocaust'', said that no writer discussing Hopkins has identified any secrets disclosed, or any decision in which he distorted American priorities in order to help Communism.

1943: Diplomacy or Espionage?" ''Intelligence & National Security,'' Apr 1998, Vol. 13 Issue 2, p1-31 Arrest and death In 1948, after the assassination of the JAC Chairman Solomon Mikhoels, Feffer, along with other JAC members, was arrested and accused of treason. Feffer had been an informer for the NKVD (predecessor of the KGB) since 1943. Feffer reportedly cooperated with the investigation, providing false information that would lead to the arrest


quot drawing

has ceased to be a threatening force, although there are still men of the forests" that need to be dealt with. Image:Moscow Trial 1945.jpg thumb 250px left The show trial of 16 leaders of Polish wartime underground movement (including Home Army and civil authorities) convicted of "drawing up plans for military action against the U.S.S.R.", Moscow, June 1945. The leaders were invited to help organize the new Polish Government of National Unity


period made

" AK helped Soviet units with scouting or organizing uprisings and helping to liberate various cities (ex. Operation Ostra Brama, Lwów Uprising), only to find that immediately afterwards AK troops were arrested, imprisoned – or even executed. Unknown to the Poles, Joseph Stalin's aim to ensure that an independent Poland would never reemerge in the postwar period made the Operation Tempest idea

(and later KGB) archives on the Holodomor period made records available very slowly. The exact number of the victims remains unknown and is probably impossible to estimate, even within a margin of error of a hundred thousand. in Russian and Valeriy Soldatenko, '"A starved 1933: subjective thoughts on objective processes", ''Zerkalo Nedeli'', 28 June


current difficult

to make a decision: either initiate the uprising in the current difficult political situation and risk problems with Soviet support, or fail to rebel and face Soviet propaganda describing the Home Army as impotent or worse, Nazi collaborators. They feared that if Poland was 'liberated' by the Red Army, then the Allies would ignore the London-based Polish government (Polish Government in exile) in the aftermath of the war. The urgency for a final decision on strategy increased as it became


historical interpretation

; ''The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich'' is a comprehensive historical interpretation of the Nazi (Nazism) era, positing that German history logically proceeded from Martin Luther to Adolf Hitler; Rosenfeld 1994, p. 102. "The notion that 'rectitude and authenticity were integrally German attributes, in contrast to Roman or Latin influences which were degrading' held to have originated with Luther developed with German Romanticism in the 19th Century, and culminated with National Socialism (Nazism)." Johnson 2001. , in the area patrolled by the 97th Unit of Soviet Border Troops, 471 people had crossed the border illegally from the districts of Hlyboka, Hertsa, Putila, and Storozhynets. The zone assigned to this unit extended from the border to about 7.5 km south of Chernivtsi. * Kakha Bendukidze, former Russian (Russians) businessman, currently working in the administration of President Mikheil Saakashvili. * Lavrenti Beria, head of the NKVD (the predecessor to the KGB), supervisor and one of the initiators of the Soviet Union's Nuclear Project * Giga Bokeria, Georgian (Georgia (country)) political leader With the onset of the Second World War, he was arrested by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, (the Soviet secret police) and on 14 June 1941, was in the Sosva prison camp, and was sentenced to death but died before the execution at Sosva, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia (see Gulag)) Medvedev was born in Bryansk in a steelworker's family. During the Russian Civil War he joined the Red Army and in 1920 he joined the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). Between 1920 and 1935 worked in the Cheka, OGPU and the NKVD in Soviet Ukraine (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic). Great Purge Uborevich was arrested during the Great Purge of the Red Army. In May 1937, Uborevich was tried by the NKVD in an event known as the Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization. He was executed in June 1937 and posthumously rehabilitated (Rehabilitation (Soviet)) in 1957. ''Superman: Red Son'' In Mark Millar's ''Superman: Red Son'', Martha and her husband are anti-communist protesters in the Soviet Union. They are executed by the NKVD under Commissar Pyotr Roslov (Pete Ross), which leads to their son vowing to overthrow the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Until recently his true date of death was not officially known. Soviet sources such as the ''Soviet Encyclopedia'' stated that he died in 1943 during the German occupation (Reichskommissariat Ukraine). Recently, it has become known that Kucherenko was arrested and after a period of 8 months of prolonged torture was finally shot by the NKVD in 1937. His body was buried in a mass grave on the territory of the KGB recreational facility in the area of Piatykhatky on the outskirts of Kharkiv. Soon after the German forces were pushed out of the city, Filipkowski was invited to a conference with Michał Rola-Żymierski and arrested by the Soviet NKVD in Zhytomir on August 3, 1944; at the same time most of his soldiers were also arrested and sent to Soviet prisons - or had to flee back to German-held part of Poland. Filipkowski was held in a number of Soviet prisons, including the prison in Kiev, a Smersh camp of the 1st Ukrainian Front, and NKVD camps in Kharkov, Ryazan, Dyagilev, Gryazovets and Brest (Brest, Belarus). In November 1947 he was handed over to the Ministry of Public Security of Poland in Biała Podlaska, interrogated and set free. However, soon afterwards his younger son Andrzej (b. 1925), also a former soldier of the Home Army, was arrested by the Communists and was held in prisons until the destalinization thaw of 1956. * In the NKVD (w:NKVD) as it was now in 1936 , Stalin (w:Stalin) had a powerful and experienced instrument. At its head stood Yagoda (‪w:Genrikh Yagoda‬). His deputy in security matters was Stalin’s crony Agranov (‪w:Yakov Agranov‬), who had finished his special operations at Leningrad and handed over that city to the dreadful Sakovsky, who is said to have boasted that if he had Karl Marx to interrogate he would soon make him confess that he was agent of Bismark (Otto von Bismark). ** Robert Conquest (w:Robert Conquest) (1990, 2000), The Great Terror: A Reassessment (40th Anniversary Edition) Oxford University Press p. 81.


including battle

Liberation . Since August 1, 1944, the provisional government was officially headquartered in Lesser Poland’s Lublin. Thousands of people took to the forests, to continue their fight for free Poland (see Raids on communist prisons in Poland (1944–1946), Anti-communist resistance in Poland). Lesser Poland again was one of the main centers of the resistance. Several skirmishes took place in the province, including Battle of Kuryłówka. The Communists did not hesitate to kill those


controversial quot

from the Brzezany ghetto and work camp at the local cemetery; only a few escaped. Between 1942 and the end of the war there was heavy partisan activity in the area, mostly by local branches of the Armia Krajowa. In 1924 Sergei Tretyakov made a lengthy visit to China where he taught Russian literature and collected materials for some of his later publications. Tretyakov also wrote the controversial "I Want a Baby" ("I Want a Child") (1926) , which has


published research

in the identification of "Tanya's" identity. A postgraduate student of the Institute of Russian History, Elena Sinyavskaya, published research supporting that the person executed in Petrischevo was not Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya but a "missing in action" partisan, Lila Azolina. left thumb Activists washing a monument for Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya in Ukraine in tribute on Victory Day. (File:Washed Zoya - tribute to Victory Day.jpg) The '''Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union''' often referred to as, the '''''Polish operation'' of the NKVD''', , in the area patrolled by the 97th Unit of Soviet Border Troops, 471 people had crossed the border illegally from the districts of Hlyboka, Hertsa, Putila, and Storozhynets. The zone assigned to this unit extended from the border to about 7.5 km south of Chernivtsi. * Kakha Bendukidze, former Russian (Russians) businessman, currently working in the administration of President Mikheil Saakashvili. * Lavrenti Beria, head of the NKVD (the predecessor to the KGB), supervisor and one of the initiators of the Soviet Union's Nuclear Project * Giga Bokeria, Georgian (Georgia (country)) political leader With the onset of the Second World War, he was arrested by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, (the Soviet secret police) and on 14 June 1941, was in the Sosva prison camp, and was sentenced to death but died before the execution at Sosva, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia (see Gulag)) Medvedev was born in Bryansk in a steelworker's family. During the Russian Civil War he joined the Red Army and in 1920 he joined the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). Between 1920 and 1935 worked in the Cheka, OGPU and the NKVD in Soviet Ukraine (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic). Great Purge Uborevich was arrested during the Great Purge of the Red Army. In May 1937, Uborevich was tried by the NKVD in an event known as the Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization. He was executed in June 1937 and posthumously rehabilitated (Rehabilitation (Soviet)) in 1957. ''Superman: Red Son'' In Mark Millar's ''Superman: Red Son'', Martha and her husband are anti-communist protesters in the Soviet Union. They are executed by the NKVD under Commissar Pyotr Roslov (Pete Ross), which leads to their son vowing to overthrow the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Until recently his true date of death was not officially known. Soviet sources such as the ''Soviet Encyclopedia'' stated that he died in 1943 during the German occupation (Reichskommissariat Ukraine). Recently, it has become known that Kucherenko was arrested and after a period of 8 months of prolonged torture was finally shot by the NKVD in 1937. His body was buried in a mass grave on the territory of the KGB recreational facility in the area of Piatykhatky on the outskirts of Kharkiv. Soon after the German forces were pushed out of the city, Filipkowski was invited to a conference with Michał Rola-Żymierski and arrested by the Soviet NKVD in Zhytomir on August 3, 1944; at the same time most of his soldiers were also arrested and sent to Soviet prisons - or had to flee back to German-held part of Poland. Filipkowski was held in a number of Soviet prisons, including the prison in Kiev, a Smersh camp of the 1st Ukrainian Front, and NKVD camps in Kharkov, Ryazan, Dyagilev, Gryazovets and Brest (Brest, Belarus). In November 1947 he was handed over to the Ministry of Public Security of Poland in Biała Podlaska, interrogated and set free. However, soon afterwards his younger son Andrzej (b. 1925), also a former soldier of the Home Army, was arrested by the Communists and was held in prisons until the destalinization thaw of 1956. * In the NKVD (w:NKVD) as it was now in 1936 , Stalin (w:Stalin) had a powerful and experienced instrument. At its head stood Yagoda (‪w:Genrikh Yagoda‬). His deputy in security matters was Stalin’s crony Agranov (‪w:Yakov Agranov‬), who had finished his special operations at Leningrad and handed over that city to the dreadful Sakovsky, who is said to have boasted that if he had Karl Marx to interrogate he would soon make him confess that he was agent of Bismark (Otto von Bismark). ** Robert Conquest (w:Robert Conquest) (1990, 2000), The Great Terror: A Reassessment (40th Anniversary Edition) Oxford University Press p. 81.


famous film

with Mikhalkov in their most famous film, ''Burnt by the Sun''. Portraying a manipulative and suicidal NKVD agent during Joseph Stalin's Great Purge, Menshikov's performance brought him to the attention of a wide international audience. The film won the Grand Prize at the Cannes Film Festival and the Academy Award (Academy Awards) for Best Foreign Language Film. thumb 100px right Memorial to the thousands of Polish officers slaughtered by the NKVD in Kharkiv as part of the Katyn massacre Katyn (File:Kharkiv-Katyn2.jpg) massacre During April and May 1940 about 3,800 Polish prisoners of Starobelsk camp were executed in the Kharkiv NKVD building, later secretly buried on the grounds of an NKVD pansionat in Pyatykhatky (Piatykhatky, Kharkiv) forest (part of the Katyn massacre) on the outskirts of Kharkiv. Fischer, Benjamin B. (Benjamin B. Fischer), "The Katyn Controversy: Stalin's Killing Field", ''Studies in Intelligence'', Winter 1999–2000, last accessed on 10 December, 2005 The site also contains the numerous bodies of Ukrainian cultural workers who were arrested and shot in the 1937–38 Stalinist purges. '''Ivan Ivanovich Agayants''' ('''ru: (Russian language) Иван Иванович Агаянц''') (28 August 1911 – 12 May 1968) was a leading Soviet NKVD KGB intelligence officer of Armenian (Armenians) origin. Fall from power and execution (1928-1941) Kameneva quickly lost her influence after Kamenev and Trotsky's fall from power in 1927. On 27 July 1935 the NKVD (Soviet secret police) Special Board banned her from Moscow and Leningrad (Saint Petersburg) for 5 years in connection with the Kremlin Case. Conquest, Robert, op. cit., pg. 78. After Lev Kamenev's show trial and execution on 25 August 1936, she was arrested and imprisoned. Her younger son, Yuri Lvovich Kamenev, was executed on 30 January 1938 at the age of 17. Her older son, Air Force officer Alexander Lvovich Kamenev, was executed on 15 July 1939 at the age of 33. The Red Mongol Army received sixty percent of the government budget in early years and it to expanded from 2,560 men in 1923 to 4,000 in 1924 and 1to 7,000 in 1927. The native armed forces stayed linked to Soviet Red Army intelligence groups and NKVD, Mongolian secret police, and Buryat (Buryats) Mongol Comintern agents acted as administrators and represented the real power in the country albeit under direct Soviet guidance. Official Soviet information stated that Florensky died December 8, 1943 somewhere in Siberia, but a study of the NKVD archives after the dissolution of the Soviet Union have shown that information to be false. Florensky was shot immediately after the NKVD troika session in December 1937. Most probably he was executed at the Rzhevsky Artillery Range, near Toksovo, which is located about twenty kilometers northeast of Saint Petersburg and was buried in a secret grave in Koirangakangas near Toksovo together with 30,000 others who were executed by NKVD at the same time. Antonio Maccioni, "Pavel Aleksandrovič Florenskij. Note in margine all'ultima ricezione italiana", ''eSamizdat'', 2007, V (1-2), pp. 471-478 , in the area patrolled by the 97th Unit of Soviet Border Troops, 471 people had crossed the border illegally from the districts of Hlyboka, Hertsa, Putila, and Storozhynets. The zone assigned to this unit extended from the border to about 7.5 km south of Chernivtsi. * Kakha Bendukidze, former Russian (Russians) businessman, currently working in the administration of President Mikheil Saakashvili. * Lavrenti Beria, head of the NKVD (the predecessor to the KGB), supervisor and one of the initiators of the Soviet Union's Nuclear Project * Giga Bokeria, Georgian (Georgia (country)) political leader With the onset of the Second World War, he was arrested by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, (the Soviet secret police) and on 14 June 1941, was in the Sosva prison camp, and was sentenced to death but died before the execution at Sosva, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia (see Gulag)) Medvedev was born in Bryansk in a steelworker's family. During the Russian Civil War he joined the Red Army and in 1920 he joined the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). Between 1920 and 1935 worked in the Cheka, OGPU and the NKVD in Soviet Ukraine (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic). Great Purge Uborevich was arrested during the Great Purge of the Red Army. In May 1937, Uborevich was tried by the NKVD in an event known as the Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization. He was executed in June 1937 and posthumously rehabilitated (Rehabilitation (Soviet)) in 1957. ''Superman: Red Son'' In Mark Millar's ''Superman: Red Son'', Martha and her husband are anti-communist protesters in the Soviet Union. They are executed by the NKVD under Commissar Pyotr Roslov (Pete Ross), which leads to their son vowing to overthrow the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Until recently his true date of death was not officially known. Soviet sources such as the ''Soviet Encyclopedia'' stated that he died in 1943 during the German occupation (Reichskommissariat Ukraine). Recently, it has become known that Kucherenko was arrested and after a period of 8 months of prolonged torture was finally shot by the NKVD in 1937. His body was buried in a mass grave on the territory of the KGB recreational facility in the area of Piatykhatky on the outskirts of Kharkiv. Soon after the German forces were pushed out of the city, Filipkowski was invited to a conference with Michał Rola-Żymierski and arrested by the Soviet NKVD in Zhytomir on August 3, 1944; at the same time most of his soldiers were also arrested and sent to Soviet prisons - or had to flee back to German-held part of Poland. Filipkowski was held in a number of Soviet prisons, including the prison in Kiev, a Smersh camp of the 1st Ukrainian Front, and NKVD camps in Kharkov, Ryazan, Dyagilev, Gryazovets and Brest (Brest, Belarus). In November 1947 he was handed over to the Ministry of Public Security of Poland in Biała Podlaska, interrogated and set free. However, soon afterwards his younger son Andrzej (b. 1925), also a former soldier of the Home Army, was arrested by the Communists and was held in prisons until the destalinization thaw of 1956. * In the NKVD (w:NKVD) as it was now in 1936 , Stalin (w:Stalin) had a powerful and experienced instrument. At its head stood Yagoda (‪w:Genrikh Yagoda‬). His deputy in security matters was Stalin’s crony Agranov (‪w:Yakov Agranov‬), who had finished his special operations at Leningrad and handed over that city to the dreadful Sakovsky, who is said to have boasted that if he had Karl Marx to interrogate he would soon make him confess that he was agent of Bismark (Otto von Bismark). ** Robert Conquest (w:Robert Conquest) (1990, 2000), The Great Terror: A Reassessment (40th Anniversary Edition) Oxford University Press p. 81.


poor sound

for Alarm'' (1938), in which NKVD spies help the amateur protagonist survive, are especially remarkable among English-language spy fiction. In 1938, Prokofiev collaborated with Eisenstein on the historical epic ''Alexander Nevsky (Alexander Nevsky (film))''. For this he composed some of his most inventive and dramatic music. Although the film had a very poor sound recording, Prokofiev adapted much of his score into a large-scale cantata for mezzo-soprano, orchestra and chorus

NKVD

The '''People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs''' ( ) was a law enforcement agency of the Soviet Union that directly executed the rule of power of the All Union Communist Party (Communist Party of the Soviet Union). It was closely associated with the Soviet secret police, which at times was part of the agency, and is known for its political repression (Soviet political repressions) during the era of Joseph Stalin.

The NKVD contained the regular, public police force of the USSR, including traffic police (Traffic#Rules of the road), firefighting, border guards and archives. It is best known for the activities of the Gulag and the Main Directorate for State Security (Main Directorate for State Security (USSR)) (GUGB), the predecessor of the KGB. The NKVD conducted mass extrajudicial executions, ran the Gulag system of forced labor camps and suppressed underground resistance, and was also responsible for mass deportations of entire nationalities (Population transfer in the Soviet Union) and Kulaks to unpopulated regions of the country. It was also tasked with protection of Soviet borders (NKVD Border Troops) and espionage, which included political assassinations abroad, influencing foreign governments and enforcing Stalinist policy (Stalinism) within communist movements in other countries.

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