NKVD

What is NKVD known for?


resistance home

first Robert publisher Focus (Focus (German magazine)) date 1995-05-08 accessdate 2010-08-20 language German During the war, Rzeszów was a main center of Polish resistance (Home Army, AK), with Rzeszów Inspectorate of the AK covering several counties. On May 25, during Action Kosba, Home Army soldiers killed on Rzeszów street Gestapo henchmen, Friederich Pottenbaum and Hans Flaschke. In the summer 1944, during Operation Tempest, units of the Home Army attacked


intelligence activities

, living former agents retain generous pensions and privileges established by the USSR and later confirmed by all of the member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States. They have not been prosecuted in any way, although some have been identified by their victims. Intelligence activities These included: * Establishment of a widespread spy network through the Comintern. * Operations of Richard Sorge, the "Red Orchestra (Red Orchestra (spy))", Willi Lehmann


massive political

for the criminal militia and correctional facilities (prison). * The USSR Committee for State Security (KGB), responsible for the political police, intelligence, counter-intelligence, personal protection (of the leadership) and confidential communications. NKVD activities The main function of the NKVD was to protect the state security of the Soviet Union. This function was successfully accomplished through massive political repression, including authorized political murders


home based

in Catalonia. Michael Ellman. ''The Role of Leadership Perceptions and of Intent in the Soviet Famine of 1931–1934.'' Europe-Asia Studies, 2005. p. 826 On the night of 14 May 1934, Mandelstam was arrested at his home based on a warrant signed by NKVD boss Genrikh Yagoda. Devastated, Pasternak went immediately to the offices of ''Izvestia'' and begged Nikolai Bukharin to intercede on Mandelstam's behalf. thumb 100px Grigory Petrovsky (Image:Petrovskiy Grigoriy.jpg) All results of its activities, VCheKa had either transfer to the Investigatory Commission of Revtribunal or dismiss a case. The control of the commission's activity was provided by the People's Commissariat for Justice (Ministry of Justice (Soviet Union)) (Narkomjust, at that time headed by Isidor Steinberg) and Internal Affairs (NKVD, at that time headed by Hryhoriy Petrovsky). Although the VCheKa was officially an independent organization from the NKVD, its main members such as Dzerzhinsky, Latsis (Martin Latsis), Unszlicht (Józef Unszlicht), and Uritsky (Moisei Uritsky) (all main chekists), since November 1917 composed the collegiate of NKVD headed by Petrovsky. In November 1918, Petrovsky was appointed as the head of the All-Ukrainian Central Military Revolutionary Committee during VCheKa's expansion to provinces and front-lines. At the time of political competition between Bolsheviks and SRs (January 1918), Left SRs (Left Socialist-Revolutionaries) attempted to curb the rights of VCheKa and establish through the Narkomiust (Ministry of Justice (Soviet Union)) its control over its work. Having failed in attempts to subordinate the VCheKa to Narkomiust, the Left SRs were to seek control of the Extraordinary Commission in a different way. They requested that to the Central Committee of they party was granted the right to directly enter their representatives into the VCheKa. Sovnarkom recognized the desirability of including five representatives of Left Socialist-Revolutionary faction of VTsIK. Left SRs were granted the post of a companion (deputy) chairman of VCheKa. However, Sovnarkom, in which the majority belonged to the representatives of RSDLP(b) retained the right to approve members of the collegium of the VCheKa. On February 6, 1922 after the Ninth All-Russian Soviet Congress, the Cheka was dissolved by VTsIK, "with expressions of gratitude for heroic work." It was replaced by the State Political Administration or GPU (Gosudarstvennoye Politicheskoye Upravlenie), a section of the NKVD of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). , in the area patrolled by the 97th Unit of Soviet Border Troops, 471 people had crossed the border illegally from the districts of Hlyboka, Hertsa, Putila, and Storozhynets. The zone assigned to this unit extended from the border to about 7.5 km south of Chernivtsi. * Kakha Bendukidze, former Russian (Russians) businessman, currently working in the administration of President Mikheil Saakashvili. * Lavrenti Beria, head of the NKVD (the predecessor to the KGB), supervisor and one of the initiators of the Soviet Union's Nuclear Project * Giga Bokeria, Georgian (Georgia (country)) political leader With the onset of the Second World War, he was arrested by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, (the Soviet secret police) and on 14 June 1941, was in the Sosva prison camp, and was sentenced to death but died before the execution at Sosva, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia (see Gulag)) Medvedev was born in Bryansk in a steelworker's family. During the Russian Civil War he joined the Red Army and in 1920 he joined the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). Between 1920 and 1935 worked in the Cheka, OGPU and the NKVD in Soviet Ukraine (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic). Great Purge Uborevich was arrested during the Great Purge of the Red Army. In May 1937, Uborevich was tried by the NKVD in an event known as the Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization. He was executed in June 1937 and posthumously rehabilitated (Rehabilitation (Soviet)) in 1957. ''Superman: Red Son'' In Mark Millar's ''Superman: Red Son'', Martha and her husband are anti-communist protesters in the Soviet Union. They are executed by the NKVD under Commissar Pyotr Roslov (Pete Ross), which leads to their son vowing to overthrow the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Until recently his true date of death was not officially known. Soviet sources such as the ''Soviet Encyclopedia'' stated that he died in 1943 during the German occupation (Reichskommissariat Ukraine). Recently, it has become known that Kucherenko was arrested and after a period of 8 months of prolonged torture was finally shot by the NKVD in 1937. His body was buried in a mass grave on the territory of the KGB recreational facility in the area of Piatykhatky on the outskirts of Kharkiv. Soon after the German forces were pushed out of the city, Filipkowski was invited to a conference with Michał Rola-Żymierski and arrested by the Soviet NKVD in Zhytomir on August 3, 1944; at the same time most of his soldiers were also arrested and sent to Soviet prisons - or had to flee back to German-held part of Poland. Filipkowski was held in a number of Soviet prisons, including the prison in Kiev, a Smersh camp of the 1st Ukrainian Front, and NKVD camps in Kharkov, Ryazan, Dyagilev, Gryazovets and Brest (Brest, Belarus). In November 1947 he was handed over to the Ministry of Public Security of Poland in Biała Podlaska, interrogated and set free. However, soon afterwards his younger son Andrzej (b. 1925), also a former soldier of the Home Army, was arrested by the Communists and was held in prisons until the destalinization thaw of 1956. * In the NKVD (w:NKVD) as it was now in 1936 , Stalin (w:Stalin) had a powerful and experienced instrument. At its head stood Yagoda (‪w:Genrikh Yagoda‬). His deputy in security matters was Stalin’s crony Agranov (‪w:Yakov Agranov‬), who had finished his special operations at Leningrad and handed over that city to the dreadful Sakovsky, who is said to have boasted that if he had Karl Marx to interrogate he would soon make him confess that he was agent of Bismark (Otto von Bismark). ** Robert Conquest (w:Robert Conquest) (1990, 2000), The Great Terror: A Reassessment (40th Anniversary Edition) Oxford University Press p. 81.


offering heavy

German 2nd Mountain Division. However, shortly before reaching Lwów, the unit became bogged down in the battle of Janów of September 17. Despite offering heavy resistance, only a single regiment managed to break through enemy lines and reach the besieged city. After the capitulation of Lwów to the Soviet Union on September 22, 1939, Alojzy Wir-Konas was arrested by the NKVD and imprisoned in the Starobielsk concentration camp Adam


history made

2004, p. xxiv. Author William L. Shirer summarised his perspective: "...the course of German history... made blind obedience to temporal rulers the highest virtue of Germanic man, and put a premium on servility." Shirer, p. 1080. This reportorial perspective , the ''Sonderweg'' interpretation of German history (special path or unique course) was then common in American scholarship (Scholarly method). Yet, despite extensive


professional expertise

received during 1920–30s duly reporting the possible involvement of Tukhachevsky with the "German Nazi leadership". His blind obedience did not spare Yakir. Stalin would not allow to his military commanders any independent thinking even in area of their professional expertise. While on the surface Stalin's attitude toward Yakir was friendly, the dictator could not tolerate people like Yakir in the Stalinist totalitarian state. With start of the Great Purge in 1936 NKVD arrested many close associates and subordinates of Yakir. Yakir was one of few top Soviet commanders who appealed to Stalin, claiming the innocence of these officers. Yakir's appeals alienated Stalin even more and Yakir was marked for persecution. To remove Yakir from his power base in June 1937 Stalin sent him to command the Kiev military district. During the Great Purge it was a clear sign of forthcoming persecution. , in the area patrolled by the 97th Unit of Soviet Border Troops, 471 people had crossed the border illegally from the districts of Hlyboka, Hertsa, Putila, and Storozhynets. The zone assigned to this unit extended from the border to about 7.5 km south of Chernivtsi. * Kakha Bendukidze, former Russian (Russians) businessman, currently working in the administration of President Mikheil Saakashvili. * Lavrenti Beria, head of the NKVD (the predecessor to the KGB), supervisor and one of the initiators of the Soviet Union's Nuclear Project * Giga Bokeria, Georgian (Georgia (country)) political leader With the onset of the Second World War, he was arrested by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, (the Soviet secret police) and on 14 June 1941, was in the Sosva prison camp, and was sentenced to death but died before the execution at Sosva, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia (see Gulag)) Medvedev was born in Bryansk in a steelworker's family. During the Russian Civil War he joined the Red Army and in 1920 he joined the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). Between 1920 and 1935 worked in the Cheka, OGPU and the NKVD in Soviet Ukraine (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic). Great Purge Uborevich was arrested during the Great Purge of the Red Army. In May 1937, Uborevich was tried by the NKVD in an event known as the Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization. He was executed in June 1937 and posthumously rehabilitated (Rehabilitation (Soviet)) in 1957. ''Superman: Red Son'' In Mark Millar's ''Superman: Red Son'', Martha and her husband are anti-communist protesters in the Soviet Union. They are executed by the NKVD under Commissar Pyotr Roslov (Pete Ross), which leads to their son vowing to overthrow the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Until recently his true date of death was not officially known. Soviet sources such as the ''Soviet Encyclopedia'' stated that he died in 1943 during the German occupation (Reichskommissariat Ukraine). Recently, it has become known that Kucherenko was arrested and after a period of 8 months of prolonged torture was finally shot by the NKVD in 1937. His body was buried in a mass grave on the territory of the KGB recreational facility in the area of Piatykhatky on the outskirts of Kharkiv. Soon after the German forces were pushed out of the city, Filipkowski was invited to a conference with Michał Rola-Żymierski and arrested by the Soviet NKVD in Zhytomir on August 3, 1944; at the same time most of his soldiers were also arrested and sent to Soviet prisons - or had to flee back to German-held part of Poland. Filipkowski was held in a number of Soviet prisons, including the prison in Kiev, a Smersh camp of the 1st Ukrainian Front, and NKVD camps in Kharkov, Ryazan, Dyagilev, Gryazovets and Brest (Brest, Belarus). In November 1947 he was handed over to the Ministry of Public Security of Poland in Biała Podlaska, interrogated and set free. However, soon afterwards his younger son Andrzej (b. 1925), also a former soldier of the Home Army, was arrested by the Communists and was held in prisons until the destalinization thaw of 1956. * In the NKVD (w:NKVD) as it was now in 1936 , Stalin (w:Stalin) had a powerful and experienced instrument. At its head stood Yagoda (‪w:Genrikh Yagoda‬). His deputy in security matters was Stalin’s crony Agranov (‪w:Yakov Agranov‬), who had finished his special operations at Leningrad and handed over that city to the dreadful Sakovsky, who is said to have boasted that if he had Karl Marx to interrogate he would soon make him confess that he was agent of Bismark (Otto von Bismark). ** Robert Conquest (w:Robert Conquest) (1990, 2000), The Great Terror: A Reassessment (40th Anniversary Edition) Oxford University Press p. 81.


quot personality

: files.osa.ceu.hu holdings 300 8 3 text 67-2-1.shtml title Estonian Party Journal Reverts to "Un-Marxist" Terminology on Stalin's "Personality Cult" last Duevel first Christian publisher Open Society Archives date 28 June 1971 accessdate 19 April 2009 Soviet period Arrested by the NKVD in January 1941, he was imprisoned and tortured in various Soviet prisons. Released after the Sikorski-Mayski Agreement of 1941, he joined the Polish Army re


including opposition

communist position, including opposition to Stalin, caused huge ruptures with the PCE, which remained fiercely loyal to the Comintern. Moreover, these divisions, which included accusations of Trotskyism (and even Fascism) by the Communists, resulted in actual fighting between their supporters; most notably, in 1937, a primarily-Communist coalition of government forces attacked the POUM during the Barcelona May Days. While the larger CNT (Confederación Nacional del Trabajo ) initially


powerful position

"dictatorships1918" On 15 March, Gorbachev himself was elected as the only President of the Soviet Union by the Congress of People's Deputies and chose a Presidential Council (Presidential Council (USSR)) of 15 politicians. Gorbachev was essentially creating his own political support base independent of CPSU conservatives and radical reformers. The new Executive was designed to be a powerful position to guide the spiraling reform process, and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet

NKVD

The '''People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs''' ( ) was a law enforcement agency of the Soviet Union that directly executed the rule of power of the All Union Communist Party (Communist Party of the Soviet Union). It was closely associated with the Soviet secret police, which at times was part of the agency, and is known for its political repression (Soviet political repressions) during the era of Joseph Stalin.

The NKVD contained the regular, public police force of the USSR, including traffic police (Traffic#Rules of the road), firefighting, border guards and archives. It is best known for the activities of the Gulag and the Main Directorate for State Security (Main Directorate for State Security (USSR)) (GUGB), the predecessor of the KGB. The NKVD conducted mass extrajudicial executions, ran the Gulag system of forced labor camps and suppressed underground resistance, and was also responsible for mass deportations of entire nationalities (Population transfer in the Soviet Union) and Kulaks to unpopulated regions of the country. It was also tasked with protection of Soviet borders (NKVD Border Troops) and espionage, which included political assassinations abroad, influencing foreign governments and enforcing Stalinist policy (Stalinism) within communist movements in other countries.

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