Moscopole

What is Moscopole known for?


realistic number

-1769. Buchdruck und Heiligenverehrung im Erzbistum Achrida. publisher Elsie archiveurl http: web.archive.org web 20050314220100 http: www.elsie.de pub download_r R1997Peyfuss.pdf archivedate 14 March 2005 but a more realistic number may be closer to 3500: "...The truth may be closer to this number sc. 3500 than to 70,000. Moschopolis was certainly not among the largest Balkan cities of the 18th century". Max Demeter Peyfuss. Die Druckerei von Moschopolis, 1731-1769: Buchdruck und Heiligenverehrung im Erzbistum Achrida. Böhlau, 1989, ISBN 978-3-205-05293-7, p. 35-36 According to the Swedish historian Johann Thunmann who visited Moscopole and wrote a history of the Aromanians in 1774, everyone in the city spoke Aromanian; many also spoke Greek, which was used for writing contracts, in fact the city is said to have been mainly populated by Vlachs Aromanians. The fact was confirmed by a 1935 analysis of the family names shows that the majority of the population were indeed Vlachs, but there were also Greeks and Albanians present in the city. Economy thumb right Murals of St. Nicholas church, painted by David Selenica (File:Voskopoja church.jpg). Historically the main economic activity of the city was the livestock farming. The alternative name "Voskopolis" means "City of shepherds". Anonymous, Geographikon tēs Rhumunias ... (Γεωγραφικόν της Ρουμουνίας ...), Leipzig, 1816, p. 35 down. In Greek. This activity led to the establishment of wool processing and carpet manufacturing units and the development of tanneries, while other locals became metal workers, silver and copper smiths. During the middle of the 18th century, the city became an important economic center whose influence spread over the boundaries of the Archbishopric of Ohrid, and reached further the Ottoman ruled Eastern-Orthodox world: the trade involved as far as the Archduchy of Austria, the Kingdom of Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary (1538–1867)), and the Upper Saxony (Electorate of Saxony). Until 1769, the town traded on a large scale with renowned European commercial centres of that time, such as Venice, Vienna and Leipzig. Culture A printing press was also operating in Moscopole which was the second one in the of Ottoman Europe after that of Constantinople. This establishment produced a total of nineteen books, mainly Services to the Saints but also the ''Introduction of Grammar'' by the local scholar Theodore Kavalliotis. The later became director of the city's prestigious educational institution, which from 1744 was known as New Academy (New Academy (Moscopole)) or ''Hellenikon Frontistirion'', sponsored by the wealthy merchants of the diaspora. Moreover the city hosted an orphanage, known as ''Orphanodioiketerion'', probably the first in the post-Byzantine Orthodox world, Anthony L. Scott. Good and faithful servant: stewardship in the Orthodox Church. St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-88141-255-0, p. 112 a hospital and a total of 24 churches. Marcel Cornis-Pope, John Neubauer. History of the literary cultures of East-Central Europe: junctures and disjunctures in the 19th and 20th centuries. John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2006 ISBN 978-90-272-3453-7, p. 288 A cultural effervescence arose in Moscopole, and many authors published their works in both the Greek language (which was the language of culture of the Balkans at the time) and Aromanian (Aromanian language), written in the Greek alphabet. In 1770, the first dictionary of four modern Balkan languages (Greek (Greek language), Albanian (Albanian language), Vlach Aromanian (Aromanian language) and Bulgarian (Bulgarian language)) was published here. Daniel Mоscopolites a Vlach-speaking native priest of Moscopole, compiled a quadrilingual lexicon of Greek (Greek language), Vlach, Bulgarian (Bulgarian language) and Albanian (Albanian language), that aimed at the hellenization of the non-Greek-speaking Christian communities in the Balkans. Friedman A. Victor. After 170 years of Balkan linguistics. Wither the Millennuim? University of Chicago. p. 2: "...given the intent of these comparative lexicons was the Hellenization of non-Greek-speaking Balkan Christians... Horst Förster, Horst Fassel. Kulturdialog und akzeptierte Vielfalt?: Rumänien und rumänische Sprachgebiete nach 1918. Franz Steiner Verlag, 1999. ISBN 978-3-7995-2508-4. p. 35, 45. Due to the high level of intellectual activity and Greek education Moscopole was nicknamed as ''New Athens'' or ''New Mystra''. ''Greek, Roman and Byzantine studies''. 1981 Asterios I. Koukoudēs. The Vlachs: Metropolis and Diaspora. 2003. Decline 200px left thumb Dictionary of four Balkan languages (Greek, Albanian language Albanian (File:Voscopole.gif), Aromanian and Bulgarian) created from Daniel Mоscopolites, an Aromanian (Aromanian people) from Moscopole, probably in 1770 and published in 1794 in the Greek language. Multiculturalism, alteritate, istoricitate «Multiculturalism, Historicity and “The image of the Other”» by Alexandru Niculescu, Literary Romania (România literară), issue: 32 2002, pages: 22,23, Angeliki Konstantakopoulou, Η ελληνική γλώσσα στα Βαλκάνια 1750-1850. Το τετράγλωσσο λεξικό του Δανιήλ Μοσχοπολίτη The Greek language in the Balkans 1750-1850. The dictionary in four languages of Daniel Moschopolite . Ioannina 1988, 11. Peyfuss, Max Demeter: Die Druckerei von Moschopolis, 1731-1769. Buchdruck und Heiligenverehrung im Erzbistum Achrida. Wien - Köln 1989. (Wiener Archiv f. Geschichte des Slawentums u. Osteuropas. 13), ISBN 3-205-98571-0. Kahl, Thede: Wurde in Moschopolis auch Bulgarisch gesprochen? In: Probleme de filologie slavă XV, Editura Universităţii de Vest, Timişoara 2007, S. 484-494, ISSN 1453-763X. The 1769 sacking and pillaging by Muslim Albanian Stavrianos Leften Stavros, Stoianovich Traian. ''The Balkans since 1453''. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2000. ISBN 978-1-85065-551-0, p. 278. troops was just the first of a series of attacks, which culminated with the razing of 1788 by the troops of Ali Pasha. Katherine Elizabeth Fleming. ''The Muslim Bonaparte: diplomacy and orientalism in Ali Pasha's Greece''. Princeton University Press, 1999. ISBN 978-0-691-00194-4, p. 36 "...destroyed by resentful Muslim Albanians in 1788" Moscopole was practically destroyed by this attack, while some of its commerce shifted to nearby Korçë and Berat. Princeton University. Dept. of Near Eastern Studies. ''Princeton papers: interdisciplinary journal of Middle Eastern studies''. Markus Wiener Publishers, 2002. ISSN 1084-5666, p. 100. thumb right 200px St. Nicholas church built in 1721. (File:Voskopoja church outside.jpg) The survivors were thus forced to flee, most of them emigrating mainly to Thessaly and Macedonia (Macedonia (region)). Some of the commercial elite moved to the Archduchy of Austria, and the Kingdom of Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary (1538–1867)) especially to the respective capitals of Vienna and Budapest, but also to Transylvania (Principality of Transylvania (1711–1867)), where they had an important role in the early National awakening of Romania. The city never rose back to its earlier status. However, a new school was established at the end of the 18th century whose headmaster in 1802 was Daniel Moscopolites. This school functioned the following decades, thanks to donations and bequests by baron Simon Sinas, a member of the diaspora. Aromanians of Katerini mainly descend from nearby Aromanian settlements of Livadi and Kokkinopilos, and in lesser numbers from Samarina, Moscopole, Avdella, Perivoli (Perivoli, Grevena) and Smixi. According to some sources the Aromanians formed a majority amongst the town's Christian population in the beginning of the 20th century. Early life He was Aromanian (Aromanians) in origin, his family having settled with '''Naum Şaguna''' (Andrei's father) in Hungary from Moscopole, now Albania. With the guidance of local Jesuits, Şaguna's parents had opted to convert to Roman Catholicism, seeking to obtain a better status than the second-class (Second-class citizen) one reserved for most Eastern Orthodox (Eastern Orthodox Church) subjects of the Habsburgs. However, the Şagunas most likely continued to practice their original religion in secret - the future Metropolitan was probably never a practising Catholic. Gojdu was born to an Aromanian (Aromanians) family that originated in Moscopole. He studied at the high school in his native town and then graduated in law in Budapest, Bratislava and Vienna, becoming both a lawyer and a politician in 1824. He was a supporter of the rights of the Romanians in Transylvania and Hungary.


culture

and inscriptions. and became a leading center of Greek culture.

Studies and Culture page 13 isbn 978-1-886857-06-3 quote Moschopolis emerged as the leading center of Greek intellectual activity in the 18th

-3201-7 quote Historians have attributed the decline of the city to a series of raids by Muslim Albanian bandits,


work world

on the World Monuments Fund's Watch List of 100 Most Endangered Sites. Modern town Today, Moscopole is just a small mountain village in the Albanian District of Korçë. In 2005 the municipality had a population of 2,218, whereas the settlement itself has a population of around 500. Memories of the city


century quot

-1769. Buchdruck und Heiligenverehrung im Erzbistum Achrida. publisher Elsie archiveurl http: web.archive.org web 20050314220100 http: www.elsie.de pub download_r R1997Peyfuss.pdf archivedate 14 March 2005 but a more realistic number may be closer to 3500: "...The truth may be closer to this number sc. 3500 than to 70,000. Moschopolis was certainly not among the largest Balkan cities of the 18th century". Max Demeter Peyfuss.


large scale

, and reached further the Ottoman ruled Eastern-Orthodox world: the trade involved as far as the Archduchy of Austria, the Kingdom of Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary (1538–1867)), and the Upper Saxony (Electorate of Saxony). Until 1769, the town traded on a large scale with renowned European commercial centres of that time, such as Venice, Vienna and Leipzig. Culture A printing press was also operating in Moscopole which was the second one

Macedonia, subsequently called Vallahades (possibly because the only Turkish-Arabic they ever bothered to learn was how to pronounce the Muslim profession of faith "wa-llahi" or "by Allah") by local Greek Orthodox Christians. The destruction and abandoning of the Christian Aromanian city of Moscopole and other important Aromanian settlements in the southern Albania (Epirus-Macedonia) region in the second half of the 18th century caused a large-scale migration of thousands of Aromanians to the cities and villages of Western Macedonia, most notably to Bitola, Krushevo and surrounding regions. Thessaloniki also became the home of a large Jewish population following Spain's expulsions of Jews after 1492. The Jews later formed small colonies in other Macedonian cities, most notably Bitola and Serres (Serres, Greece). Aromanians of Katerini mainly descend from nearby Aromanian settlements of Livadi and Kokkinopilos, and in lesser numbers from Samarina, Moscopole, Avdella, Perivoli (Perivoli, Grevena) and Smixi. According to some sources the Aromanians formed a majority amongst the town's Christian population in the beginning of the 20th century. Early life He was Aromanian (Aromanians) in origin, his family having settled with '''Naum Şaguna''' (Andrei's father) in Hungary from Moscopole, now Albania. With the guidance of local Jesuits, Şaguna's parents had opted to convert to Roman Catholicism, seeking to obtain a better status than the second-class (Second-class citizen) one reserved for most Eastern Orthodox (Eastern Orthodox Church) subjects of the Habsburgs. However, the Şagunas most likely continued to practice their original religion in secret - the future Metropolitan was probably never a practising Catholic. Gojdu was born to an Aromanian (Aromanians) family that originated in Moscopole. He studied at the high school in his native town and then graduated in law in Budapest, Bratislava and Vienna, becoming both a lawyer and a politician in 1824. He was a supporter of the rights of the Romanians in Transylvania and Hungary.


prominent buildings

, Budapest and Alexandria in Egypt. Businessman and former Greek Consul in Vienna. Benefactor of Greece, Austria-Hungary and donator of prominent buildings in Athens, masterpieces of architecture. Since the Middle Ages, due


culture location

-3201-7 quote Historians have attributed the decline of the city to a series of raids by Muslim Albanian bandits,


22

and inscriptions. and became a leading center of Greek culture.

Studies and Culture page 13 isbn 978-1-886857-06-3 quote Moschopolis emerged as the leading center of Greek intellectual activity in the 18th

&focus searchwithinvolume&q %22+In+1769%2C+and+then+again+in+1788%2C+this+thriving+town+was+sacked+by+Muslim+Albanians.%22 quote In 1769, and then again in 1788, this thriving town was sacked by Muslim Albanians. It was finally destroyed in the early 19th century by Ali Pasha... that almost destroyed the town in 1769 following the participation of the residents in the preparations for the Orlov Revolt in 1770, and culminated with the abandoning


decades

of Hungary especially to the respective capitals of Vienna and Budapest, but also to Transylvania (Principality of Transylvania (1711–1867)), where they had an important role in the early National awakening of Romania. The city never rose back to its earlier status. However, a new school was established at the end of the 18th century whose headmaster in 1802 was Daniel Moscopolites. This school functioned the following decades, thanks to donations and bequests by baron Simon Sinas

, a member of the diaspora.

+to+donations+and+bequests+by+baron+Simon+Sinas+of+Moschopolis.%22&q %22In+Moschopolis%2C+where+there+had+been+an+earlier+famous+school+(see+page+259)%2C+a+Greek+school+was+founded+at+the+end+of+the+eighteenth+century+(in+1802+the+headmaster+was+Daniel+Moschopolitis)%2C+which+functioned+as+a+mutual+instruction+which+functioned+as+a+mutual+instruction+school+over+the+following+decades%2C+thanks+mainly+to+donations+and+bequests+by+baron+Simon+Sinas+of+Moschopolis#search_anchor year 1997 publisher


natural science

, possessing an archaeological museum, a natural science collection and a library? (30 September 2010) Aromanians of Katerini mainly descend from nearby Aromanian settlements of Livadi and Kokkinopilos, and in lesser numbers from Samarina, Moscopole, Avdella, Perivoli (Perivoli, Grevena) and Smixi. According to some sources the Aromanians formed a majority amongst the town's Christian population in the beginning of the 20th century. Early life He was Aromanian (Aromanians) in origin, his family having settled with '''Naum Şaguna''' (Andrei's father) in Hungary from Moscopole, now Albania. With the guidance of local Jesuits, Şaguna's parents had opted to convert to Roman Catholicism, seeking to obtain a better status than the second-class (Second-class citizen) one reserved for most Eastern Orthodox (Eastern Orthodox Church) subjects of the Habsburgs. However, the Şagunas most likely continued to practice their original religion in secret - the future Metropolitan was probably never a practising Catholic. Gojdu was born to an Aromanian (Aromanians) family that originated in Moscopole. He studied at the high school in his native town and then graduated in law in Budapest, Bratislava and Vienna, becoming both a lawyer and a politician in 1824. He was a supporter of the rights of the Romanians in Transylvania and Hungary.

Moscopole

'''Moscopole''' ( ) was a cultural and commercial center of the Aromanians, Förster Horst, Fassel Horst. ''Kulturdialog und akzeptierte Vielfalt?: Rumänien und rumänische Sprachgebiete nach 1918.''. Franz Steiner Verlag, 1999. ISBN 978-3-7995-2508-4, p. 33: "Moschopolis zwar eine aromunische Stadt ... deren intelektuelle Elite in starken Masse graekophil war." and now a small municipality in Korçë District, modern southeastern Albania. At its peak, in the mid 18th century, it hosted the first printing press in the Balkans outside Istanbul, educational institutions and numerous churches Rousseva R. ''Iconographic characteristics of the churches in Moschopolis and Vithkuqi (Albania)'', Makedonika, 2006, v. 35, pp. 163-191. In English and Greek, with photographs of icons and inscriptions. and became a leading center of Greek culture. last1 Cohen first1 Mark title Last century of a Sephardic community: the Jews of Monastir, 1839-1943 url http: books.google.com ?id CCfXAAAAMAAJ&dq moschopolis%2Bgreek%2Bculture&q %22Education+was+so+actively+endorsed+that+Moschopolis+emerged+as+the+leading+center+of+Greek+intellectual+activity+in+the+18th%22#search_anchor year 2003 publisher Foundation for the Advancement of Sephardic Studies and Culture page 13 isbn 978-1-886857-06-3 quote Moschopolis emerged as the leading center of Greek intellectual activity in the 18th last Winnifrith first Tom title Badlands, borderlands: a history of Northern Epirus Southern Albania url http: books.google.com ?id dkRoAAAAMAAJ&dq moschopolis%2Bgreek%2Bculture&q %22This+culture+was+of+course+Greek+culture%2C%22#search_anchor year 2002 publisher Duckworth page 109 isbn 978-0-7156-3201-7 quote

Historians have attributed the decline of the city to a series of raids by Muslim Albanian bandits, Moscopole, once a prosperous city, was reduced to a small village by Ali Pasha. According to another opinion, the city's decline was mainly due to the relocation of the trade routes in central and eastern Europe following the aforementioned raids. Today Moscopole, known as Voskopojë, is a small mountain village, and along with a few other local settlements is considered a holy place by local Orthodox Christians. It was one of the original homelands of the Aromanian diaspora. Gilles de Rapper. ''Religion on the border: Sanctuaries and festivals in post-communist Albania''. Religion on the Boundary and the Politics of Divine Interventions. Proceedings of the International Conference, Sofia 14–18 April 2006. Istanbul, Isis Press, p. 5.

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