technique. Bronze sculptures usually showed Buddhist deities. A number of great works are attributed to the first Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, Zanabazar. In the late 19th century, painters like "Marzan" Sharav (Marzan Sharav) turned to more realistic painting styles. Under the Mongolian People's Republic, socialist realism was the dominant painting style,
Government Map Store. These maps are 1:500,000. Also some other special purpose maps and a very good map of downtown Ulaanbaatar. The map store is on Ih Toiruu St. Go west from the State Department store on the main street, called Peace, Peace and Friendship, or Ekhtavan Ave, two blocks to the large intersection with traffic lights, Turn right (North) and the map store is about half way along the block. There is an Elba electronic appliance store set back from the street, a yellow and blue building
Party lost the elections, and handed over to the victorious Democratic Union. ''The Secret History of the Mongols'' is one of the great recordings of Mongolian history. Every Mongolian reads the book in the modern Mongolian language. This is one of the oldest books in the Mongolian language. There are vivid similarities with the Bible in literary style, wording and story telling. It is speculated that the author could have been a Christian or at least was very knowledgeable about the Bible. According to Hugh Kemp, Qadag is the most likely candidate for authorship of ''Secret History of the Mongols''. He writes about the history of ancient Mongolia and connects the modern reality with the ancient world. Even though the book is about the history of Christianity in Mongolia, it paints a view of ancient Mongolia from the height of 21st century. The "History of Mongolia" by B. Baabar is a good source for the Modern History of Mongolia. On the trail of Marco Polo covers some travel through the Mongol Empire in the time of Genghis' grandson, Kublai Khan. People Mongolia is more than twice as big as Texas and nearly the same size as Alaska. Its area is 1.6 million square kilometres (603,000 square miles), four times the size of Japan and almost double that of Eastern Europe. This makes Mongolia the sixth-largest country in Asia and 19th in the world, but the population is only 2,727,966 (as of 9 Nov 2009), which makes Mongolia one of the least densely populated areas in Asia. If you consider that 40% of the population lives in the capital city of Ulan Bator or Ulaanbaatar ("UB") that leaves lots of room for you to travel in the outback. Of course, Gobi is even less dense. Almost another 40% of population are scattered all over Mongolia with their 56 million head of sheep, goats, cattle, horses and camels. There are 21 provinces, called ''aimag''. Each ''aimag'' has a central city or town and about 15-22 sub-provinces called ''soum'', so you will know which ''aimag'' and which soum you are in. 70% of Mongolia is under the age of 35. The gender ratio is close to 1:1. Ethnicity: 84% Khalkha Mongols, 6% Kazakhs and 10% other groups. More than 50% will say they are Buddhists which is very much mixed with Shamanism, close to 10% will claim to be Christians of all forms and 4% follow Islam, the remainders will say that they are atheists. Almost all the Kazakhs and Muslims live in Bayan-Ölgii province (Bayan-Ölgii). Holidays and festivals thumb Naadam festival celebrations. (Image:Naadamceremony2006.jpg) The annual '''Naadam festival''' (11–13 July) is the biggest day in many Mongols' calendars. It is when Mongolia celebrates its "three manly sports": wrestling, horse racing, and archery by either watching the festivities in Ulaanbaatar or by following them on television or radio. Many other smaller Naadam festivals also take place in different aimags (provinces) throughout July, and these more intimate festivals may let you get much closer to the action. The Naadam celebrations are said to have started with the rise of the Great Mongolian Empire. Chinggis (a.k.a. Genghis) Khan used them to keep his warriors strictly fit. After the fall of the empire, the contests were held during religious festivals, and since the communist revolution it was celebrated on its anniversary. Legend has it that a woman once dressed like man and won the wrestling competition. That is why the long-sleeved wrestling costumes, called "zodog", have open chests - to show that every participant is male. Wrestlers wear short trunks, "shuudag", and Mongolian boots, "gutal". The yellow stripes on tales of wrestlers' hats will indicate the number of times the wrestler became a champion in Naadam. Commons:Category:Mongolia WikiPedia:Mongolia Dmoz:Regional Asia Mongolia
the new kingdom for the descendants of the Tuyühu Xianbei who had lost their country. The Western Xia made significant achievements in literature, art, music, architecture, and chemistry. Through effective military organizations that integrated cavalry, chariots, archery, shields, artillery (cannons carried on the back of camels), and amphibious troops for combats on the land and water, Qin, Wenzhong 秦文忠 , Zhou Haitao 周海涛 and Qin Ling 秦岭 (1998). "Xixia jun shi ti yu yu
ke xue ji shu The military sports, science and technology of West Xia 西夏军事体育与科学技术." Ningxia da xue xue bao Journal of Ningxia University 宁夏大学学报 79 (2): 48-50. the Xia army maintained a powerful stance in opposition to the Song (Song Dynasty), Liao (Liao Dynasty) (916-1125), and Jin (Jin Dynasty (1115–1234)) (1115–1234) empires to its east, the last of which was founded by the Jurchens, who were the predecessors of the Manchus to found the Qing Dynasty (1644–1912) later. The Xia territory encompassed the present Ningxia, Gansu, eastern Qinghai, northern Shaanxi, northeastern Xinjiang, southwest Inner Mongolia, and southernmost Outer Mongolia, measuring about 800,000 square kilometers. Wang, Tianshun 王天顺 (1993). Xixia zhan shi The Battle History of Western Xia 西夏战史. Yinchuan 银川 , Ningxia ren min chu ban she Ningxia People's Press 宁夏人民出版社. Bian, Ren 边人 (2005). Xixia: xiao shi zai li shi ji yi zhong de guo du Western Xia: the kingdom lost in historical memories 西夏: 消逝在历史记忆中的国度. Beijing 北京 , Wai wen chu ban she Foreign Language Press 外文出版社. Li, Fanwen 李范文 (2005). Xixia tong shi Comprehensive History of Western Xia 西夏通史. Beijing 北京 and Yinchuan 银川 , Ren min chu ban she People's Press 人民出版社; Ningxia ren min chu ban she Ningxia People's Press 宁夏人民出版社. In the beginning of the thirteenth century, Genghis Khan unified the northern grasslands of Mongolia and led the Mongol troops to carry out six rounds of attacks against Western Xia over a period of twenty two years. As Western Xia resisted vehemently, more and more of its people crossed the Qilian Mountains to join the earlier establishments in Qinghai and Gansu in order to avoid the Mongol assaults, which gave rise to the current settlements of the Monguor. During the last round of the Mongol attacks, Genghis died in Western Xia. The official account of the Mongol history attributed his death to an illness, whereas legends accounted that he died from a wound inflicted in the battles. After the Xia capital was overrun in 1227, the Mongols inflicted devastating destruction on its architecture and written records, killing the last emperor and massacring tens of thousands of civilians. The Xia troops were later incorporated into the Mongol army in their subsequent military conquests in central and southern China. Due to the fierce resistance of the Xia against the Mongol attacks, especially in causing the death of Genghis, they were initially suppressed in the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368). Toward the middle and later phases of the Yuan, they received equivalent treatment as the ruling Mongols and attained highest offices in the Central Court. After the Yuan fell, the Xia who followed the Mongols into the northern grassland were immersed among and later classified into the "Mongols." Mongols, Khitans, and Jurchens When the Mongols emerged as a mighty power in the thirteenth century, a reverse occurred in the ethnonyms of the Xianbei and Mongols. This was represented in the reference of the Xianbei descendants as "Chaghan Monguor" (or "White Mongols"), which gave rise to the ethnonym of "Monguor" known in the Western publications. The term "White Mongols," or "Bai Menggu," first occurred when Genghis Khan united the Mongols to rise up in Mongolia in 1206. The Xianbei descendants who resided near Mt. Yin self proclaimed to be "White Mongols" and joined them. They received the same treatment as the Mongols and partook in their westward conquests in Central Asia and Europe. Lü, Jianfu 呂建福 , 2002. Tu zu shi The Tu History 土族史. Beijing 北京 , Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she Chinese Social Sciences Press 中囯社会科学出版社. p. 311–312. Current status The Flemish (Flanders) Catholic missionary, Schram, who wrote about the Monguor based on residence in the current Qinghai Province in the early twentieth century, cited Comte de Lesdain, Lesdain, Jacques (1908). From Pekin to Sikkim through the Ordos, the Gobi Desert and Tibet. London: J. Murray. who characterized the Monguor as "the most authentic reminder of the primitive race from which the Chinese sprung." Schram, Louis M. J. (1954). "The Monguors of the Kansu-Tibetan Frontier. Their Origin, History, and Social Organization." Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 44(1): 1-138. p. 25. This characterization reflected that the Monguor culture under their observation has embodied "a high civilization fortified by its own history and distinctive social structure" Nietupski, Paul (2006). Louis Schram and the Study of Social and Political History. The Monguors of the Kansu-Tibetan Frontier. Louis M. J. Schram and Kevin Charles Stuart (editor). Xining, Plateau Publications: 30-36. p. 32. developed by the Xianbei forefathers from their extensive rulings over China and preserved by the "Monguor" "Tu". As early as the Tuyühu period, Confucianism served as the core ideology to govern the country, and the Chinese Buddhism and Shamanism functioned as the principle religions. In Western Xia, Confucianism was further strengthened, and Taoism was made into the national religion along with Buddhism. As the Yellow Sect of Buddhism, also known as the Tibetan Buddhism, became prevalent in the northwest, their religious lives shifted from the Chinese toward Tibetan Buddhism. After Western Xia fell, its territory centered in Ningxia was fragmented by the successive establishments of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai provinces, which increasingly weakened the political and military powers of the Monguor. Through the Ming (Ming Dynasty) (1368–1644) and Qing (Qing Dynasty) (1644–1912) dynasties, the Monguor continued to play important roles in the national defense, and political and religious affairs of China. Starting in the middle of the Ming Dynasty, the ranches of the Monguor were taken into the state possession, and their horses became the subject of being drafted into the national army and looted by the Mongols from the north, resulting in the eventual shift of their lifestyles toward sedentary agriculture, supplemented by minimum animal husbandry, as the original Monguor groups became settled into the form of different villages. In the last two centuries, the areas formerly occupied by the Monguor were encroached upon by increasing inland Chinese migrations. Throughout this period, the Monguor maintained a high degree of political autonomy and self governance under the local chiefdom system of Tusi. Li, Peiye 李培业 (1995). "Xi xia huang zu hou yi kao Investigation on the descendants of the Royal Family of Western Xia 西夏皇族后裔考." Xi bei da xue xue bao Journal fo Northwest University 西北大学学报 88 (3): 46-52. Da, Song 大松 (1996). "Li pei ye shi xi xia huang zu hou yi Li Peiye is the descendant of the Royal Family of Western Xia 李培业是西夏皇族后裔." Qi lu zhu tan Qilu Abacus Forum 齐鲁珠坛 (6): 26. Li, Peiye 李培业 (1997). "Xi xia huang zu hou yi zai kao Reinvestigation on the descendants of the Royal Family of Western Xia 西夏皇族后裔再考." Xi Qiang wen hua West Qiang Culture 西羌文化. Li, Peiye 李培业 (1998). Xi xia li shi shi pu Genological records of Li Clan of Western Xia 西夏李氏世谱. Shenyang 沈阳 , Liaoning min zu chu ban she Liaoning Nationalities Press 辽宁民族出版社. Lü, Jianfu 呂建福 (2005). "Li tu si xian shi bian zheng A Textual Analysis of the Ancestral Origins of Li Tusi 李土司先世辨正." Xi bei min zu yan jiu Northwest Ethno-National Studies 西北民族研究 46(3): 119-129. the Monguor troops led by their Tusi defended not only their own homeland but also joined the national army to participate in wars that took place as far as in eastern Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Yunnan, Mongolia, and Dunhuang, Schram (1961). The Monguors of the Kansu-Tibetan Frontier: Part III. Records of the Monguor Clans. History of the Monguors in Huangchung and the Chronicles of the Lu Family. Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society. which progressively weakened their military power. Their political power came to the ultimate decline when the Tusi system was abolished in 1931, which exacerbated more Monguor to lose their language. By the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, only about fifty thousand of the Monguor have maintained to speak their language, primarily in Qinghai and Gansu. During the Chinese classificatory campaigns carried out in the 1950s, those who could no longer speak their language were classified into "Han (Han Chinese)," those who could not speak their language but adopted the Islamic religion were classified into "Hui (Hui people)," those who followed the Mongols into the northern grassland were classified into "Mongols," and those who spoke their language and adopted the Islamic religion were classified into "Dongxiang (Dongxiang people)," "Bao’an," and "Yügu," the last of which represented the intermixture of the Xianbei and Sari Uigur. The Turkic speaking Yugurs are considered to be the descendants of a group of Uyghurs who fled from Mongolia southwards to Gānsù, after the collapse of the Uyghur Empire in 840 AD, and soon established there a prosperous Ganzhou Kingdom (870-1036 AD) with capital near present Zhangye city on the foots of Nan Shan Mountains (Qilian Mountains) in the valley of the Ejin River (Black River). Commons:Category:Mongolia WikiPedia:Mongolia Dmoz:Regional Asia Mongolia
;ref name "Sečenbaγatur et al. 2005: 396-398" the northwest of People's Republic of China (mainly in Xinjiang), Sečenbaγatur et al. 2005: 396-398 and Russia's Caspian coast, where its major variety (Variety (linguistics)) is Kalmyk (Kalmyk language). Sečenbaγatur et al. 2005, Bläsing 2003: 229 In all three nations, Oirat has become variously endangered or even obsolescent
mountains. Must ride horses or reindeer from Tsagaanuur. It can be a long hard ride. *Local Bonda Lake Camp in Khatgal village near Lake Khovsgol offers various nature and cultural featuring: fishing, hiking, winter tours, nomad visits, horse back riding, visiting reindeer herders and Darhad valley. Horse riding, you have chance discover Lake Khovsgol and its beautiful waters, meet Tsataan (nomadic reindeer herders) living in yurts in the north of Khovsgol area. This region is incredibly
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'''Mongolia''' , ''Mongol Uls'') is a landlocked country in east (East Asia)-central Asia. It is bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west. Ulaanbaatar, the capital (capital (political)) and also the largest city, is home to about 45% of the population. Mongolia's political system is a parliamentary republic.
The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Turkic Khaganate, and others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, and his grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan Dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict and occasional raids on the Chinese borderlands. In the 16th centuries, Tibetan Buddhism (Buddhism in Mongolia) began to spread in Mongolia and it has been accelerated by the unwavering support of Qing government after Mongolia had been incorporated by the Qing dynasty. In 1900s, almost half of the adult male population were Buddhist monks. Michael Jerryson, ''Mongolian Buddhism: The Rise and Fall of the Sangha,'' (Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 2007), 89.
At the end of the 18th century, all of Mongolia had been incorporated into the area ruled by the Manchu (Manchu people)s' Qing Dynasty. During the collapse of the Qing Dynasty the Mongols established Temporary Government of Khalkha (Khalkha Mongols) in 30 November 1911. On 29 December 1911 Mongolia declared independence from the Qing Dynasty and this National Liberation Revolution (Wars of national liberation) ended 220 years (Northern Yuan Dynasty#Decline (1688-1691)) of Manchu rule (153 years after the collapse of the Zunghar Khanate).
Shortly thereafter, the country came under Soviet influence, resulting in the proclamation of the Mongolian People's Republic as a Soviet satellite state in 1924. After the breakdown of communist regimes in Europe (Revolutions of 1989) in late 1989, Mongolia saw its own democratic revolution (1990 Democratic Revolution in Mongolia) in early 1990; it led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, and transition to a market economy.
At , Mongolia is the 19th largest (List of countries and dependencies by area) and one of the most sparsely populated (List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density) independent countries in the world, with a population of around 3 million people. It is also the world's second-largest landlocked country after Kazakhstan. The country contains very little arable land, as much of its area is covered by steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south.
Approximately 30% of the population are nomadic or semi-nomadic. The predominant religion in Mongolia is Tibetan Buddhism. Islam is the dominant religion among ethnic Kazakhs. The majority of the state's citizens are of Mongol ethnicity, although Kazakhs, Tuvans, and other minorities also live in the country, especially in the west. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade regimes.