Ming dynasty

What is Ming dynasty known for?


talent quot

under the Ming and received the "cultivated talent"(xiu cai) rank in his twenties. However he abandoned any attempt at an official career after the Manchu conquest. Subsequent to the 1670s he moved, or fled, depending on the source, to Yangzhou. As a calligrapher he was influenced by Dong Qichang and Mi Fu. His landscapes were more influenced by Hong Ren and Ni Zan. His later works are considered to have had a more moist and expressive feel than those of Hong Ren


album paintings

sculpture by Chen Hongshou (1598–1652); small leaf album paintings like this one first became popular in the Song dynasty (Culture of the Song dynasty). Famous painters included Ni Zan and Dong Qichang, as well as the Four Masters of the Ming dynasty, that is, Shen Zhou, Tang Yin, Wen Zhengming, Qiu Ying, They drew upon the techniques, styles, and complexity in painting achieved by their Song and Yuan predecessors, but added techniques and styles. Well-known Ming artists could make a living simply by painting, due to the high prices they demanded for their artworks and the great demand by the highly cultured community to collect precious works of art. The artist Qiu Ying was once paid 2.8 kg (100 oz) of silver to paint a long handscroll for the eightieth birthday celebration of the mother of a wealthy patron. Renowned artists often gathered an entourage of followers, some who were amateurs who painted while pursuing an official career and others who were full-time painters. Ebrey (1999), 201. The period was also renowned for ceramics and porcelains. The major production centers for porcelain were the imperial kilns at Jingdezhen in Jiangxi province and Dehua in Fujian province. The Dehua porcelain factories catered to European tastes by creating Chinese export porcelain by the 16th century. Individual potters also became known, such as He Chaozong, who became famous in the early 17th century for his style of white porcelain (Blanc-de-Chine) sculpture. In ''The Ceramic Trade in Asia'', Chuimei Ho estimates that about 16% of late Ming era Chinese ceramic exports were sent to Europe while the rest were destined for Japan and South East Asia. Brook (1998), 206. Carved designs in lacquerware and designs glazed onto porcelain wares displayed intricate scenes similar in complexity to those in painting. These items could be found in the homes of the wealthy, alongside embroidered silks and wares in jade (Chinese jade), ivory, and cloisonné. The houses of the rich were also furnished with rosewood furniture and feathery latticework. The writing materials in a scholar's private study, including elaborately carved brush holders made of stone or wood, were designed and arranged ritually to give an aesthetic appeal. Spence (1999), 10. Connoisseurship in the late Ming period centered around these items of refined artistic taste, which provided work for art dealers and even underground scammers who themselves made imitations and false attributions. The Jesuit Matteo Ricci while staying in Nanjing wrote that Chinese scam artists were ingenious at making forgeries and huge profits. Brook (1998), 224–5. However, there were guides to help the wary new connoisseur; Liu Tong (died 1637) wrote a book printed in 1635 which told his readers how to spot fake and authentic pieces of art. Brook (1998), 225. He revealed that a Xuande era (Xuande) (1426–1435) bronzework could be authenticated by judging its sheen; porcelain wares from the Yongle era (1402–1424) could be judged authentic by their thickness. Brook (1998), 225–6. Religion , 1521–1556) was a Ming dynasty scholar. A native of Shunde (顺德) in Guangdong province, he completed the Jinshi (进士) level of the Imperial Examination in 1550. He was involved in two well known poetry circles "The Latter Five Poets of the Southern Garden" (南园后五子), and "The Seven Masters" (后七子). His most famous work is Lántīng Cúngǎo (兰汀存稿) (also known as Bǐbùjí 比部集). The short section is featured with historical Tung Chung Battery, a military coastal defence in Ming dynasty. It runs along the a river Ma Wan Chung and ends in Chung Yan Road. thumb Once you have acquired the skills (File:Qi jiguang.JPG), you must test them on an opponent, but in no way should you consider victory or submission to be a cause for shame or pride. '''Qi Jiguang (w:Qi Jiguang)''' (simplified Chinese (w:Simplified Chinese): 戚继光; traditional Chinese (w:Traditional Chinese) 戚繼光; 12 November 1528 – 5 January 1588) was a Ming dynasty (w:Ming dynasty) Chinese military general who defended China against wokou (w:wokou) pirates and reinforced the Great Wall (w:Great Wall of China) against Mongol (w:Mongols) incursions. He authored several military manuals which have been widely read in China, Korea, and Japan.


popular romantic

such as the ''Jin Ping Mei''. Yet even gentry and scholar-officials were affected by the new popular romantic literature, seeking courtesans as soulmates to reenact the heroic love stories which arranged marriages often could not provide or accommodate. Brook (1998), 229–31. Image:Chen Hongshou, leaf album painting.jpg thumb Painting of flowers, a butterfly, and Chinese scholar's rocks rock


time keeping

and layout of the Yuan dynasty palace. Later, European Jesuits such as Matteo Ricci and Nicolas Trigault would briefly mention indigenous Chinese clockworks that featured drive wheels. Needham (1965), Volume 4, Part 2, 438. However, both Ricci and Trigault were quick to point out that 16th-century European clockworks were far more advanced than the common time keeping devices in China, which they listed as water clocks, incense clocks, and "other instruments ... with wheels rotated by sand as if by water" (Chinese: 沙漏). Needham (1965), Volume 4, Part 2, 509. Chinese records— namely the ''Yuan Shi'' (Chinese: 元史)—describe the 'five-wheeled sand clock', a mechanism pioneered by Zhan Xiyuan (fl. (floruit) 1360–80) which featured the scoop wheel of Su Song's earlier astronomical clock and a stationary dial face (Dial (measurement)) over which a pointer circulated, similar to European models of the time. Needham (1965), Volume 4, Part 2, 511. This sand-driven wheel clock was improved upon by Zhou Shuxue (fl. 1530–58) who added a fourth large gear wheel, changed gear ratios, and widened the orifice for collecting sand grains since he criticized the earlier model for clogging up too often. Needham (1965), Volume 4, Part 2, 510–1. thumb upright Portrait of Matteo Ricci (Image:Ricciportrait.jpg) by Yu Wenhui, Latinized as Emmanuel Pereira, dated the year of Ricci's death, 1610 The Chinese were intrigued with European technology, but so were visiting Europeans of Chinese technology. In 1584, Abraham Ortelius (1527–1598) featured in his atlas ''Theatrum Orbis Terrarum'' the peculiar Chinese innovation of mounting masts and sails onto carriages (Wheelbarrow#Chinese sailing carriage), just like Chinese ships (Junk (ship)). Needham (1965), Volume 4, Part 2, 276. Gonzales de Mendoza (Juan González de Mendoza) also mentioned this a year later— noting even the designs of them on Chinese silken robes —while Gerardus Mercator (1512–94) featured them in his atlas, John Milton (1608–74) in one of his famous poems, and Andreas Everardus van Braam Houckgeest (1739–801) in the writings of his travel diary in China. Needham (1965), Volume 4, Part 2, 274–6. thumb upright Bodhisattva Manjusri (Image:He Chaozong 1.JPG) in '' Blanc-de-Chine'', by He Chaozong, 17th century; Song Yingxing devoted an entire section of his book to the ceramics industry (Chinese ceramics) in the making of porcelain items like this. Needham (1965), Volume 4, Part 2, 171–2. The encyclopedist Song Yingxing (1587–1666) documented a wide array of technologies, metallurgic and industrial processes in his ''Tiangong Kaiwu'' (Chinese: 天工開物) encyclopedia of 1637. This includes mechanical and hydraulic powered devices for agriculture and irrigation, Song (1966), 7–30, 84–103. nautical technology such as vessel types and snorkeling gear for pearl divers, Song (1966), 171–2, 189, 196. Needham (1971), Volume 4, Part 3, 668 Needham (1971), Volume 4, Part 3, 634, 649–50, 668–9. the annual processes of sericulture and weaving with the loom, Song (1966), 36–6. metallurgic processes such as the crucible technique and quenching, Song (1966), 237, 190. manufacturing processes such as for roasting iron pyrite in converting sulphide to oxide in sulfur used in gunpowder compositions— illustrating how ore was piled up with coal briquettes in an earthen furnace with a still-head that sent over sulfur as vapor that would solidify and crystallize (crystallization) Needham (1987), Volume 5, Part 7, 126.  —and the use of gunpowder weapons such as a naval mine ignited by use of a rip-cord and steel flint wheel (wheellock). Needham (1987), Volume 5, Part 7, 205, 339 F. Focusing on agriculture in his ''Nongzheng Quanshu'', the agronomist Xu Guangqi (1562–1633) took an interest in irrigation, fertilizers, famine relief, economic and textile crops, and empirical observation of the elements that gave insight into early understandings of chemistry. Needham (1984), Volume 6, Part 2, 65–6. There were many advances and new designs in gunpowder weapons during the beginning of the dynasty, but by the mid to late Ming the Chinese began to frequently employ European-style artillery and firearms. Needham (1987), Volume 5, Part 7, 372. The ''Huolongjing'', compiled by Jiao Yu and Liu Ji (Liu Ji (14th century)) sometime before the latter's death on 16 May 1375 (with a preface added by Jiao in 1412), Needam (1986), Volume 5, Part 7, 24–5. featured many types of cutting-edge gunpowder weaponry for the time. This includes hollow, gunpowder-filled exploding cannonballs (round shot), Needham (1987), Volume 5, Part 7, 264. land mines that used a complex trigger mechanism of falling weights, pins, and a steel wheellock to ignite the train of fuses, Needham (1987), Volume 5, Part 7, 203–5. naval mines, Needham (1987), Volume 5, Part 7, 205. fin-mounted winged rockets for aerodynamic control, Needham (1987), Volume 5, Part 7, 498–502. multistage rockets propelled by booster rockets before igniting a swarm of smaller rockets issuing forth from the end of the missile (shaped like a dragon's head), Needham (1987), Volume 5, Part 7, 508. and hand cannons that had up to ten barrels (gun barrel). Needham (1987), Volume 5, Part 7, 229. Li Shizhen (1518–93)— one of the most renowned pharmacologists (pharmacology) and physicians in Chinese history (Traditional Chinese medicine) —belonged to the late Ming period. His ''Bencao Gangmu'' is a medical text with 1,892 entries, each entry with its own name called a ''gang''. The ''mu'' in the title refers to the synonyms of each name. , 1521–1556) was a Ming dynasty scholar. A native of Shunde (顺德) in Guangdong province, he completed the Jinshi (进士) level of the Imperial Examination in 1550. He was involved in two well known poetry circles "The Latter Five Poets of the Southern Garden" (南园后五子), and "The Seven Masters" (后七子). His most famous work is Lántīng Cúngǎo (兰汀存稿) (also known as Bǐbùjí 比部集). The short section is featured with historical Tung Chung Battery, a military coastal defence in Ming dynasty. It runs along the a river Ma Wan Chung and ends in Chung Yan Road. thumb Once you have acquired the skills (File:Qi jiguang.JPG), you must test them on an opponent, but in no way should you consider victory or submission to be a cause for shame or pride. '''Qi Jiguang (w:Qi Jiguang)''' (simplified Chinese (w:Simplified Chinese): 戚继光; traditional Chinese (w:Traditional Chinese) 戚繼光; 12 November 1528 – 5 January 1588) was a Ming dynasty (w:Ming dynasty) Chinese military general who defended China against wokou (w:wokou) pirates and reinforced the Great Wall (w:Great Wall of China) against Mongol (w:Mongols) incursions. He authored several military manuals which have been widely read in China, Korea, and Japan.


images showing

Eight Immortal artwork is that they are often accompanied by jade hand maidens, commonly depicted servants of the higher ranked deities, or other images showing great spiritual power. This shows that early on the Eight Immortals quickly became eminent figures of the Taoist religion, and had great importance . We can see this importance is only heightened in the Ming (Ming dynasty) and Qing dynasties. During these dynasties, the Eight Immortals are very


quot+run+quot

in Yunnan and the Muslim Rebellion in Northwestern China (Dungan revolt (1862–1877)): Du Wenxiu, Ma Hualong, Ma Zhan'ao String bridges A string "bridge" or "run" is an attachment of horn or wood, used to hold the string a little further apart from the bow's limbs at the base of the siyahs, as well as allowing the siyah to rest at an angle forward of the string. This attachment may add weight, but might give a small increase in the speed of the arrow by increasing the initial string angle and therefore the force of the draw in its early stages. Large string bridges are characteristic of Manchu (Manchu people) (Qing dynasty, 1644–1911) bows and late Mongolian bows, while small string bridges are characteristic of Korean (Gungdo), Crimean Tatar, and some Ming dynasty (1368–1644) bows. Archery Traditions of Asia. Stephen Selby. Publisher: Hong Kong Museum of Coastal Defence 2003. ISBN Code: 9627039470 Illustration from the Wu Bei Yao Lue (‘Outline of Military Preparedness’ : The Theory of Archery). Chen Zi-yi. 1638. Translated by Stephen Selby. The Inheritage of a Turkish Bowyer: A Document from the Ottoman Archive. Şinasi Acar and Murat Özveri. String bridges are not present in artwork in the time of Genghis Khan or before. Cannon were used by Ming dynasty forces at the Battle of Lake Poyang. , 1521–1556) was a Ming dynasty scholar. A native of Shunde (顺德) in Guangdong province, he completed the Jinshi (进士) level of the Imperial Examination in 1550. He was involved in two well known poetry circles "The Latter Five Poets of the Southern Garden" (南园后五子), and "The Seven Masters" (后七子). His most famous work is Lántīng Cúngǎo (兰汀存稿) (also known as Bǐbùjí 比部集). The short section is featured with historical Tung Chung Battery, a military coastal defence in Ming dynasty. It runs along the a river Ma Wan Chung and ends in Chung Yan Road. thumb Once you have acquired the skills (File:Qi jiguang.JPG), you must test them on an opponent, but in no way should you consider victory or submission to be a cause for shame or pride. '''Qi Jiguang (w:Qi Jiguang)''' (simplified Chinese (w:Simplified Chinese): 戚继光; traditional Chinese (w:Traditional Chinese) 戚繼光; 12 November 1528 – 5 January 1588) was a Ming dynasty (w:Ming dynasty) Chinese military general who defended China against wokou (w:wokou) pirates and reinforced the Great Wall (w:Great Wall of China) against Mongol (w:Mongols) incursions. He authored several military manuals which have been widely read in China, Korea, and Japan.


century song

, and Andreas Everardus van Braam Houckgeest (1739–801) in the writings of his travel diary in China. Needham (1965), Volume 4, Part 2, 274–6. thumb upright Bodhisattva Manjusri (Image:He Chaozong 1.JPG) in '' Blanc-de-Chine'', by He Chaozong, 17th century; Song Yingxing devoted an entire section of his book to the ceramics industry (Chinese ceramics) in the making of porcelain items like this. Needham (1965), Volume 4, Part 2, 171–2. ref>


classical novels

the language of Classical Chinese, those with rudimentary education— such as women in educated families, merchants, and shop clerks —became a large potential audience for literature and performing arts that employed Vernacular Chinese. Ebrey (1999), 202–3. Literati scholars edited or developed major Chinese novels (Four Great Classical Novels) into mature form in this period, such as ''Water Margin'' and '' Journey

of the sixteenth century Chinese classic novel (Four Great Classical Novels) ''Journey to the West'' (Chinese (Chinese language): 西游记 Pinyin:xī yóu jì) by poet and novelist Wu Cheng'en, of the Ming dynasty. It was published by Arthur Waley in 1942. Subject matter and style were often borrowed from Heian period traditions of ''yamato-e'', with elements from Muromachi ink paintings (sumi-e), Chinese Ming dynasty flower-and-bird paintings, as well as Momoyama


literary field

to movable type printing. Brook (1998), xxi. The new literary field of the moral guide to business ethics was developed during the late Ming period, for the readership of the merchant class. Brook (1998), 215–7. thumb Poetry of Min Ding, 17th century (File:Mingdynasty.jpg) In contrast to Xu Xiake, who focused on technical aspects in his travel literature, the Chinese poet and official Yuan Hongdao (1568–1610) used travel literature to express his desires for individualism as well as autonomy from and frustration with Confucian court politics. Chang (2007), 318–9. Yuan desired to free himself from the ethical compromises which were inseparable from the career of a scholar-official. This anti-official sentiment in Yuan's travel literature and poetry was actually following in the tradition of the Song dynasty poet and official Su Shi (1037–1101). Chang (2007), 319. Yuan Hongdao and his two brothers, Yuan Zongdao (1560–1600) and Yuan Zhongdao (1570–1623), were the founders of the Gong'an School of letters. Chang (2007), 318. This highly individualistic school of poetry and prose was criticized by the Confucian establishment for its association with intense sensual lyricism, which was also apparent in Ming vernacular novels such as the ''Jin Ping Mei''. Yet even gentry and scholar-officials were affected by the new popular romantic literature, seeking courtesans as soulmates to reenact the heroic love stories which arranged marriages often could not provide or accommodate. Brook (1998), 229–31. thumb Painting of flowers, a butterfly, and Chinese scholar's rocks rock sculpture (Image:Chen Hongshou, leaf album painting.jpg) by Chen Hongshou (1598–1652); small leaf album paintings like this one first became popular in the Song dynasty (Culture of the Song dynasty). Famous painters included Ni Zan and Dong Qichang, as well as the Four Masters of the Ming dynasty, that is, Shen Zhou, Tang Yin, Wen Zhengming, Qiu Ying, They drew upon the techniques, styles, and complexity in painting achieved by their Song and Yuan predecessors, but added techniques and styles. Well-known Ming artists could make a living simply by painting, due to the high prices they demanded for their artworks and the great demand by the highly cultured community to collect precious works of art. The artist Qiu Ying was once paid 2.8 kg (100 oz) of silver to paint a long handscroll for the eightieth birthday celebration of the mother of a wealthy patron. Renowned artists often gathered an entourage of followers, some who were amateurs who painted while pursuing an official career and others who were full-time painters. Ebrey (1999), 201. The period was also renowned for ceramics and porcelains. The major production centers for porcelain were the imperial kilns at Jingdezhen in Jiangxi province and Dehua in Fujian province. The Dehua porcelain factories catered to European tastes by creating Chinese export porcelain by the 16th century. Individual potters also became known, such as He Chaozong, who became famous in the early 17th century for his style of white porcelain (Blanc-de-Chine) sculpture. In ''The Ceramic Trade in Asia'', Chuimei Ho estimates that about 16% of late Ming era Chinese ceramic exports were sent to Europe while the rest were destined for Japan and South East Asia. Brook (1998), 206. Carved designs in lacquerware and designs glazed onto porcelain wares displayed intricate scenes similar in complexity to those in painting. These items could be found in the homes of the wealthy, alongside embroidered silks and wares in jade (Chinese jade), ivory, and cloisonné. The houses of the rich were also furnished with rosewood furniture and feathery latticework. The writing materials in a scholar's private study, including elaborately carved brush holders made of stone or wood, were designed and arranged ritually to give an aesthetic appeal. Spence (1999), 10. Connoisseurship in the late Ming period centered around these items of refined artistic taste, which provided work for art dealers and even underground scammers who themselves made imitations and false attributions. The Jesuit Matteo Ricci while staying in Nanjing wrote that Chinese scam artists were ingenious at making forgeries and huge profits. Brook (1998), 224–5. However, there were guides to help the wary new connoisseur; Liu Tong (died 1637) wrote a book printed in 1635 which told his readers how to spot fake and authentic pieces of art. Brook (1998), 225. He revealed that a Xuande era (Xuande) (1426–1435) bronzework could be authenticated by judging its sheen; porcelain wares from the Yongle era (1402–1424) could be judged authentic by their thickness. Brook (1998), 225–6. Religion , 1521–1556) was a Ming dynasty scholar. A native of Shunde (顺德) in Guangdong province, he completed the Jinshi (进士) level of the Imperial Examination in 1550. He was involved in two well known poetry circles "The Latter Five Poets of the Southern Garden" (南园后五子), and "The Seven Masters" (后七子). His most famous work is Lántīng Cúngǎo (兰汀存稿) (also known as Bǐbùjí 比部集). The short section is featured with historical Tung Chung Battery, a military coastal defence in Ming dynasty. It runs along the a river Ma Wan Chung and ends in Chung Yan Road. thumb Once you have acquired the skills (File:Qi jiguang.JPG), you must test them on an opponent, but in no way should you consider victory or submission to be a cause for shame or pride. '''Qi Jiguang (w:Qi Jiguang)''' (simplified Chinese (w:Simplified Chinese): 戚继光; traditional Chinese (w:Traditional Chinese) 戚繼光; 12 November 1528 – 5 January 1588) was a Ming dynasty (w:Ming dynasty) Chinese military general who defended China against wokou (w:wokou) pirates and reinforced the Great Wall (w:Great Wall of China) against Mongol (w:Mongols) incursions. He authored several military manuals which have been widely read in China, Korea, and Japan.


main white

Consultative Council * Zhao Yingcheng (Hebrew: ''Moshe ben Abram''), Ming dynasty mandarin (mandarin (bureaucrat)) The White Lotus Rebellion was a Chinese anti-Manchu (Anti-Qing sentiment) uprising that occurred during the Ch'ing dynasty (Ching dynasty). It broke out (1796) among impoverished settlers in the mountainous region that separates Sichuan province from Hubei and Shaanxi provinces. It apparently began as a tax protest

Ming dynasty

The '''Ming dynasty''', also '''Empire of the Great Ming''', was the ruling dynasty (Dynasties in Chinese history) of China for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol (Mongol Empire)-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming, described by some as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history," Edwin Oldfather Reischauer, John King Fairbank, Albert M. Craig (1960) ''A history of East Asian civilization, Volume 1. East Asia: The Great Tradition'', George Allen & Unwin Ltd. was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng (who established the Shun dynasty, soon replaced by the Manchu (Manchu people)-led Qing dynasty), regimes loyal to the Ming throne survived until 1662.

The Hongwu Emperor (ruled 1368 98) attempted to create a society of self-sufficient rural communities ordered in a rigid, immobile system that would guarantee and support a permanent class of soldiers for his dynasty: the empire's standing army exceeded one million troops and the navy (naval history of China)'s dockyards in Nanjing were the largest in the world. Ebrey (2006), 271. He also took great care breaking the power of the court eunuchs (Eunuch (court official)#China) Crawford, Robert. "Eunuch Power in the Ming dynasty". ''T'oung Pao'', Second Series, Vol. 49, Livr. 3 (1961), pp. 115-148. Accessed 14 October 2012. and unrelated magnates, enfeoffing (Enfeoffment) his many sons throughout China and attempting to guide these princes through the Huang Ming Zu Xun, a set of published dynastic instructions. This failed spectacularly when his teenage successor, the Jianwen Emperor, attempted to curtail his uncles' power, prompting the Jingnan Campaign, an uprising that placed the Prince of Yan upon the throne as the Yongle Emperor in 1402. The Yongle Emperor established Yan as a secondary capital and renamed it Beijing, constructed the Forbidden City, and restored the Grand Canal (Grand Canal of China) and the primacy of the imperial examinations (keju) in official appointments. He rewarded his eunuch supporters and employed them as a counterweight against the Confucian scholar-bureaucrats. One, Zheng He, led seven enormous voyages of exploration (Treasure voyages) into the Indian Ocean as far as Arabia and the coast of Africa.

The rise of new emperors and new factions diminished such extravagances; the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor during the 1449 Tumu Crisis ended them completely. The imperial navy was allowed to fall into disrepair while forced labor (Corvee#Imperial China) constructed the Liaodong palisade and connected and fortified the Great Wall of China into its modern form. Wide-ranging censuses of the entire empire were conducted decennially, but the desire to avoid labor and taxes and the difficulty of storing and reviewing the enormous archives at Nanjing hampered accurate figures. Zhang Wenxian. "The Yellow Register Archives of Imperial Ming China". ''Libraries & the Cultural Record'', Vol. 43, No. 2 (2008), pp. 148-175. Univ. of Texas Press. Accessed 9 October 2012. Estimates for the late-Ming population vary from 160 to 200 million, For the lower population estimate, see . but necessary revenues were squeezed out of smaller and smaller numbers of farmers as more disappeared from the official records or "donated" their lands to tax-exempt eunuchs or temples. ''Haijin'' laws intended to protect the coasts from "Japanese" pirates (Wokou) instead turned many into smugglers and pirates themselves.

By the 16th century, however, the expansion of European trade (age of Discovery) spread the Columbian Exchange of crops, plants, and animals into China, introducing chili peppers to Sichuan cuisine and highly productive corn and potatoes, which diminished famines and spurred population growth. The growth of Portuguese (economic history of Portugal#Triangular trade between China, Japan, and Europe), Spanish (Economic history of Spain#Gold and silver from the New World), and Dutch (Economic history of the Netherlands (1500–1815)) trade created new demand for Chinese products and produced a massive influx of Japanese (Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine) and American (manila galleons) silver. This abundance of specie allowed the Ming to finally avoid using paper money, which had sparked hyperinflation during the 1450s. While traditional Confucians opposed such a prominent role for commerce and the newly rich it created, the heterodoxy introduced by Wang Yangming permitted a more accommodating attitude. Zhang Juzheng's initially successful reforms proved devastating when a slowdown in agriculture produced by the Little Ice Age was met with Japanese and Spanish policies that quickly cut off the supply of silver now necessary for farmers to be able to pay their taxes. Combined with crop failure, floods, and epidemic, the dynasty was considered to have lost the Mandate of Heaven and collapsed before the rebel leader Li Zicheng and a Manchurian invasion.

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