Medes

What is Medes known for?


world taking

Egypts former masters. The seat of empire was thus transferred to Babylonia for the first time since Hammurabi over a thousand years before. Nabopolassar was followed by his son Nebuchadnezzar II (Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon), whose reign of 43 years made Babylon once more the mistress of much the civilized world, taking over a fair portion of the former Assyrian Empire once ruled by its Assyrian brethren, the eastern and north eastern portion being taken by the Medes and the far north by the Scythians. His empire included the conquering of Phoenicia in 585 BC, as well as Aramea (Syria), Israel, Judah (Kingdom of Judah) and parts of Asia Minor and Arabia. ), means literally exile. Galut or Golus classically refers to the exile of the Jewish people from the Land of Israel (see: Jewish diaspora). There were altogether four such exiles. These are said to be alluded to in Abraham's biblical vision of the future of his descendants according to Bereishit Rabba (44:17): :''"And behold, a great, dark fear fell upon him." "'Fear' refers to Babylonia ... 'dark' refers to Media (Medes). ... 'great' refers to Greece.... 'fell upon him' refers to Edom.'"'' Hamadan was established by the Medes and was the capital of the Median empire. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty. * Since Alyattes (w:Alyattes of Lydia) would not give up the Scythians (w:Scythians) to Cyaxares (w:Cyaxares) at his demand, there was war Battle of Halys (w:Battle of Halys) between the Lydians (w:Lydians) and the Medes (w:Medes) for five years; each won many victories over the other, and once they fought a battle by night. They were still warring with equal success, when it happened, at an encounter which occurred in the sixth year, that during the battle the day was suddenly turned to night (w:Battle_of_Halys_(585_BCE)#The_eclipse). Thales of Miletus had foretold this loss of daylight to the Ionians, fixing it within the year in which the change did indeed happen. ** Herodotus, ''Histories'' (w:Histories (Herodotus)#Book_I_.28Clio.29), 1.74 (c.a. 435 B.C.)


silverberg

to Constantinople and of a Patriarch of India to Rome at the time of Pope Callixtus II (1119–1124). Silverberg, pp. 29–34. These visits apparently from the Saint Thomas Christians of India cannot be confirmed, evidence of both being secondhand reports. What is certain is that the German chronicler Otto of Freising reported in his ''Chronicon'' of 1145 that the previous year he had met a certain Hugh (Hugh of Jabala), bishop of Jabala in Syria, at the court

of Pope Eugene III in Viterbo. Halsall, Paul (1997). "Otto of Freising: The Legend of Prester John". Internet Medieval Sourcebook. Retrieved June 20, 2005. Silverberg, pp. 3–7 Bowden, p. 177 Hugh was an emissary of Prince Raymond (Raymond of Antioch) of Antioch (Principality of Antioch) seeking Western aid against the Saracens after the Siege


great dark

): :''"And behold, a great, dark fear fell upon him." "'Fear' refers to Babylonia ... 'dark' refers to Media (Medes). ... 'great' refers to Greece.... 'fell upon him' refers to Edom.'"'' Hamadan was established by the Medes and was the capital of the Median empire. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty. * Since Alyattes (w:Alyattes of Lydia) would not give up the Scythians (w:Scythians) to w:Cyaxares Cyaxares


wide school

north by the Scythians. His empire included the conquering of Phoenicia in 585 BC, as well as Aramea (Syria), Israel, Judah (Kingdom of Judah) and parts of Asia Minor and Arabia. Only a small fragment of his annals has been discovered, relating


culture work

, Mauryas (Maurya Empire), Kushans (Kushan Empire), Hephthalites, Sassanids (Sassanid Empire), Arab Muslims (Islamic conquest), Turks (Turkic peoples), and others. In recent age, people of the Western world have nominally explored the area. ref>


independent power

to the time of the conquest of Media (Medes) by Cyrus the Great, emperors ruled the conquered lands, through client kings (Client state) and governors. The chief difference was that in Persian culture the concept of kingship was indivisible from divinity: divine authority validated the divine right of kings. The twenty satraps established by Cyrus were never kings, but viceroys ruling in the king's name, although in political reality many grabbed any chance to carve themselves an independent

power base. Darius the Great (Darius I) gave the satrapies a definitive organization, increased their number to twenty-three and fixed their annual tribute (Behistun inscription). Demetrius I is famous in Jewish history for his victory over the Maccabees, killing Judas Maccabaeus in Nisan (Nisan-years), 160 BC. 1 Macc 9:3 (312 - A.S. 152 160 B.C. ) Demetrius acquired his surname of ''Soter'', or Savior, from the Babylonians, whom he delivered


silverberg

to Constantinople and of a Patriarch of India to Rome at the time of Pope Callixtus II (1119–1124). Silverberg, pp. 29–34. These visits apparently from the Saint Thomas Christians of India cannot be confirmed, evidence of both being secondhand reports. What is certain is that the German chronicler Otto of Freising reported in his ''Chronicon'' of 1145 that the previous year he had met a certain Hugh (Hugh of Jabala), bishop of Jabala in Syria, at the court

of Pope Eugene III in Viterbo. Halsall, Paul (1997). "Otto of Freising: The Legend of Prester John". Internet Medieval Sourcebook. Retrieved June 20, 2005. Silverberg, pp. 3–7 Bowden, p. 177 Hugh was an emissary of Prince Raymond (Raymond of Antioch) of Antioch (Principality of Antioch) seeking Western aid against the Saracens after the Siege


science+architecture

in the Zagros Mountains, and moved his capital to the city of Kalhu (Calah Nimrud). The palaces, temples and other buildings raised by him bear witness to a considerable development of wealth, science, architecture and art. He also built a number of new heavily fortified towns, such as Imgur-Enlil (Balawat), Tushhan, Kar-Ashurnasirpal and Nibarti-Ashur. Ashurnasirpal II also had a keen interest in Botany and Zoology; collecting all manner of plants, seeds


world main'

the golden statue of Bel (Marduk, Merodach), the hands of which the rightful king of Babylon had to clasp each New Year's Day. This sacrilege led the Babylonians to rebel in 484 BC and 482 BC, so that in contemporary Babylonian documents, Xerxes refused his father's title of King of Babylon, being named rather as King of Persia and Media (Medes), Great King, King of Kings (Shahanshah) and King of Nations (i.e. of the world). Through


great founder

writes more credibly of contemporaneous events, especially where they concerned his native land. Asia Minor had been partly conquered by the Iranians, starting with the Scythians, then the Medes. The latter were defeated by the Persians (Persian people), who incorporated them and their lands into the new Persian Empire. Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid dynasty, resolved to complete the conquest of Anatolia as a prelude to operations further west, to be carried out by his successors. He assigned the task to Harpagus, a Median general, who proceeded to subdue the various states of Anatolia, one by one, some by convincing them to submit, others through military action. The Medes were an ancient Iranian people (Ancient Iranian peoples). The established their own empire by the 6th century BC, having defeated the Neo-Assyrian Empire with the Chaldeans. The Medes are credited with the foundation of the first Iranian empire, the largest of its day until Cyrus the Great established a unified Iranian empire of the Medes and Persian (Persian people), often referred to as the Achaemenid Persian Empire, by defeating his grandfather and overlord, Astyages the king of Media. thumb Geographical extent of Iranian influence in the 1st century BC. The Parthia (Image:Scythia-Parthia 100 BC.png)n Empire (mostly Western Iranian (Western Iranian languages)) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (mostly Eastern Iranian (Eastern Iranian languages)), in orange. Parthia was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran. Their power was based on a combination of the guerrilla warfare of a mounted nomadic tribe, with organizational skills to build and administer a vast empire – even though it never matched in power and extent the Persian empires that preceded and followed it. The Parthian empire was led by the Arsacid dynasty, which reunited and ruled over the Iranian plateau, after defeating and disposing the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, beginning in the late 3rd century BC, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between 150 BC and 224 AD. It was the third native dynasty of ancient Iran (after the Median (Medes) and the Achaemenid (Achaemenid Empire) dynasties). Parthia had many wars with the Roman Empire. *615 BC—Neo-Babylonian kingdom begin attacking Assyrian cities. *614 BC—Sack of Assur by the Medes and Babylonians. *613 BC—Death of Zhou qing wang, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. *612 BC—Zhou kuang wang becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. *612 BC—An alliance of Medes, Scythians, Neo-Babylonians and Susianians besiege and conquer Nineveh at ''the Battle of Nineveh (Battle of Nineveh (612 BC))''. King Sin-shar-ishkun of Assyria is killed in the sack. *612 BC—Ashur-uballit II attempts to keep the Assyrian empire alive by establishing himself as king at Harran. * 626 BC—Nabopolassar revolts against Assyria, founds the Neo-Babylonian Empire. * 625 BC—Medes and Babylonians assert their independence from Assyria and attack Nineveh (approximate date). *c. 625 BC—Orientalizing period of vases ends in Ancient Greece. Life Nebuchadnezzar was the oldest son and successor of Nabopolassar, who delivered Babylon from its dependence on Assyria and laid Nineveh in ruins. According to Berossus, some years before he became king of Babylon, he married Amytis of Media, the daughter or granddaughter of Cyaxares the Great, king of the Medes, and thus the Median (Medes) and Babylonian dynasties were united. There are conflicting accounts of Nitocris of Babylon either being his wife or daughter. ** Judas Maccabeus, third son of the Jewish priest Mattathias, who has led the Maccabean revolt against the Seleucid Empire until his death ** Timarchus, Seleucid nobleman, possibly from Miletus in Anatolia, appointed governor of Media (Medes) in western Iran by the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes and who has rebelled against his successor, Demetrius I Soter, until he is killed in a battle with Demetrius' forces ), means literally exile. Galut or Golus classically refers to the exile of the Jewish people from the Land of Israel (see: Jewish diaspora). There were altogether four such exiles. These are said to be alluded to in Abraham's biblical vision of the future of his descendants according to Bereishit Rabba (44:17): :''"And behold, a great, dark fear fell upon him." "'Fear' refers to Babylonia ... 'dark' refers to Media (Medes). ... 'great' refers to Greece.... 'fell upon him' refers to Edom.'"'' Hamadan was established by the Medes and was the capital of the Median empire. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty. * Since Alyattes (w:Alyattes of Lydia) would not give up the Scythians (w:Scythians) to Cyaxares (w:Cyaxares) at his demand, there was war Battle of Halys (w:Battle of Halys) between the Lydians (w:Lydians) and the Medes (w:Medes) for five years; each won many victories over the other, and once they fought a battle by night. They were still warring with equal success, when it happened, at an encounter which occurred in the sixth year, that during the battle the day was suddenly turned to night (w:Battle_of_Halys_(585_BCE)#The_eclipse). Thales of Miletus had foretold this loss of daylight to the Ionians, fixing it within the year in which the change did indeed happen. ** Herodotus, ''Histories'' (w:Histories (Herodotus)#Book_I_.28Clio.29), 1.74 (c.a. 435 B.C.)

Medes

thumb 200px The Apadana Palace, northern stairway (detail) – ancient 5th-century BCE bas-relief shows a Mede soldier in traditional Mede costume (behind Persian archer) (Image:Persepolis Apadana noerdliche Treppe Detail.jpg)

The '''Medes''' . C) ".. succeeded in uniting into a kingdom the many Iranian-speaking Median tribes" (from Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online Media (ancient region, Iran) ). D) "Proto-Iranian split into Western (Median, ancient Persian, and others) and Eastern (Scythian, Ossetic, Saka, Pamir and others)..." ( year 2007 page 303 ) group "N" who lived in an area known as Media (Media (region)) (North-western Iran and south-east Turkey) and who spoke a northwestern Iranian language (Northwestern Iranian) referred to as the Median language. Their arrival to the region is associated with the first wave of migrating Iranic Aryans (Aryan race) tribes into Ancient Iran from the late 2nd millennium BCE (circa 1000 BC) (the Bronze Age collapse) through the beginning of the 1st millennium BCE (circa 900 BC).

This period of migration coincided with a power vacuum in the Near East, with the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365-1020 BC) which had dominated north western Iran and eastern Anatolia and the Caucasus going into a comparative decline, allowing new peoples to pass through and settle. In addition, Elam, the dominant power in Ancient Iran was suffering a period of severe weakness, as was Babylonia to the west.

From the 10th to late 7th centuries BCE, the Medes and Persians (Persian people) fell under the domination of the vast Neo-Assyrian Empire based in northern Mesopotamia, but which stretched from Cyprus to Ancient Iran, and from the Caucasus to Egypt and Arabia. Assyrian kings such as Tiglath-Pileser IV, Sargon II, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, Ashurbanipal and Ashur-etil-ilani imposed ''Vassal Treaties'' upon the Median and Persian rulers, and also protected them from predatory raids by marauding Scythian and Cimmerian hordes. Georges Roux, ''Ancient Iraq'', 1992

During the reign of Sinsharishkun (622-612 BC) the Assyrian empire, which had been in a state of constant civil war since 626 BC, began to unravel. Subject peoples, such as the Medes, Persians, Babylonians, Chaldeans, Egyptians, Scythians, Cimmerians, Lydians and Arameans quietly ceased to pay tribute to Assyria.

An alliance with the Persians (Persian people), and rebelling Babylonians (Neo-Babylonian empire), Scythians, Chaldeans, and Cimmerians, helped the Medes and Persians to capture Nineveh in 612 BCE, which resulted in the eventual collapse of the Neo-Assyrian Empire by 605 BC. The Medes were subsequently able to establish their Median kingdom (with Ecbatana as their royal centre) beyond their original homeland (central-western Iran) and had eventually a territory stretching roughly from northeastern Iran to the Halys River in Anatolia. After the fall of the Assyrian Empire, between 616 BCE and 605 BCE, a unified Median state was formed, which, together with Babylonia, Lydia, and Egypt (Ancient Egypt), became one of the four major powers of the ancient Near East. The Median kingdom was conquered in 550 BCE by Cyrus the Great, who established the Iranian dynasty—the Persian Achaemenid Empire.

A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle (Medes#Archaeological evidence)" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. The Medes had almost the same equipment as the Persians and indeed the dress common to both is not so much Persian as Median. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is almost entirely unknown. However a number of words from the Median language are still in use, and there are languages being geographically and comparatively (Comparative method (linguistics)) traced to the northwestern Iranian language of Median. The Medes had an Ancient Iranian Religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian (Zoroastrianism) Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later and during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zarathustra (Zoroastrianism) spread in western Iran.

Besides Ecbatana (modern Hamedan), the other cities existing in Media were Laodicea (modern Nahavand) and the mound that was the largest city of the Medes, Rhages (also called Rey), on the outskirts of Shahr Rey (Rey, Iran), south of Tehran. The fourth city of Media was Apamea (Apamea (Media)), near Ecbatana, whose precise location is unknown. In later periods, Medes and especially Mede soldiers are identified and portrayed prominently in ancient Persian archaeological sites such as Persepolis, where they are shown to have a major role and presence in the military of the Persian Empire's Achaemenid dynasty.

According to the ''Histories of Herodotus (Histories (Herodotus))'', there were six Median tribes: Herodotus 1.101

The six Median tribes resided in Media proper, the triangle between Ecbatana, Rhagae and Aspadana, in today's central Iran , the area between Tehran , Isfahan and Hamadan. Of the Median tribes, the Magi resided in Rhaga, modern Tehran . It was a sort of sacred caste, which ministered to the spiritual needs of the Medes. The Paretaceni tribe resided in and around Aspadana, modern Isfahan, the Arizanti lived in and around Kashan and the Busae tribe lived in and around the future Median capital of Ecbatana, modern Hamadan. The Struchates and the Budii lived in villages in the Median triangle. http: books.google.no books?id rQipbjusDyQC&pg PA292&dq %22villages+in+media%22&hl no&ei Jg3ZToSBI8T74QTD-tj5DQ&sa X&oi book_result&ct result&resnum 6&ved 0CEgQ6AEwBQ#v onepage&q %22villages%20in%20media%22&f false

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