Mecca

What is Mecca known for?


record business

to the Kaaba in Mecca following a revelation to the Prophet Muhammad by the Archangel Gabriel.


title personal

title Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah & Meccah — Volume 1 url http: www.gutenberg.org etext 4657 format Text file accessdate 2008-10-22 edition Memorial series 2 volume 1 publisher Tylston and Edwards year 1855 *


title architectural


public criticism

, 2002 , when they prevented schoolgirls from escaping a burning school in Mecca, because the girls were not wearing headscarves and abayas (black robes), and not accompanied by a male guardian. Fifteen girls died and 50 were injured as a result. Widespread public criticism followed, both internationally and within Saudi Arabia. "Saudi police 'stopped' fire rescue", ''BBC'', 15 March 2002 ref>


early compositions

first book (or at least the first one under this pseudonym), ''The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Koran'', which asserted that the language of the early compositions of the Qur'an was not exclusively Arabic, as assumed by the classical commentators, but rather is rooted in the Syro-Aramaic (Syriac language) dialect of the 7th century Meccan Quraysh (Quraysh (tribe)) tribe, which is associated in the early histories with the founding of the religion of Islam. Luxenberg's premise is that the Aramaic language, which was prevalent throughout the Middle East during the early period of Islam, and was the language of culture and Christian liturgy, had a profound influence on the scriptural composition and meaning of the contents of the Koran. Giving the Koran a history: Holy Book under scrutiny Critical readings of the Muslim scripture offer alternative interpretations of well-known passages, Lebanon ''Daily Star'' (July 12, 2003): ''"Luxenberg asserts that Koranic Arabic is not Arabic at all, at least not in the sense assumed by the classical commentators. It is written, rather, in the dialect of the Prophet's tribe, the Meccan Quraysh, and heavily influenced by Aramaic. Luxenberg's premise is that the Aramaic language—the lingua franca of the Prophet Mohammed, the language of culture and Christian liturgy—had a profound influence on the Koran. Extensive borrowing was necessary simply because at the time of the Prophet, Arabic was not yet sophisticated enough for scriptural composition."'' Recorded History As per legend, the last ''Perumal'' who ruled Kerala divided his kingdom between his nephews ,his sons, relatives and nobles converted to Islam and travelled to Mecca on a ''hajj''. The ''Keralolpathi'' recounts the above narrative in the following fashion: The last and the famous Perumal king Cheraman Perumal ruled Kerala for 36 years. He left for Mecca by ship with some Muslims who arrived at Kodungallur (Cranganore) port and converted to Islam. Another legend mentions that the Queen of a Cheraman Perumal had an illicit liaison with one of the courtiers. An army Chieftain (the leader of "ayiram" (1000 Nairs )) accidentally became a witness to these escapades, whereupon the Queen tried to pre-empt him by falsely implicating the honest Chieftain before the Perumal. Persuaded by his Queen the Perumal sentenced him to death. However, when this injustice became known to the army they revolted " kudipaka" (blood flood). The Perumal, now realised his folly and in order to escape their wrath secretly approached the arab merchants at the harbor for help. They promised to arrange escape of the Perumal to Arabia provided he converted to Islam. Thus, was created a popular saying in malayalam language " pennu chollu ketta perumalepole" which means " like the perumal who was manipulated by a woman". Kodungaloore Temple still the lords of these warriors known as "onnukure ayiram" (thousand minus one). Before leaving for Mecca, he divided his kingdom between his nephews and sons. Cheraman Perumal divided the land in half, 17 amsom north of Nileshwaram and 17 amsom south, totaling 34 amsom, and gave his powers to nephews and sons. Thirty-four rajyas between Kanyakumari (Kanyakumari (town)) now in Tamil Nadu and Gokarna (Gokarna, India) now in Karnataka were given to the Thampuran who was the daughter of the last niece of Cheraman Perumal. Keralolpathi recorded the division of his kingdom in AD 345, Perumpadapu Grandavari in 385, Loghan (a historian) in 825. There are no written records on these earlier divisions of Kerala, but according to historian Elamkulam Kunjan Pillai, a division might have occurred during the Second Chera (Chera dynasty) Kingdom, at the beginning of 12th century. The Keralolpathi says that on the request of the ''Namboothiris'' of ''Perinchellur'' (Taliparamba) the last ''Cheraman Perumal'' was a ''Vanipperumal (Banapperumal)'' and was sent by an Aryan King of ''Aryapura Krishnarayar'' (Krishna III)(939 – 967 CE) with a large Nair army 3 lakh 50 thousand strong led by General ''Pada Mala Nair''. ''Keralolpathi'' also states that the ''Banapperumal'' was the brother of ''Kavirasasingha'' the King of ''Tulunad''. ''Keralolpathi''´s ''Cheraman Perumal'' was not a Tamil Chera king belonging to Chera Dynasty but a Rashtrakuta invader who established his authority over the northern most parts of Kerala at Ezhimala. This Banapperumal was a Buddhist who later converted to Islam by a preacher called ''Veda Aliar'' and went to Mecca according to ''Keralolpathi''.The establishment of ''Nair'' and ''Namboothiri'' power in Kerala may correspond to this invasion of ''Banapperumal'' from Karnataka. This Banapperumal revolted against ''Krishnarayar'' and declared himself ''Cheraman Vadakkan Perumal''. ''Keralolpathi'' says that the Kolathiri were the descendents of this ''Banapperumal''. Recorded History As per legend, the last ''Perumal'' who ruled Kerala divided his kingdom between his nephews ,his sons, relatives and nobles converted to Islam and travelled to Mecca on a ''hajj''. The ''Keralolpathi'' recounts the above narrative in the following fashion: The last and the famous Perumal king Cheraman Perumal ruled Kerala for 36 years. He left for Mecca by ship with some Muslims who arrived at Kodungallur (Cranganore) port and converted to Islam. Another legend mentions that the Queen of a Cheraman Perumal had an illicit liaison with one of the courtiers. An army Chieftain (the leader of "ayiram" (1000 Nairs )) accidentally became a witness to these escapades, whereupon the Queen tried to pre-empt him by falsely implicating the honest Chieftain before the Perumal. Persuaded by his Queen the Perumal sentenced him to death. However, when this injustice became known to the army they revolted " kudipaka" (blood flood). The Perumal, now realised his folly and in order to escape their wrath secretly approached the arab merchants at the harbor for help. They promised to arrange escape of the Perumal to Arabia provided he converted to Islam. Thus, was created a popular saying in malayalam language " pennu chollu ketta perumalepole" which means " like the perumal who was manipulated by a woman". Kodungaloore Temple still the lords of these warriors known as "onnukure ayiram" (thousand minus one). Before leaving for Mecca, he divided his kingdom between his nephews and sons. Cheraman Perumal divided the land in half, 17 amsom north of Nileshwaram and 17 amsom south, totaling 34 amsom, and gave his powers to nephews and sons. Thirty-four rajyas between Kanyakumari (Kanyakumari (town)) now in Tamil Nadu and Gokarna (Gokarna, India) now in Karnataka were given to the Thampuran who was the daughter of the last niece of Cheraman Perumal. Keralolpathi recorded the division of his kingdom in AD 345, Perumpadapu Grandavari in 385, Loghan (a historian) in 825. There are no written records on these earlier divisions of Kerala, but according to historian Elamkulam Kunjan Pillai, a division might have occurred during the Second Chera (Chera dynasty) Kingdom, at the beginning of 12th century. The Keralolpathi says that on the request of the ''Namboothiris'' of ''Perinchellur'' (Taliparamba) the last ''Cheraman Perumal'' was a ''Vanipperumal (Banapperumal)'' and was sent by an Aryan King of ''Aryapura Krishnarayar'' (Krishna III)(939 – 967 CE) with a large Nair army 3 lakh 50 thousand strong led by General ''Pada Mala Nair''. ''Keralolpathi'' also states that the ''Banapperumal'' was the brother of ''Kavirasasingha'' the King of ''Tulunad''. ''Keralolpathi''´s ''Cheraman Perumal'' was not a Tamil Chera king belonging to Chera Dynasty but a Rashtrakuta invader who established his authority over the northern most parts of Kerala at Ezhimala. This Banapperumal was a Buddhist who later converted to Islam by a preacher called ''Veda Aliar'' and went to Mecca according to ''Keralolpathi''.The establishment of ''Nair'' and ''Namboothiri'' power in Kerala may correspond to this invasion of ''Banapperumal'' from Karnataka. This Banapperumal revolted against ''Krishnarayar'' and declared himself ''Cheraman Vadakkan Perumal''. ''Keralolpathi'' says that the Kolathiri were the descendents of this ''Banapperumal''. His Life He lived in Jerusalem for ten years and then travelled in western Asia and Egypt, before settling in Mecca in 1368. He remained there for the bulk of the next three decades, spending some time in Delhi in the 1380s, and finally leaving Mecca in the mid-1390s to return to Baghdad, Shiraz (where he was received by Timur), and finally travelling to Ta'izz in modern Yemen. In 1395, he was appointed chief ''qadi'' (''judge'') of Yemen and married a daughter of the sultan. His Life He lived in Jerusalem for ten years and then travelled in western Asia and Egypt, before settling in Mecca in 1368. He remained there for the bulk of the next three decades, spending some time in Delhi in the 1380s, and finally leaving Mecca in the mid-1390s to return to Baghdad, Shiraz (where he was received by Timur), and finally travelling to Ta'izz in modern Yemen. In 1395, he was appointed chief ''qadi'' (''judge'') of Yemen and married a daughter of the sultan. "Dhu al-Hijjah" literally means "Possessor of the Pilgrimage." It is during this month that pilgrims from all around the world congregate at Mecca to visit the Kaaba. The Hajj is performed on the eighth, ninth and the tenth of this month. Day of Arafa takes place on the ninth of the month. Eid al-Adha, the "Festival of the Sacrifice", begins on the tenth day and ends on the thirteenth. In July 1999, it was rumoured that he had accepted baptism in the Russian Orthodox Church. Although he denied being religious at all and claimed that an earlier visit to Mecca was not a pilgrimage, the Islamic Shura of Chechnya, under Sharia law, condemned him to death for apostasy. "Theologians from Chechnya and Dagestan, a neighbouring mainly Moslem region of Russia, called at an assembly in Grozny for Tuleyev's death, Interfax said. They urged all Moslems to carry out the sentence at the first possible opportunity." Toghrül soon decided to put an end to the Buyid state in Iraq. On December 17, 1055, he arrived in Baghdad as a pilgrim on his way to Mecca , and made it known that after he returned, he would make war with the Fatimids. The caliph, who had initially preferred the weak Buyids over the strong Seljuks despite the latter's Sunni orthodoxy, declared that Toghrül's name should be recited before the al-Malik al-Rahim in the Friday sermons. The amir thereupon became a vassal of the Seljuks. According to one legend, one of Uqba's soldiers stumbled across a golden goblet buried in the sands. It was recognized as one that had disappeared from Mecca some years before, and when it was dug out of the sand a spring appeared, with waters said to come from the same source as those of the sacred Zamzam Well in Mecca. ''Places of peace and power - Kairouan, Tunisia'' - Sacredsites.com This story led to Kairouan becoming a place of pilgrimage, and then a holy city (the Mecca of the Maghreb) and the most important city in North Africa. The Nabataeans used this road as a trade route for luxury goods such as frankincense and spices from southern Arabia (Arabian Peninsula). During the Roman (Ancient Rome) period, the King's Highway was rebuilt by Trajan and called the ''Via Traiana Nova''. The Highway has also been used as an important pilgrimage route for Christians, as it passed numerous sites important in Christianity, including Mount Nebo (Mount Nebo (Jordan)) and al-Maghtas ("the Baptism Site") at the Jordan River, where Jesus is believed to have been baptized by John the Baptist. Muslims used it as the main Hajj route to Mecca until the Ottoman Turks built the Tariq al-Bint in the 16th century. The literal meaning of Lakhpat is the city of millionaire, however today it is sparsely populated Ghost town, a city of ruins of buildings and a magnificent fort surrounding them. Historically it has been very important trading post connecting Gujarat to Sindh. Its decline started when an earthquake diverted the flow of the Sindhu river away from it. It has a scenic landscape with a fort in ruins along with tomb and a mosque noted for their fine carvings. A nearby gurudwara is historically significant, as Guru Nanak is believed to have visited this site while he was on his way to Mecca. Few of his relics are retained here. During the period of Muslim invasion, the Khudabadi Sonara Community and other Hindus who had not converted to Islam under the Ghaznavids moved to Vegh Kot and Lakhpat (in Kutch) around 1028 AD, to avoid genocide at the hands of the invading muslims and to live peacefully under Hindu Samma rulers. Lakhpat Gurudwara Sahib An attraction is the Lakhpat Gurudwara Sahib, religious place for the Sikhs. Guru Nanak on his way to Mecca for Haj stayed over here and even today Guru Nanakji's footwear and the palkhi are worshiped by the Udasi Sect. The Gurudwara is declared a protected monument by the Archeological Department and has won the UNESCO award for restoration after the earthquake. Unfortunately, a concrete enclosure has engulfed the rather pristine place. The hospitality offered is very warm. BOTTOMLINE - THE AWARD COMES AS A GIFT FOR LOCAL RESIDENTS, NONE OF THEM SIKH, WHO PARTICIPATED IN THE RESTORATION PROJECT. Stone by stone, they restored gurudwara to bag UNESCO award; by Rupam Jain Nair; September 09, 2004; The Indian Express A gurdwara in no man's land; With Sunil Raghu in Lakhpat; Jan 03, 2006; CNN-IBN Google Book Review: History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1469-1606 C.E; By Surjit Singh Gandhi; Published by Atlantic Publishers and Distributors (P) Ltd.; ISBN 978-81-269-0859-2 Gurudwara Pehli Patshahi (Lakhpat); Gateway to Sikhism. Also posted at A year of cycling across India to save youth from drugs; 31st January, 2009; IANS; Bombay News.Net. Also posyed at Hajj of Malcolm X had a huge influence on his life. After seeing Muslims of all races and shades praying at Mecca, he moderated his views toward those of racial unity and was influenced to take up a more traditional form of faith, moving further away from the Nation of Islam, which he increasingly viewed as illegitimate. I'm not sure of your nationality, but if you are American, you and every other American should read The Autobiography of Malcolm X. For other Muslisms, the experience is probably a bit less revolutionary, but it's still definitely an event that they plan for all of their lives. Have you given our Hajj article a perusal yet? Garrett Albright (User:Garrett Albright) 16:24, 30 October 2005 (UTC)


title personal'

title Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah & Meccah — Volume 1 url http: www.gutenberg.org etext 4657 format Text file accessdate 2008-10-22 edition Memorial series 2 volume 1 publisher Tylston and Edwards year 1855 *


frequently appearing

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detailed important

the Ihsan al-Haramain Consultancy Programme, providing clients with a bespoke service to select property in the cities for residential, commercial and investment purposes. ** The second sentence of the article, ''It was fought on Friday, March 17 624 CE (17 Ramadhan 2 AH), although a few sources place it in 623'' seems out of place and too detailed. Important for elsewhere in the article, not the first paragraph. **How about this re-write: '''The Battle of Badr''' (Arabic ب&


world political

religion of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, whose territory was the birthplace of the Muslim religion. Arabian trader Muhammad, resident of the city of Mecca in the Hejaz region, is the prophet of Islam. He unified the diverse tribes of the Arabian peninsula. Although the Arabian peninsula was later fragmented, the citie of Mecca and Medina remained the center of the religion, attracting millions of pilgrims, clerics and students from across the Muslim world. Political control of the two cities gave considerable power and legitimacy to any kingdom or empire in the global Muslim community. The hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca, occurs annually between the first and tenth days of the last month of the Muslim year (Islamic calendar), Dhul Hajj. The hajj represents the culmination of the Muslim's spiritual life. For many, it is a lifelong ambition. From the time of embarking on the journey to make the hajj, pilgrims often experience a spirit of exaltation and excitement; the meeting of so many Muslims of all races, cultures, and stations in life in harmony and equality moves many people deeply. Certain rites of pilgrimage may be performed any time, and although meritorious, these constitute a lesser pilgrimage, known as umrah. thumb 330px right Pilgrims in the annual Hajj (Image:Kaaba mirror edit jj.jpg) at the Kaabah in Mecca.


business manufacturing

criticized his speech because it undermined a Mecca summit dedicated to showing Islam's moderate face.(DailyStar)(UN)business manufacturing feeds ap 2005 12 08 ap2379169.html (AP) (KUNA)

Mecca

'''Mecca''' Rarely, Bakkah. ( above sea level. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the ''hajj'' ("pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of ''Dhu al-Hijjah''.

As the birthplace of Muhammad and the site of Muhammad's first revelation (revelation) of the Quran (specifically, a Hira cave

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