accusations of fraud and manipulation which had accompanied previous elections, the government introduced new safeguards, including published voter lists and a hard-to-falsify voter identification card. Reversing a trend of election boycotts, 15 opposition parties nominated candidates for more than 3,000 municipal posts and for the 81-member National Assembly. Four opposition parties won a combined 11 seats in the National Assembly and took 15% of the municipal posts. The ruling Democratic
Arabic is the native language of majorities from Mauritania to Oman, and from Iraq to the Sudan. As the language of the Qur'an and as a ''lingua franca'', it is studied widely in the non-Arabic-speaking Muslim world as well. Its spoken form is divided into a number of varieties (varieties of Arabic), some not mutually comprehensible, united by a single written form. The principal exception to this almost universal use of Arabic script is the Maltese language, genetically a descendant of the extinct Sicilian Arabic dialect. The Maltese alphabet is based on the Latin script with the addition of some letters with diacritic marks and digraphs (Digraph (orthography)). Maltese is the only Semitic official language within the European Union. The Sahel is the transitional zone between the Sahara and the tropical savanna (the Sudan region (Sudan (region))) and forest-savanna mosaic to the south. Somalia, Djibouti, Comoros and Mauritania are geographically part of Sub-Saharan Africa, but also part of the Arab world. John Markakis, ''Resource conflict in the Horn of Africa'', (Sage: 1998), p.39 Ḥagai Erlikh, The struggle over Eritrea, 1962-1978: war and revolution in the Horn of Africa, (Hoover Institution Press: 1983), p.59 Randall Fegley, ''Eritrea'', (Clio Press: 1995), p.xxxviii List of countries and regional organization Only six African countries are not geographically a part of Sub-Saharan Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, and Western Sahara (claimed by Morocco). Together with the Sudan and South Sudan, they form the UN subregion of Northern Africa which also makes up the largest bloc of the Arab World. Nevertheless, many international organizations include Sudan and South Sudan as part of Sub-Saharan Africa. Although a long-standing member of the Arab League, Sudan has substantial non-Arab populations in the west (Darfur, Masalit, Zaghawa), north (Nubian (Nubian people)) and south (Kordofan, Nuba). Commons:Category:Mauritania WikiPedia:Mauritania Dmoz:Regional Africa Mauritania
of inhabitants in thousands. This article is about the demographic (demographics) features of the population of Mauritania, including population density, ethnicity (Ethnic group), education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. Personalities have long exercised an important influence in the politics of Mauritania - the effective exercise of political power in the country depends on control over resources
. Be careful to eat with your right hand, especially outside of Nouakchott where you may not be offered silverware. Like other places in the Arab world, the left hand is reserved for the bathroom. If you're left-handed... try hard. Covering your head isn't required, but it is polite. It may cut down on the ''Madame, ou bien Mademoiselle?'' question, but Westerners, especially women, will be the target of unwanted attention and minor harassment everywhere in the country. Be aware though, that many
traditionally migrating into northern Mali and Niger. As with most Saharan peoples, the tribes reflect a highly mixed heritage, combining Arab, Berber, and other influences, including black African ethnic and cultural characteristics. In late 1975, Spain held meetings with Polisario leader El-Ouali (El-Ouali Mustapha Sayed), to negotiate the terms for a handover of power. But at the same time, Morocco and Mauritania began to put pressure
and Western Sahara (some tribes would also traditionally migrate into northern Mali and Niger, or even further along the Saharan caravan (caravan (travellers)) routes). As with most Saharan peoples, the tribes reflect a highly mixed heritage, combining Arab, Berber (Berber people), and other influences, including black African ethnic and cultural characteristics. The latter were primarily acquired through mixing with Wolouf, Soninke people Soninke
New Guinea , the Philippines, Rwanda, Samoa, Sudan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Vanuatu and Vietnam, who had not participated in the Atlanta Games, competed in Sydney. "Still growing: Paralympics world's second-largest sporting event", ''Sports Illustrated'', 20 September 2000 * 2008 - Tibetian unrest (2008 unrest in Tibet), Mar. 10 - June. ( Tibet, China
to round up teams of fish into shallow waters for them to be netted. In the southeast, the oasis city of '''Oualata''' was the southern end of most trans-Sahara trading routes in the 13th & 14th centuries. The city boasts colourful buildings, many of which feature intricate geometric designs. The city is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and also boasts a manuscript museum with examples of ancient scrolls in fine calligraphy. Do Image:Chinguetti-Guide.JPG thumb Visiting the Hamoni library
thumb left alt A shark swimming in dark water over sand; the labels indicate that it was taken on August 26, 2004 at a depth of 2866 feet, a temperature of 4.3 Celsius, and a salinity of 35 The first footage of a frilled shark in its natural habitat, taken east of Georgia, USA on the Blake Plateau. (Image:Chlamydoselachus anguineus NOOA.jpg) Rather uncommon, the frilled shark has been recorded from a number of widely scattered locations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. In the eastern Atlantic
(UTC) *'''Delete''' - fictional, non-historic events. (Quick history lesson, BTW - they held the Gold Coast in modern Ghana and an island off, I think, Mauritania in that period; nowhere else, really, until they'd become Germany in the late c19th. The really surprising colonial power was Courland, just up the Baltic coast from them, though...) Shimgray (User:Shimgray) 01:42, 9 Dec 2004 (UTC) *Delete: The contributor tossed a welter of Prussian-themed articles all at the same time
of Ancient Egypt publisher Oxford University Press year 2002 location Oxford, England page 61 isbn 0-500-05074-0 They also imported obsidian from Ethiopia (History of Ethiopia) to shape blades and other objects. Barbara G. Aston, James A. Harrell, Ian Shaw (2000). Paul T. Nicholson and Ian Shaw editors. "Stone", in ''Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology'', Cambridge, 5-77, pp. 46-47. Also note: Barbara G. Aston (1994). "Ancient Egyptian
calls from abroad, by increasing pressure to Arabize (Arabization) many aspects of Mauritanian life, such as law and language. A schism (schism (religion)) developed between Moors who consider Mauritania to be an Arab country and others who seek a dominant role for the non-Moorish peoples. Various models for maintaining the country's cultural diversity being suggested, but none successfully implemented. This ethnic discord was evident during inter-communal violence that broke out
appeared to have secured his position and to have gained widespread international and internal support. Some figures, such as Senate chairman Messaoud Ould Boulkheir, continued to refuse the new order and call for Abdel Aziz's resignation. In February 2011, the waves of the Arab Spring spread to Mauritania (2011–2013 Mauritanian protests), where hundreds of people took to the streets of the capital.
common_name Mauritania image_flag Flag of Mauritania.svg image_coat Coat of arms of Mauritania.svg image_map Location Mauritania AU Africa.svg map_caption symbol_type Seal national_motto national_anthem نشيد وطني موريتاني File:National Anthem of Mauritania by US Navy Band.ogg official_languages Arabic (Arabic language) a national_languages languages_type Other languages languages French (French language) Zenaga Berber (Zenaga language) official_religion Sunni Islam demonym Mauritanian (Demographics of Mauritania) capital Nouakchott religion Islam (Islam in Mauritania) latd 18 latm 09 latNS N longd 15 longm 58 longEW W largest_city capital government_type Semi-presidential (Semi-presidential system) republic b leader_title1 President (List of heads of state of Mauritania) leader_name1 Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz leader_title2 Prime Minister (List of heads of government of Mauritania) leader_name2 Yahya Ould Hademine legislature Parliament (Parliament of Mauritania) upper_house Senate (Senate (Mauritania)) lower_house National Assembly (National Assembly (Mauritania)) sovereignty_type Independence established_event1 from France (French colonial empire) established_date1 28 November 1960 established_event2 Current Constitution of Mauritania established_date2 12 July 1991 area_rank 29th area_magnitude 1 E12 area_km2 1,030,700 area_sq_mi 397,954 percent_water 0.03 population_estimate 3,359,185 population_estimate_year 2012 population_estimate_rank population_census 3,537,368 population_census_year 2013 population_density_km2 3.2 population_density_sq_mi 8.2 population_density_rank 221st GDP_PPP_year 2013 GDP_PPP $8.286 billion GDP_PPP_rank 154th GDP_PPP_per_capita $2,230 GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank 160th GDP_nominal $4.547 billion GDP_nominal_year 2013 GDP_nominal_rank 154th GDP_nominal_per_capita $1,224 GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank 149th Gini_year 2008 Gini_change Gini 40.5 Gini_ref Gini_rank HDI_year 2013 HDI_change decrease HDI 0.487 HDI_ref HDI_rank 161st currency Ouguiya (Mauritanian ouguiya) currency_code MRO country_code MR time_zone utc_offset +0 time_zone_DST not observed utc_offset_DST +0 drives_on right calling_code +222 cctld .mr footnote_a According to Article 6 of the Constitution: "The national languages are Arabic, Pulaar (Pulaar language), Soninke (Soninke language), and Wolof (Wolof language); the official language is Arabic." footnote_b Not recognized internationally (see main article).
'''Mauritania''' ; Soninke (Soninke language): ''Murutaane''; Pulaar (Pulaar language): ''Moritani''), officially the '''Islamic Republic of Mauritania''', is a country in the Maghreb region of western North Africa. Facts On File, Incorporated, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East (2009), p. 448, books.google.com books?ISBN 143812676X-"The Islamic Republic of Mauritania, situated in western North Africa..." David Seddon, ''A Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East'' (2004), "We have, by contrast, chosen to include the predominantly Arabic-speaking countries of western North Africa (the Maghreb), including Mauritania (which is a member of the Arab Maghreb Union)..." Mohamed Branine, ''Managing Across Cultures: Concepts, Policies and Practices'' (2011), p. 437, "The Magrebian countries or the Arab countries of western North Africa (Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia)..." It is the eleventh largest country in Africa, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, by Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara in the north, by Algeria in the northeast, by Mali in the east and southeast, and by Senegal in the southwest.
The country derives its name from the ancient Berber Kingdom of Mauretania (Mauretania), which existed from the 3rd century BC to the 7th century AD, in the far north of modern-day Morocco. Approximately 90% of Mauritania's land is within the Sahara Desert and consequently the population is concentrated in the south, where precipitation is slightly higher than the rest of the country. The capital and largest city of Mauritania is Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast, which is home to around one-third of the country's 3.5 million people. The government of Mauritania was overthrown on 6 August 2008, in a military coup d'état (2008 Mauritanian coup d'état) led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz. On 16 April 2009, General Aziz resigned from the military to run for president in the 19 July elections, which he won.
About 20% of Mauritanians live on less than US$1.25 per day. Higher estimates suggest 10% to 20% of the population (340,000 to 680,000 people) is enslaved. Additional human rights concerns in Mauritania include female genital mutilation and child labour.