having been a protectorate since 12 May 1903 (under a single military Commandant), from 18 October 1904 the French civil territory of Mauritania under a Commissioner (part of French West Africa (AOF); under its Governor-general in Dakar, Senegal), and since 12 January 1920 a French colony under a Lieutenant governor (many incumbents, again under Dakar), on 28 November 1958 obtaining autonomy (as Islamic Republic of Mauritania): **5 October 1958 – February 1959 Henri Joseph Marie Bernard (b
of Ancient Egypt publisher Oxford University Press year 2002 location Oxford, England page 61 isbn 0-500-05074-0 They also imported obsidian from Ethiopia (History of Ethiopia) to shape blades and other objects. Barbara G. Aston, James A. Harrell, Ian Shaw (2000). Paul T. Nicholson and Ian Shaw editors. "Stone", in ''Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology'', Cambridge, 5-77, pp. 46-47. Also note: Barbara G. Aston (1994). "Ancient Egyptian
calls from abroad, by increasing pressure to Arabize (Arabization) many aspects of Mauritanian life, such as law and language. A schism (schism (religion)) developed between Moors who consider Mauritania to be an Arab country and others who seek a dominant role for the non-Moorish peoples. Various models for maintaining the country's cultural diversity being suggested, but none successfully implemented. This ethnic discord was evident during inter-communal violence that broke out
appeared to have secured his position and to have gained widespread international and internal support. Some figures, such as Senate chairman Messaoud Ould Boulkheir, continued to refuse the new order and call for Abdel Aziz's resignation. In February 2011, the waves of the Arab Spring spread to Mauritania (2011–2013 Mauritanian protests), where hundreds of people took to the streets of the capital.
;id 635:mauritaniamadeslaveryillegallastmonth&catid 62:governance-a-aprm-opinion&Itemid 159 Mauritania made slavery illegal last month ". ''South African Institute of International Affairs.'' 6 September 2007. The Abolition season on BBC World Service http: www.state.gov documents organization 210740.pdf A 2012 CNN report, "Slavery's Last
diasporas living in Europe. Morocco's Berbers Battle to Keep From Losing Their Culture. San Francisco Chronicle. March 16, 2001. Berbers: The Proud Raiders. BBC World Service. File:Lusius Quietus on Column of Trajan.jpg thumb right Mauritania
Arabic ; French is used as a lingua franca. The World Passport is a 45 page document issued by the World Service Authority, a non-profit organization, Romingerlegal.com , 99-1334 - U.S. v. THOMAS - 07 07 2000 citing Article 13, Section 2, of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. World Passports have reportedly been accepted on a ''de facto'', case-by-case basis by over 174 countries and, at one time or another, on an explicit, legal or ''de jure'' basis by Burkina Faso, Ecuador, Mauritania, Tanzania, Togo and Zambia. The latest edition of the World Passport, issued January 2007, is an MRD (machine readable document) with an alphanumeric code bar enabling computer input plus an embedded "ghost" photo for security, printing overcovered with a plastic film. The passport is in 7 languages: English (English language), French (French language), Spanish (Spanish language), Russian (Russian language), Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin Chinese) and Esperanto. Two covers are available: "World Passport," and "World Government Passport" (for registered World Citizens), ("passport" is in 7 languages on both covers). Duration is 8 years, 5 years or 3 years. Other documents issued by WSA are a World Birth Certificate (Art. 1, UDHR), a World Political Asylum Card (Art. 14, UDHR), a World Marriage Certificate, (Art. 16, UDHR) and a World Identity Card, (Art 21,3, UDHR). Each passport is numbered and each page has the World Citizen logo in the background. There are two pages for affiliation with companies, organizations, and firms. There are nineteen visa pages in the passport. In the back cover there are spaces for personal information such as a person’s home address. http: www.worldservice.org docpass.html thumb left 150px right Map of Arab League (File:Arab League (orthographic projection).PNG) The Arab League is a regional organization of Arab states in Southwest Asia, and North (North Africa) and Northeast Africa (Horn of Africa). It was formed in Cairo on March 22, 1945 with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan after 1946), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. Yemen joined as a member on May 5, 1945. The Arab League currently has 22 members (Member states of the Arab League), which also include, Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia and UAE. It has also been proposed to reform the Arab League into an Arab Union. the Arab League currently is the most important organization in the region (Middle East). At the end of the 19th century, French colonial authorities began to worry about the growing power of the Mouride brotherhood and its potential to resist French colonialism. Bamba, who had converted various kings and their followers, could probably have raised an army against the French had he wanted. Fearful of his power, the French sentenced Bamba to exile in Gabon (1895–1902) and later Mauritania (1903–1907). However, Bamba's exile fueled legends about his miraculous ability to survive torture, deprivation, and attempted executions, and thousands more flocked to his organization. For example, on the ship to Gabon, forbidden from praying, Bamba is said to have broken his leg-irons, lept overboard into the ocean, and prayed on a prayer rug that miraculously appeared on the surface of the water. In addition, when the French put him in a furnace, he is said to have simply sat down and had tea with the Prophet Muhammad. In a den of hungry lions, it is said the lions slept beside him. thumb right 300px Senegambia c. 1707. Waalo marked as ''Re. D'Oualle'' in the upper left. (Image:Guillaume Delisle Senegambia 1707.jpg) The '''Kingdom of Waalo''' ('''Oualo''') was a kingdom on the lower Senegal River in West Africa, in what are now Senegal and Mauritania. It included parts of the valley proper and areas north and south, extending to the Atlantic Ocean. To the north were Moorish Emirates; to the south was the Kingdom of Cayor; to the east was Jolof (Diolof). The royal capital of Waalo was first Diourbel (Guribel) on the north bank of the Senegal River (in modern Mauritania), then Ndiangué on the south bank of the river, then the capital was moved to Nder on the west shore of the Lac de Guiers. Waalo was subject to constant raids for slaves not only from the Moors but also in the internecine wars. In October 2006, the Andalusian Parliament asked the three parliamentary groups that form the majority to support an amendment that would ease the way for morisco descendants to gain Spanish citizenship. The proposal was originally made by IULV-CA, the Andalusian branch of the United Left (United Left (Spain)). ''Propuesta de IU sobre derecho preferente de moriscos a la nacionalidad'' Commons:Category:Mauritania WikiPedia:Mauritania Dmoz:Regional Africa Mauritania
of trade occurs after the Portuguese reach this region in 1446, bringing great wealth to several local slave trading tribes. The Portuguese used slave labour to colonize and develop the previously uninhabited Cape Verde islands where they founded settlements and grew cotton and indigo. They then traded these goods, in the estuary of the Geba river, for black slaves captured by other black peoples in local African wars and raids. The slaves were sold in Europe and, from the 16th century, in the Americas. The Company of Guinea was a Portuguese governative institution whose task was to deal with the spices and to fix the prices of the goods. It was called ''Casa da Guiné'', ''Casa da Guiné e Mina'' from 1482 to 1483 and ''Casa da Índia e da Guiné'' in 1499. The local African rulers in Guinea, who prosper greatly from the slave trade, have no interest in allowing the Europeans any further inland than the fortified coastal settlements where the trading takes place. The Portuguese presence in Guinea was therefore largely limited to the port of Bissau. The giraffe species as a whole is assessed as Least Concern from a conservation perspective by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), as it is still numerous. However, giraffes have been extirpated from Burkina Faso, Eritrea, Guinea, Malawi, Mauritania and Senegal. They may also have disappeared from Angola, Mali, and Nigeria, but have been introduced to Rwanda and Swaziland. Two subspecies, the West African giraffe and the Rothschild giraffe, have been classified as Endangered (Endangered species), as wild populations of each of them number in the hundreds. In 1997, Jonathan Kingdon suggested that the Nubian giraffe was the most threatened of all giraffes; Commons:Category:Mauritania WikiPedia:Mauritania Dmoz:Regional Africa Mauritania
and Carbonatites of the World, Part 3: Africa.'' London, United Kingdom, The Geological Society of London. ISBN 978-0-412-61410-1 The '''Saint-Louis Region''' ( ) of Senegal is on the border with Mauritania. Its capital is Saint-Louis (Saint-Louis, Senegal). A coup attempt against Jammeh was reported to have been thwarted on 21 March 2006; Jammeh, who was in Mauritania at the time, quickly returned home. Army chief of staff Col. Ndure
; For centuries, the so-called Haratin lower class, mostly poor black Africans living in rural areas, have been considered natural slaves by white Moors of Arab Berber ancestry. Many descendants of the Arab and Berber (Berber people) tribes today still adhere to the supremacist ideology of their ancestors. This ideology has led to oppression, discrimination and even enslavement of other groups in the region of Sudan and Western Sahara.
exponent 2, while JPY has exponent 0. Mauritania does not use a decimal division of units, setting 1 ouguiya (Mauritanian ouguiya) (UM) 5 khoums, and Madagascar has 1 ariary 5 iraimbilanja. Eminent scholars of Islam, such as Sheikh ul-Islam Imam Malik, and Imam Shafi amongst others, ruled that Islam disallowed homosexuality and ordained capital punishment for a person guilty of it. http
: www.islamonline.net servlet Satellite?pagename IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar FatwaE FatwaE&cid 1119503545556 Homosexuality and Lesbianism: Sexual Perversions Fatwa on Homosexuality from IslamOnline.net Homosexual activity is a crime and forbidden in most Muslim-majority countries. In the Islamic regimes of Iran, Mauritania, Saudi Arabia, North Sudan and Yemen, homosexual activity is punished with the death penalty. In Nigeria
, Sudan, and Yemen. It formerly carried the death penalty
New Guinea , the Philippines, Rwanda, Samoa, Sudan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Vanuatu and Vietnam, who had not participated in the Atlanta Games, competed in Sydney. "Still growing: Paralympics world's second-largest sporting event", ''Sports Illustrated'', 20 September 2000 * 2008 - Tibetian unrest (2008 unrest in Tibet), Mar. 10 - June. ( Tibet, China
) * Watergate papers of ''Washington Post'' reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein are announced to go on public display. The reporters still do not intend to reveal the identity of Deep Throat (Deep Throat (Watergate)). (Reuters) (Washington Post) Natural range Barbary Sheep are found naturally in northern Africa in Algeria
(UTC) *'''Delete''' - fictional, non-historic events. (Quick history lesson, BTW - they held the Gold Coast in modern Ghana and an island off, I think, Mauritania in that period; nowhere else, really, until they'd become Germany in the late c19th. The really surprising colonial power was Courland, just up the Baltic coast from them, though...) Shimgray (User:Shimgray) 01:42, 9 Dec 2004 (UTC) *Delete: The contributor tossed a welter of Prussian-themed articles all at the same time
common_name Mauritania image_flag Flag of Mauritania.svg image_coat Coat of arms of Mauritania.svg image_map Location Mauritania AU Africa.svg map_caption symbol_type Seal national_motto national_anthem نشيد وطني موريتاني File:National Anthem of Mauritania by US Navy Band.ogg official_languages Arabic (Arabic language) a national_languages languages_type Other languages languages French (French language) Zenaga Berber (Zenaga language) official_religion Sunni Islam demonym Mauritanian (Demographics of Mauritania) capital Nouakchott religion Islam (Islam in Mauritania) latd 18 latm 09 latNS N longd 15 longm 58 longEW W largest_city capital government_type Semi-presidential (Semi-presidential system) republic b leader_title1 President (List of heads of state of Mauritania) leader_name1 Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz leader_title2 Prime Minister (List of heads of government of Mauritania) leader_name2 Yahya Ould Hademine legislature Parliament (Parliament of Mauritania) upper_house Senate (Senate (Mauritania)) lower_house National Assembly (National Assembly (Mauritania)) sovereignty_type Independence established_event1 from France (French colonial empire) established_date1 28 November 1960 established_event2 Current Constitution of Mauritania established_date2 12 July 1991 area_rank 29th area_magnitude 1 E12 area_km2 1,030,700 area_sq_mi 397,954 percent_water 0.03 population_estimate 3,359,185 population_estimate_year 2012 population_estimate_rank population_census 3,537,368 population_census_year 2013 population_density_km2 3.2 population_density_sq_mi 8.2 population_density_rank 221st GDP_PPP_year 2013 GDP_PPP $8.286 billion GDP_PPP_rank 154th GDP_PPP_per_capita $2,230 GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank 160th GDP_nominal $4.547 billion GDP_nominal_year 2013 GDP_nominal_rank 154th GDP_nominal_per_capita $1,224 GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank 149th Gini_year 2008 Gini_change Gini 40.5 Gini_ref Gini_rank HDI_year 2013 HDI_change decrease HDI 0.487 HDI_ref HDI_rank 161st currency Ouguiya (Mauritanian ouguiya) currency_code MRO country_code MR time_zone utc_offset +0 time_zone_DST not observed utc_offset_DST +0 drives_on right calling_code +222 cctld .mr footnote_a According to Article 6 of the Constitution: "The national languages are Arabic, Pulaar (Pulaar language), Soninke (Soninke language), and Wolof (Wolof language); the official language is Arabic." footnote_b Not recognized internationally (see main article).
'''Mauritania''' ; Soninke (Soninke language): ''Murutaane''; Pulaar (Pulaar language): ''Moritani''), officially the '''Islamic Republic of Mauritania''', is a country in the Maghreb region of western North Africa. Facts On File, Incorporated, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East (2009), p. 448, books.google.com books?ISBN 143812676X-"The Islamic Republic of Mauritania, situated in western North Africa..." David Seddon, ''A Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East'' (2004), "We have, by contrast, chosen to include the predominantly Arabic-speaking countries of western North Africa (the Maghreb), including Mauritania (which is a member of the Arab Maghreb Union)..." Mohamed Branine, ''Managing Across Cultures: Concepts, Policies and Practices'' (2011), p. 437, "The Magrebian countries or the Arab countries of western North Africa (Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia)..." It is the eleventh largest country in Africa, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, by Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara in the north, by Algeria in the northeast, by Mali in the east and southeast, and by Senegal in the southwest.
The country derives its name from the ancient Berber Kingdom of Mauretania (Mauretania), which existed from the 3rd century BC to the 7th century AD, in the far north of modern-day Morocco. Approximately 90% of Mauritania's land is within the Sahara Desert and consequently the population is concentrated in the south, where precipitation is slightly higher than the rest of the country. The capital and largest city of Mauritania is Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast, which is home to around one-third of the country's 3.5 million people. The government of Mauritania was overthrown on 6 August 2008, in a military coup d'état (2008 Mauritanian coup d'état) led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz. On 16 April 2009, General Aziz resigned from the military to run for president in the 19 July elections, which he won.
About 20% of Mauritanians live on less than US$1.25 per day. Higher estimates suggest 10% to 20% of the population (340,000 to 680,000 people) is enslaved. Additional human rights concerns in Mauritania include female genital mutilation and child labour.