What is Massawa known for?

attempt building

devoted much time and effort to both collecting them, and seeking European help in buying them; this included seeking British (United Kingdom) help—or at least permission—to capture the port of Massawa. As a consequence, Sabagadis was one of the first Ethiopians to attempt building peaceful relationships with other countries in modern times. As a result of these things, by the 1820s he was seen both in Europe—and in Ethiopia—as the champion of Christianity. ''Nuovi documenti


Flotilla posed a threat to British convoys traversing the Red Sea. However, Italian attempts to attack British convoys resulted in the loss of four submarines and one destroyer. Governor-General of the Sudan As governor, Gordon faced a variety of challenges. During the 1870s, European initiatives against the slave trade caused an economic crisis in northern Sudan, precipitating increasing unrest. Relations between Egypt and Abyssinia (later renamed Ethiopia) had become

to the Mediterranean (Mediterranean Sea). The Italians controlled ports in Italian East Africa and Tiensin (Tianjin), China. The Italian Royal Navy (''Regia Marina'') presence in the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and the western Pacific Ocean consisted of destroyers, submarines, and a small number of armed merchantmen. The majority of these were based at Massawa in Eritrea as part of the Italian Red Sea Flotilla, primarily seven destroyers and eight submarines

. During the course of 1940, the Red Sea Flotilla lost four submarines and one destroyer during early attempts to intercept British convoys in the Red Sea. Over the next eight years, ''Vogelgesang'' alternated five deployments to the Mediterranean with tours of duty along the east coast and in the West Indies. In addition, she also visited northern European ports during the summer of 1956 while on a midshipman training cruise. Her five Mediterranean tours consisted of normal training

work building

at work building a road to Senafe for the elephants, gun-carriages, and carts. Moorehead, ''The Blue Nile'', p. 270 right thumb 300px Ahmed Gurey (Image:Ahmed Gurey Mogadishu Monument.jpg) monument in Mogadishu. The area remained under Ethiopian control for another century or so. However, starting around 1527 under the charismatic leadership of Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi (''Gurey'' in Somali (Somali language), ''Gragn'' in Amharic language

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and you should obviously not get on a flight or travel up to Asmara at 2600 meters above sea level too soon after diving. Give it a day or two (of staying on land). There aren't many extraordinary beaches in or around mainland Massawa or the bridge-connected islands (apart from the Green Island). Gurgusum beach which lies only 14 km north of town on the mainland is an average beach with adequate facilities. The town itself comes to life "after dark" when temperatures cool down

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African Campaign , a large number of Italian and German ships were sunk in an attempt to block use of Massawa's harbor (Scuttling#Blockade of Massawa (1941)). From 15 April 1942, later master diver and salvage specialist RNR Lieutenant Peter Keeble (then a complete rookie in both disciplines) was assigned to the clearing of the harbour. Keeble, Peter (1957). ''Ordeal by water.'' Longmans, Green & co. No ISBN number available. He succeeded only in the simple task of salvaging an ex-Italian tugboat. The same month, United States Navy Commander Edward Ellsberg and his handful of crew arrived to take over. The wrecks were salvaged in short order and the port was returned to service, as part of what had now become the British protectorate of Eritrea. In 1945, following the end of World War II, the port of Massawa suffered damage as the occupying British either dismantled or destroyed much of the facilities. These actions were protested by Sylvia Pankhurst in her book ''Eritrea on the Eve''. Also detailed in the chapter "The Feminist Fuzzy-Wuzzy" of Michela Wong's ''I didn't do it for you: how the world betrayed a small African nation'' (New York: Harper-Perennial, 2005), pp. 116-150. Ethiopian rule thumb A view of the port of Massawa on the Ethiopian dollar note during the reign of Haile Selassie (File:Haile Selassie over massawa.jpg). From 1952 to 1990, when Eritrea entered into a federation with Ethiopia, previously landlocked Ethiopia briefly enjoyed the use of Massawa as the headquarters of the now defunct Ethiopian Navy. Ultimately, Ethiopia dismantled the federation and forcibly annexed and occupied Eritrea. This led to the Eritrean War of Independence (1961–1991). In February 1990, units of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front captured Massawa in a surprise attack from both land and sea. Known as Operation Fenkil (Battle of Massawa (1990)), the attack utilized both infiltrated commandos and speed boats. The success of this attack cut the major supply line to the Second Ethiopian Army in Asmara, which then had to be supplied by air. In response, the then leader of Ethiopia Mengistu Haile Mariam ordered Massawa bombed from the air, resulting in considerable damage. The damage of this continuous aerial assault on civilians is detailed in the Africa Watch Report, ''Ethiopia: "Mengistu has Decided to Burn Us like Wood": Bombing of Civilians and Civilian Targets by the Air Force'', 24 July 1990 fr:Massaoua Wikipedia:Massawa Commons:Category:Massawa


the British in clearing scuttled (Scuttling) Italian and German ships. This arguably delayed by several months British hopes for a useful port on the Red Sea. Commander Edward Ellsberg, O.B.E. ''Under the Red Sea Sun'' (Dodd, Mead, and Co., 1946). group nb Rassam then returned to England and, with the help of his friend Layard, started a new career in government with a posting to the British Consulate in Aden. In 1866, an international crisis erupted

wrecked landing craft and vehicles on the beach. In 1860 he was chosen as leader of an expedition to search for Eduard Vogel, his companions including Werner Munzinger, Gottlob Kinzelbach, and Hermann Steudner. In June 1861 the party landed at Massawa, having instructions to go direct to Khartoum and then to Ouaddai (Ouaddai Kingdom), where

drydock, crushing every wooden keel block on the dock but sustaining little hull damage to herself. Captain G. Grantham considered the resulting leak a minor nuisance and ordered ''Cleopatra'' to return to service. Commander Edward Ellsberg, O.B.E. ''Under the Red Sea Sun'', (1946). Dodd, Mead and Co., New York Image:HMS Dido gun.jpg thumb left 200px A 20 mm Oerlikon gunner on board ''Dido'' getting a light from a pal between bombing attacks in the eastern

service called

* Italia-Massaua-Assab-South Africa (Lloyd Triestino), monthly * Genova-Massaua-Mogadiscio (RAMB), weekly * Venezia-Massaua-Mogadiscio (RAMB), biweekly * Genova-Massaua-Assab (I. Messina), biweekly The service was done with modern Ocean liners like the Conte Biancamano (SS Conte Biancamano), "Victoria", "Esquilino" and "Viminale". In those years, a local service (called "linea Circolare del Mar Rosso") connected all the main ports along the Red Sea

extensive service

; (Royal Colonial Army) saw extensive service in the various Italian colonial territories between 1888 and 1942. Prior to the outbreak of the 1998–2000 Ethiopian–Eritrean war, landlocked Ethiopia mainly relied on the seaports (port) of Asseb and Massawa in Eritrea for international trade. fr:Massaoua Wikipedia:Massawa Commons:Category:Massawa

religious diversity

of Eritrean society. Furthermore, the Italians employed many Eritreans in public service (in particular in the police and public works departments) and oversaw the provision of urban amenities in Asmara and Massawa. In a region marked by cultural, linguistic, and religious diversity, a succession of Italian governors maintained a notable degree of unity and public order. The Italians also built many major infrastructural projects in Eritrea, including the Asmara-Massawa Cableway

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; ref Gobana under the authority of Menelik II incorporated several Oromo territories into a centralized Ethiopian state. Some contemporary ethno-nationalist Oromo political groups refer to Gobana in a negative light. Though, before military integration; present day Ethiopia, Eritrea, and parts of Somalia were previously and extensively linked commercially by local, long-distance and trans-frontier trade routes. These commercial routes connected Bonga, Jimma, Seqa, Assandabo, Gojjam, Begemder, Maramma, Massawa, Soddo, Shewa, Harar, Zeila and Berbera. Some Oromo writers believe that the Oromo Ras Gobena and the Amhara Menelik II were the first two people in Ethiopia with the concept of national boundary that brought various different ethno-linguistic communities under a politically and militarily centralized rule. Gobana Dache’s Participation in Building Ethiopia At the turn of the 16th century Adal regrouped and around 1527 under the charismatic leadership of Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi (Gurey in Somali (Somali language), Gragn in Amharic (Amharic language), both meaning "left-handed"), Adal invaded Ethiopia. Adalite armies with Ottoman support and arms marched into Ethiopia and caused considerable damage on the highland state. Many historic churches, manuscripts and settlements were looted and burned during the campaigns. pg 90 - The Ethiopians: a history By Richard Pankhurst Adal's use of firearms, still only rarely used in Ethiopia, allowed the conquest of well over half of Ethiopia, reaching as far north as Tigray (Tigray Province). The complete conquest of Ethiopia was averted by the timely arrival of a Portuguese expedition led by Cristóvão da Gama, son of the famed navigator Vasco da Gama. pg 222 - The Portuguese Pioneers By Edgar Prestage The Portuguese had been in the area earlier in early 16th centuries (in search of the legendary priest-king Prester John), and although a diplomatic mission from Portugal, led by Rodrigo de Lima, had failed to improve relations between the countries, they responded to the Ethiopian pleas for help and sent a military expedition to their fellow Christians. A Portuguese fleet under the command of Estêvão da Gama (Estêvão da Gama (16th century)) was sent from India and arrived at Massawa in February 1541. Here he received an ambassador from the Emperor beseeching him to send help against the Muslims, and in July following a force of 400 musketeers, under the command of Christovão da Gama, younger brother of Estêvão, marched into the interior, and being joined by Ethiopian troops they were at first successful against the Muslims but they were subsequently defeated at the Battle of Wofla (28 August 1542), and their commander captured and executed. On 21 February 1543, however, a joint Portuguese-Ethiopian force defeated the Muslim army at the Battle of Wayna Daga, in which Ahmed Gurey was killed and the war won. Ahmed Gurey's widow married his nephew Nur ibn Mujahid, in return for his promise to avenge Ahmed's death, who succeeded Ahmed Gurey, and continued hostilities against his northern adversaries until he killed the Ethiopian Emperor in his second invasion of Ethiopia thumb Barawa (File:Barawa.jpg) city, was an important medieval centre of Somali enterprise (Maritime history of Somalia). * 1520–1566: The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent marks the zenith of the Ottoman Empire. * 1520: The first European diplomatic mission to Ethiopia, sent by the Portuguese (Portugal), arrives at Massawa 9 April, and reaches the imperial encampment of Emperor Dawit II in Shewa 9 October. * 1521: Belgrade is captured by the Ottoman Empire. * 1557: The Portuguese (Portuguese people) settle in Macau. * 1557: The Ottomans (Ottoman Empire) capture Massawa, all but isolating Ethiopia from the rest of the world. * 1558 Elizabeth Tudor (Elizabeth I of England) becomes Queen Elizabeth I at age 25. * January 14 – After 90 years of Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) occupation, the Safavid empire recaptures Baghdad. * January 24 – Alfonso Mendez, appointed by Pope Gregory XV as Prelate of Ethiopia, arrives at Massawa from Goa. * April 29 - Louis XIII of France appoints Cardinal Richelieu chief minister of the Royal Council. Date unknown * Özdemir Pasha conquers the Red Sea port of Massawa for the Ottoman Empire. * Cossack chieftain Dimitrash tries to take Azov. July–December * July 9 – Estevão da Gama departs Massawa, leaving behind 400 matchlock men and 150 slaves under his brother Christovão da Gama, with orders to assist the Emperor of Ethiopia to defeat Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi, who has invaded his Empire. * August 29 – The Janissaries (Janissary) of Suleiman the Magnificent take Buda by ruse, hiding themselves as visitors. In the Red Sea, Massawa was the most northerly point frequented by the Portuguese until 1541, when a fleet under Estevão da Gama penetrated as far as Suez. Hormuz (Hormuz Island), in the Persian Gulf, was seized by Afonso de Albuquerque in 1515, who also entered into diplomatic relations with Persia (Iran). In 1521, a force under Antonio Correia conquered Bahrain ushering in a period of almost 80 years of Portuguese rule of the Persian Gulf archipelago Juan Cole, Sacred Space and Holy War, IB Tauris, 2007 p37 (for further information see Bahrain as a Portuguese dominion (History of Bahrain#Bahrain as a Portuguese dominion)). Axum The Axumite Empire was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from the proto-Aksumite period c. 4th century BC to achieve prominence by the 1st century AD. Its ancient capital is found in northern Ethiopia, the Kingdom used the name "Ethiopia" as early as the 4th century. Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press, 1991, pp.57. Paul B. Henze, ''Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia'', 2005. Aksum is mentioned in the 1st century AD ''Periplus of the Erythraean Sea'' as an important market place for ivory, which was exported throughout the ancient world, and states that the ruler of Aksum in the 1st century AD was Zoscales, who, besides ruling in Aksum also controlled two harbours on the Red Sea: Adulis (near Massawa) and Avalites (Assab). He is also said to have been familiar with Greek literature. ''Periplus of the Erythreaean Sea'', chs. 4, 5 It is also the alleged resting place of the Ark of the Covenant and the home of the Queen of Sheba. Aksum was also the first major empire to convert to Christianity. Asmara is also home to the University of Asmara and a 19th century fort, Forte Baldissera. It is served by Asmara International Airport, and is connected to the port of Massawa by the Eritrean Railway. Transport Taxis that run in the city of Asmara start at 07:00 and end at 21:00, and can get very crowded at peak times. The fare for a shared taxi (taxicab) is 5-10 Nakfa per seat. A contracted taxi can charge between 20-300 Nakfa so the price should be negotiated before entering the taxi. Contracted taxis also run outside Asmara to various other cities, towns and villages including; Massawa, Keren (Keren, Eritrea), Mendefera, Dekemhare, Adi Quala, Ghinda and Nefasit. After a systematic search for survivors, formal salvage operations began. Captain Homer N. Wallin, Material Officer for Commander, Battle Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet, was immediately ordered to lead salvage operations. "Within a short time I was relieved of all other duties and ordered to full time work as Fleet Salvage Officer". Pearl Harbor: Why, How Fleet Salvage & Final Appraisal, Wallin, Homer Naval History Division 1968 fr:Massaoua Wikipedia:Massawa Commons:Category:Massawa


'''Massawa''' ( , ''Baḍiʿ''), is a city on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea located at the northern end of the Gulf of Zula beside the Dahlak Archipelago. An important port for many centuries, it was ruled by a succession of polities, including the Axumite Empire, Medri Bahri Kingdom (Medri Bahri), the Umayyad Caliphate, various Beja (Beja people) sultanates, the Ottoman Empire, Egypt, Italy, Britain (UK), and Ethiopia, until Eritrea's independence in 1991. Massawa was the capital of the Italian Colony of Eritrea (Italian Eritrea) until this was moved to Asmara in 1897.

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