Marshall Space Flight Center

What is Marshall Space Flight Center known for?


design production

was responsible for the design, production and operation of the three Pegasus satellites which were launched by Saturn I rocket test flights in 1965. At launch, a boilerplate (boilerplate (spaceflight)) Apollo Command Service Module and launch escape system tower were atop the Saturn I, with the Pegasus experiment folded inside the Service Module. After first stage separation and second-stage ignition, the launch escape system was jettisoned. When the second stage attained orbit


radio world

; and it is now unlikely to be built. US team institution *NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center


roles including

the Astronaut Office and served as Assistant Director of Engineering at Johnson Space Center. Readdy joined NASA's Johnson Space Center in October 1986 as a research pilot at Ellington Field, Houston, Texas, where he served as program manager for the highly-modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. He was selected as an astronaut in the 1987 Group. He served in numerous support roles including: Training Officer; Safety Officer; Operations Development Branch Chief


massive population

'' orbiter simulator. During the latter 1950s and all through the 1960s, Huntsville underwent massive population growth due to the establishment of the U.S. Army Missile Command at Redstone Arsenal, and the new NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. By 1960, Huntsville had grown to more than twice the size of Decatur. It became clear that an Interstate Highway spur route (spur route) would be beneficial to connect Huntsville with I-65, and thence to the rest of the country. '''I-565


powerful single

.htm "Stages to Saturn: A Technological History of the Apollo Saturn Launch Vehicles " NASA History Series; The F-1 engine was, and still is the most powerful single-nozzle liquid-fueled rocket engine ever used in service; each produced 1.5-million-pounds thrust. Originally started by the U.S. Air Force, responsibility for the development was taken over by ABMA in 1959, and the first test firings at MSFC were in December 1963. Saturn I The original vehicle


major program

almost killed the LST, but the astronomy community – especially Lyman Spitzer – and the National Science Foundation pressed for a major program in this area. Congress finally funded LST in 1978, with an intended launch date of 1983. MSFC was given responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the telescope, while Goddard Space Flight Center (GFC) was to control the scientific instrument and the ground-control center. As the Project Scientist, MSFC brought on board C. Robert O’Dell, then chairman of the Astronomy Department at the University of Chicago. Several different people, at various times, served as the project manager. The telescope assembly was designed as a Cassegrain reflector with hyperbolic mirror polished to be diffraction limited; the primary mirror had a diameter of 2.4 m (95 in). The mirrors were developed by the optics firm, Perkin-Elmer. MSFC did not have a facility to check the ‘end-to-end’ performance of the mirror assembly, so the telescope could not be totally checked until launched and placed in service. Zimmerman, Robert; ''The Universe in a Mirror: The Saga of the Hubble Space Telescope and Visionaries Who Built It''; Princeton Univ. Press, 2008 The LST was named the Hubble Space Telescope in 1983, the original launch date. There were many problems, delays, and cost increases in the program, and the ''Challenger'' disaster delayed the availability of the launch vehicle. Finally, on April 24, 1990, on Mission STS-31, Shuttle ''Discovery'' launched the Hubble telescope successfully into its planned orbit. Almost immediately it was realized that the optical performance was not as expected; analysis of the flawed images showed that the primary mirror had been ground to the wrong shape, resulting in spherical aberration. Fortunately, the Hubble telescope had been designed to allow in-space maintenance, and in December 1993, mission STS-61 carried astronauts to the Hubble to make corrections and change some components. A second repair mission, STS-82, was made in February 1997, and a third, STS-103, in December 1999. For these repair missions, the astronauts practiced the work in MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Facility, simulating the weightless environment of space. Through the 1990s, the Hubble did provide astronomy images that had never before been seen. During the next decade, two additional repair missions were made (March 2002 and in May 2009), eventually bringing the telescope to even better that its initially intended performance. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Even before HEAO-2 (the Einstein Observatory) was launched in 1978, MSFC began preliminary studies for a larger X-ray telescope. To support this effort, in 1976 an X-Ray Test Facility, the only one of its size, was constructed at Marshall for verification testing and calibration of X-ray mirrors, telescope systems, and instruments. With the success of HEAO-2, MSFC was given responsibility for the design, development, and construction of what was then known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) partners with MSFC, providing the science and operational management. Work on the AXAF continued through the 1980s. A major review was held in 1992, resulting in many changes; four of the twelve planned mirrors were eliminated, as were two of the six scientific instruments. The planned circular orbit was changed to an elliptical one, reaching one-third of the way to the Moon at its farthest point; this eliminated the possibility of improvement or repair using the Space Shuttle, but it placed the spacecraft above the Earth's radiation belts for most of its orbit. AXAF was renamed Chandra X-ray Observatory in 1998. It was launched July 23, 1999, by the Shuttle ''Columbia'' (STS-93). An Inertial Upper Stage booster adapted by MSFC was used to transport ''Chandra'' to its high orbit Weighing about 22,700 kg (50,000 lb), this was the heaviest payload ever launched by a Shuttle. Operationally managed by the SAO, ‘’Chandra’’ has been returning excellent data since being activated. It initially had an expected life of five years, but this has now been extended to 15 years or longer. "Chandra: Exploring the Invisible Universe" MSFC Compton Gamma Ray Observatory The ''Compton'' Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) is another of NASA's Great Observatories; it was launched April 5, 1991, on Shuttle flight STS-37. At 37,000 lb (17,000 kg), it was the heaviest astrophysical payload ever flown at that time. CGRO was14 years in development by NASA; TRW was the builder. Gamma radiation (rays) is the highest energy-level of electromagnetic radiation, having energies above 100 keV (electronvolt) and thus frequencies above 10 exahertz (hertz) (10 19 Hz). This is produced by sub-atomic (atom) particle interactions, including those in certain astrophysical processes. The continuous flow of cosmic rays bombarding space objects, such as the Moon, generate this radiation Gamma rays also result in bursts from nuclear reactions. The CGRO was designed to image continuous radiation and to detect bursts. MSFC was responsible for the Burst and Transient Source Experiment, (BATSE). This triggered on sudden changes in gamma count-rates lasting 0.1 to 100 s; it was also capable of detecting less impulsive sources by measuring their modulation using the Earth occultation technique. In nine years of operation, BATSE triggered about 8000 events, of which some 2700 were strong bursts that were analyzed to have come from distant galaxies. Unlike the Hubble Space Telescope, the CGRO was not designed for on-orbit repair and refurbishment. Thus, after one of its gyroscopes failed, NASA decided that a controlled crash was preferable to letting the craft come down on its own at random. On June 4, 2000, it was intentionally de-orbited, with the debris that did not burn up falling harmlessly into the Pacific Ocean. At MSFC, Gerald J. Fishman is the principal investigator of a project to continue examination of data from BATSE and other gamma-ray projects. The 2011 Shaw Prize was shared by Fishman and Italian Enrico Costa (Enrico Costa (physicist)) for their gamma-ray research. 1960s and 1970s – the initial decades thumb Rockets developed at MSFC and ABMA before it are on display at MSFC. (File:MSFC rocket park.jpg) Shortly before activating its new Field Center in July 1960, NASA described the MSFC as the only self-contained organization in the nation that was capable of conducting the development of a space vehicle from the conception of the idea, through production of hardware, testing, and launching operations. Initially, engineers from Huntsville traveled to Florida to conduct launch activities at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The first NASA launch facility there (Launch Complex 39 (Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39)) was designed and operated by MSFC, then in on July 1, 1962, the overall site achieving equal status with other NASA centers and was named the Launch Operations Center, later renamed the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Another major NASA facility, the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) located near Houston, Texas, was officially opened in September 1963. Designated the primary center for U.S. space missions and systems involving astronauts, it coordinates and monitors crewed missions through the Mission Control Center. MSC was renamed the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in February 1973. Through the years, there have been a number of ‘turf’ battles between MSFC and MSC JSC concerning mission responsibilities. When the Marshall Space Flight Center began official operations in July 1960, Wernher von Braun was the Director and Eberhard Rees was his Deputy for Research and Development. The administrative activities in MSFC were led by persons with backgrounds in traditional U.S. Government functions, but all of the technical heads were individuals who had assisted von Braun in his success at ABMA. The initial technical activities and leaders at MSFC were as follows: From a NASA-MSFC Organization Chart dated May 25, 1961 When the problem reoccurred, NASA ran a fuel test, which led them to believe the problem lied in the faulty connector. The connector was then removed from the tank and taken to Marshall Space Flight Center (w:Marshall Space Flight Center) in Huntsville (w:Huntsville, Alabama), Alabama, where it is currently undergoing extensive analysis and modification. The new connector is scheduled to be installed by January 10. At the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (w:Marshall Space Flight Center) activities will focus on their slogan for Earth Day 2009, "Just One Drop ... PRICELESS" and will demonstrate how the Environmental Control Life Support System (w:Life support system) operates as used on the International Space Staton (w:International Space Station) (ISS).


research

: www.nasa.gov centers marshall home index.html Marshall Space Flight Center footnotes map map_width 180px map_caption The '''George C. Marshall Space Flight Center''' ('''MSFC''') is the U.S. government (Federal government of the United States)'s civilian rocketry and spacecraft propulsion research center. The largest NASA center, MSFC's first mission was developing the Saturn launch vehicles (Saturn (rocket family)) for the Apollo program

technologies. The largest and best-known activity was called Operation Paperclip. In August 1945, 127 missile specialists led by Wernher von Braun signed work contracts with the U.S. Army's Ordnance Corps (Ordnance Corps (United States Army)). Most of them had worked on the V-2 missile development under von Braun at Peenemünde. Von Braun and the other Germans were sent to Fort Bliss, Texas, joining the Army's newly formed Research and Development Division Sub-office (Rocket

designated Redstone Arsenal as the center of research and development activities in free-flight rockets and related items, and the following June, the Ordnance Rocket Center was opened. A year later, the Secretary of the Army (United States Secretary of the Army) approved the transfer of the rocket research and development activities from Fort Bliss to the new center at Redstone Arsenal. Beginning in April 1950, about 1,000 persons were involved in the transfer, including von Braun's group


training international

Apollo moon program . Marshall has been the agency's lead center for Space Shuttle propulsion and its external tank (Space Shuttle external tank); payloads and related crew training; International Space Station (ISS) design and assembly; and computers, networks, and information management. Located on the Redstone Arsenal near Huntsville, Alabama, MSFC is named in honor of General of the Army (General of the Army (United States)) George Marshall. The center also contains


design

Apollo moon program . Marshall has been the agency's lead center for Space Shuttle propulsion and its external tank (Space Shuttle external tank); payloads and related crew training; International Space Station (ISS) design and assembly; and computers, networks, and information management. Located on the Redstone Arsenal near Huntsville, Alabama, MSFC is named in honor of General of the Army (General of the Army (United States)) George Marshall. The center also contains

the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-ray Observatory are made possible in part by the people and facilities at Marshall. The Center was not only responsible for the design, development, and construction of these telescopes, but it is also now home to the only facility in the world for testing large telescope mirrors in a space-simulated environment. Preliminary work has started on a Hubble successor, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST); this will be the largest primary mirror ever

by the contractor. The defect was found when the telescope was in orbit. The design was such that repairs were possible, and three maintenance missions were flown in Shuttles during the 1990s. Another servicing mission (STS-109) was flown on March 1, 2002. Each mission resulted in considerable improvements, with the images receiving world-wide attention from astronomers as well as the public. Based on the success of earlier maintenance missions, NASA decided to have a fifth service mission to Hubble


program development

; NASA Director of Operations, Star City, Russia; Stafford Task Force; and the first manager of Space Shuttle Program Development charged with upgrading the Space Shuttle. Readdy served as Associate Administrator, NASA HQ Office of Space Flight that has oversight for the Marshall (Marshall Space Flight Center), Kennedy (Kennedy Space Center), Stennis (John C. Stennis Space Center) and Johnson (Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center) Space Centers as well as programmatic oversight for International Space Station, Space Shuttle, Space Communications and Space Launch Vehicles. thumb RS-25 testing at John C. Stennis Space Center Stennis Space Center (File:SSME test A-1.ogv). alt A video showing RS-25 testing. The video opens with a night view of a large scaffold structure (the test stand), lit with internal lights. The view then switches to show the nozzle of a rocket engine, mounted within the structure, lighting and beginning to fire. The view then cuts back to the view of the scaffold, from which large amounts of steam are now billowing out of, towards the right of the frame. Wide and close-up views of this plume follow, before the view switches back to the engine nozzle, which shuts down. The history of the RS-25 traces back to the 1960s when NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and Rocketdyne were conducting a series of studies on high-pressure engines, developed from the successful J-2 engine (J-2 (rocket engine)) used on the S-II and S-IVB upper stages of the Saturn V rocket during the Apollo program. The studies were conducted under a program to upgrade the Saturn V engines, which produced a design for a 350,000 lb f (pound (force)) upper-stage engine known as the HG-3 (HG-3 (rocket engine)). When the problem reoccurred, NASA ran a fuel test, which led them to believe the problem lied in the faulty connector. The connector was then removed from the tank and taken to Marshall Space Flight Center (w:Marshall Space Flight Center) in Huntsville (w:Huntsville, Alabama), Alabama, where it is currently undergoing extensive analysis and modification. The new connector is scheduled to be installed by January 10. At the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (w:Marshall Space Flight Center) activities will focus on their slogan for Earth Day 2009, "Just One Drop ... PRICELESS" and will demonstrate how the Environmental Control Life Support System (w:Life support system) operates as used on the International Space Staton (w:International Space Station) (ISS).

Marshall Space Flight Center

The '''George C. Marshall Space Flight Center''' ('''MSFC''') is the U.S. government (Federal government of the United States)'s civilian rocketry and spacecraft propulsion research center. The largest NASA center, MSFC's first mission was developing the Saturn launch vehicles (Saturn (rocket family)) for the Apollo moon program (Apollo program). Marshall has been the agency's lead center for Space Shuttle propulsion and its external tank (Space Shuttle external tank); payloads and related crew training; International Space Station (ISS) design and assembly; and computers, networks, and information management. Located on the Redstone Arsenal near Huntsville, Alabama, MSFC is named in honor of General of the Army (General of the Army (United States)) George Marshall.

The center also contains the '''Huntsville Operations Support Center''' ('''HOSC'''), a facility that supports ISS launch, payload and experiment activities at the Kennedy Space Center. The HOSC also monitors rocket launches from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station when a Marshall Center payload is on board.

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