In 1995 the Russian Academy of Science published a report that summarized Soviet losses in the war. They reported civilian deaths in the German occupied USSR(including annexed
, Croatia, Cyprus, Liberia, Malta, the Marshall Islands, Mongolia and Panama. Each of these nations maintains a large number of commercial vessels on their registries, and are often considered flag of convenience states. For the text of these bilateral agreements, see this U.S. Department of State web page For an academic analysis of shipboarding in the PSI context, see
, commanding general of Tactical Group I, for their part in the Marshalls' Campaign. From Eniwetok (Battle of Eniwetok), Gonsalves accompanied the 22d Marines to Kwajalein (Kwajalein Atoll), to Guadalcanal, back to Kwajelein and Eniwetok, then up to Guam in July where he took part in the liberation (Battle of Guam (1944)) of that pre-war American island. As for the Oceania stub. I'm working through the alphabet creating national trade union centers for every
Commons:Category:Marshall Islands WikiPedia:Marshall Islands Dmoz:Regional Oceania Marshall Islands
was gained, close bombardment by battleships. Guam was chosen as a target because its large size made it suitable as a base for supporting the next stage of operations towards the Philippines, Taiwan and the Ryukyu Islands; the deep-water harbor at Apra (Apra Harbor) was suitable for the largest ships; and the two airfields would be suitable for B-29 Superfortress bombers. The weak defenses of the Palaus and the potential for airfield construction made them attractive targets
under what is known as the Compact of Free Association, giving the states international sovereignty and ultimate control over their territory. However, the governments of those areas have agreed to allow the United States to provide defense; the federal government fund grants and access to U.S. social services for citizens of these areas. The United States benefits from its ability to use the islands as strategic military bases. On 15 December 2004, an interceptor test
Hancock Ellis Earl H. Ellis of the U.S. Marine Corps drafted "Plan 712, Advanced Base Operations in Micronesia," a plan for war against Japan which updated War Plan Orange by incorporating modern military technology (submarines, aircraft, etc.) and which again included an island-hopping strategy. "Plan 712, Advanced Base Operations in Micronesia" is available on-line: ibiblio.org Shortly
as targets in New Guinea and other enemy controlled areas in the South Pacific AOR; The B-17s were flown to Australia from New Guinea in early 1943; and the squadron personnel returned to Hawaii for re-equipping and replacement personnel. Was re-equipped with very long range B-24 Liberators optimized for long-range missions in the Pacific. Operated in the Central Pacific AOR, flying very long-range heavy bombing missions over the Gilbert (Gilbert Islands) and Marshall Islands
States. Fallout (Nuclear fallout) from the detonation — intended to be a secret test — poisoned the islanders who had previously inhabited the atoll and returned there afterwards, The Ghost Fleet of Bikini Atoll, Military History Channel, air date 9 August 2010 http: www.militaryhistory.co.uk shows ghost-fleet-bikini-atoll about.html as well as the crew of ''Daigo Fukuryū Maru'' ("Lucky Dragon No. 5"), a Japanese fishing boat, and created
international concern about atmospheric thermonuclear testing. John Bellamy Foster (2009). ''The Ecological Revolution: Making Peace with the Planet'', Monthly Review Press, New York, p. 73. Later years After his service as Lieutenant Governor, Doi ran for Mayor of Honolulu and was defeated by Frank Fasi. Doi also ran in the 1977 Honolulu Marathon, finishing in 4 hours, 30 minutes, and “besting his wife by just one minute” (Donnelly). In 1977, he also
; ref Commons:Category:Marshall Islands WikiPedia:Marshall Islands Dmoz:Regional Oceania Marshall Islands
The '''Marshall Islands''', officially the '''Republic of the Marshall Islands''' ( ) is an island country located near the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line. Geographically, the country is part of the larger island group of Micronesia, with the population of 68,480 people spread out over 24 low-lying coral atolls, comprising 1,156 individual islands and islets. The islands share maritime boundaries (Maritime boundary) with the Federated States of Micronesia to the west, Wake Island to the north, Wake Island is claimed as a territory of the Marshall Islands, but is also claimed as an unorganized (Unorganized territory), unincorporated territory of the United States, with ''de facto'' control vested in the Office of Insular Affairs. Kiribati to the south-east, and Nauru to the south. The most populous atoll is Majuro, which also acts as the capital (Capital city).
Micronesian colonists gradually settled the Marshall Islands during the 2nd millennium BC, with inter-island navigation made possible using traditional stick chart (Marshall Islands stick chart)s. Islands in the archipelago were first explored by Europeans (Ethnic groups in Europe) in the 1520s, with Spanish (Spanish people) explorer Alonso de Salazar sighting an atoll in August 1526. Other expeditions by Spanish and English ships followed, with the islands' current name stemming from British explorer John Marshall (John Marshall (British captain)) (1788).
The European powers recognized the islands as part of the Spanish East Indies in 1874. However, Spain sold the islands to the German Empire in 1884, and they became part of German New Guinea in 1885. In World War I the Empire of Japan occupied the Marshall Islands, which in 1919 the League of Nations combined with other former German territories to form the South Pacific Mandate. In World War II, the United States conquered the islands in the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign. Along with other Pacific Islands, the Marshall Islands were then consolidated into the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands governed by the US. Self-government was achieved in 1979, and full sovereignty in 1986, under a Compact of Free Association with the United States.
Politically, the Marshall Islands is a presidential (Presidential system) republic in free association (Associated state) with the United States, with the US providing defense, subsidies, and access to social services. With few natural resources, the islands' wealth is based on a service economy, as well as some fishing and agriculture; aid from the United States represents a large percentage of the islands' gross domestic product. The country uses the United States dollar as its currency.
The majority of the citizens of the Marshall Islands are of Marshallese descent, though there are small numbers of immigrants from the Philippines and other Pacific islands. The two official languages are Marshallese (Marshallese language), which is a member of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, and English (English language). Almost the entire population of the islands practises some religion, with three-quarters of the country either following the United Church of Christ – Congregational in the Marshall Islands (UCCCMI) or the Assemblies of God.