Mali

What is Mali known for?


national life

into resettlement camps in the south of the country and opportunities for Malian Tuaregs to join the central government in Bamako. Unlike the Niger ex-combatants who appeared successfully integrated into national life, small numbers of Malian Tuaregs remained restive, complaining of the Kidal region's poverty, some involved in cross-border smuggling and crime, while a splinter faction of the Tuareg ex-combatants rose in 2006. The Mali-based Tuareg group '' May 23, 2006 Democratic Alliance


team personal

, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, South Africa, Mali, Germany, Turkey, Sweden and Norway. A prolific scorer wherever he played, he became a regular for the Senegal national team (Senegal national football team). Personal Keïta was born in Paris to a Malian father and an Algerian mother (Algeria). Naman Keita, couleur bronze His hobbies are cooking and jazz music. Career Naman Keïta started running while in primary school. He worked for six months as a postman, before stopping to focus his energies on the World Championships and Olympic Games. He is able to use a 12 stride pattern between the hurdles. He competed internationally for Mali until the end of 1999, when he switched his allegiance to France. Epidemiology In 1986, there were an estimated 3.5 million cases of Guinea worm in 20 endemic nations in Asia and Africa. The number of cases has been reduced by more than 99% to 3,190 in 2009, 3,185 of them in the four remaining endemic nations of Africa: Sudan, Ghana, Mali and Ethiopia. This is the lowest number of cases since the eradication campaign began. As of 2010, however, the WHO predicted it will be "a few years yet" before eradication is achieved, on the basis that it took 6–12 years for the countries that have so far eliminated Guinea worm transmission to do so after reporting a similar number of cases to that reported by Sudan in 2009. Commons:Category:Mali WikiPedia:Mali Dmoz:Regional Africa Mali


articles good

: en.wikipedia.org w index.php?title Talk:Mali GA1&action edit&editintro Template:GAN editintro&preload Template:GAN preload this link to create a dedicated subpage for the review. T L Miles (User:T L Miles) (talk (User talk:T L Miles)) 18:55, 9 June 2008 (UTC) **Mali now listed as a Good Article (:Category:GA-Class articles), though it still needs work in Culture, Post Mali Empire History (IMHO). T L Miles (User:T L Miles) (talk (User talk:T L Miles)) 14:49, 12 June 2008 (UTC

contributed to the article) may do so. To start the review process, follow this link to create a dedicated subpage for the review. T L Miles (User:T L Miles) (talk (User talk:T L Miles)) 18:55, 9 June 2008 (UTC) **Mali now listed as a Good Article (:Category:GA-Class articles), though it still needs work in Culture, Post Mali Empire History (IMHO


architecture medical

code; ISO 3166 digram) – (i) Maximum Likelihood (Maximum Likelihood Estimation) – (s) Megalitre * MLA (MLA (disambiguation)) – (i) Martial Law Administration of Bangladesh – Master of Landscape ArchitectureMedical Library Association – Member of Legislative Assembly – Modern Language Association – Mutual legal assistance treaty – Myelosis Leucemica Acuta '''Lake Faguibine''' is a lake in Mali on the southern edge of the Sahara Desert situated 80


style military

Commons:Category:Mali WikiPedia:Mali Dmoz:Regional Africa Mali


growing political

for the rest of his life. ''Thomas Sankara Speaks: the Burkina Faso Revolution: 1983-87'', by Thomas Sankara, edited by Michel Prairie; Pathfinder, 2007, pg 20-21 Returning to Upper Volta in 1972, by 1974 he fought in a border war between Upper Volta and Mali. He earned fame for his heroic performance in the border war with Mali, but years later would renounce the war as "useless and unjust", a reflection of his growing political consciousness. ref name


world radio

-1255 C.E.) founded his capital at Niani, making it an important financial and trading center. It was located near the Bure goldfields, a significant resource that led to the rise and wealth of the Mali empire. '''''Talking Timbuktu''''' is the 1994, Grammy award-winning collaboration between Malian guitarist Ali Farka Touré and American guitarist producer Ry Cooder. The guitar riff from the song "Diaraby" was selected for the Geo-quiz segment of ''The World (The World (radio program))'' PRI-BBC radio program and was retained by popular demand when put to a vote by the listeners. nativename Dyamsay tegu region Mali, Burkina Faso familycolor Niger-Congo '''Jam Sai''' (sometimes spelled Jamsay) is one of the Dogon languages spoken in Mali, and the only one spoken in Burkina Faso apart for a few villages of Tomo Kan. It is one of the plains languages spoken in Dogon villages outside the Bandiagara Escarpment (the cliffs that the Dogon (Dogon people) ethnic group is usually associated with). It is a major language in Koro, at the south end of the escarpment, and stretches as far north as Douentza. It is not mutually intelligible with other Plains Dogon languages, but is widely known as the prestige variety (prestige dialect) due to its use as the language of radio broadcasts. Dialects are ''Domno tegu, Gono tegu, Bama tegu,'' and ''Guru tegu''; their degree of mutual intelligibility has not been recorded. Domno is the standard dialect, and considered the purest; ''Guru'' (Koro) is the dialect of that town. He illustrated some novels before designing postage stamps, starting in 1981 with a stamp for Mali representing Pierre Curie. His first stamp for Metropolitan France was issued 1984 and represented the Postman Cheval (Ferdinand Cheval)'s Ideal Palace. nativename Sooninkanxanne states Mali, Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia (The Gambia), Mauritania, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea and Ghana region West Africa The '''Soninke language''' (Soninke: ''Sooninkanxanne'' Lexicon Soninke-French-English ) is a Mande language (Mande languages) spoken by the Soninke people of West Africa. The language has an estimated 1,096,795 speakers, primarily located in Mali, and also (in order of numerical importance of the communities) in Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire, The Gambia, Mauritania, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea and Ghana. It enjoys the status of a national language in Mali, Senegal, and Mauritania. As scheduled, UNMIL took over peacekeeping duties from ECOWAS forces on October 1, 2003. Lieutenant General Daniel Opande of Kenya (Military of Kenya) was appointed Force Commander. Some 3,500 West African troops who had been serving with ECOMIL vanguard force were provisionally "re-hatted" as United Nations peacekeepers. In a statement issued on that day, the Secretary-General welcomed this very important development and saluted ECOWAS for its role in establishing the security climate that paved the way for the deployment of UNMIL. He commended the Governments of Benin, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal and Togo who have contributed to UNMIL, as well as the United States for its support to the regional force.The Commander of Nigerian contingent Brigadier-General Ebiowei Awala proclaimed that Nigeria had contributed 21,160 troops to UNMIL mission between 2003 to 2009. The Secretary-General expressed confidence that UNMIL would be able to contribute in a major way towards the resolution of conflict in Liberia, provided all parties concerned cooperate fully with the force and the international community provides the necessary resources. area_served Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Laos, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Pakistan, Philippines, Paraguay, Peru, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe The '''Africa Scout Region''' is the divisional office of the World Scout Bureau of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya, with satellite offices in Cape Town, South Africa, and Dakar, Senegal. The Africa Region services Scouting in Sub-Saharan Africa and neighboring islands that are recognized members of the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM). Currently, the region has 35 member National Scout Associations Organizations and 11 potential members. There are about one million registered Scouts in Africa, though it is suspected that there are about twice that number in the region. The large nations of Mali, Guinea-Bissau and the Central African Republic, and several smaller nations, are not yet WOSM members, for various reasons. There is contradictory information as to whether it is originated among the Baga people of Guinea or in Mali. It is also known in some other West African countries. Countries currently represented include Afghanistan, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, the People's Republic of China, Congo, Commons:Category:Mali WikiPedia:Mali Dmoz:Regional Africa Mali


covering modern

along the southern border of the Sahara, a territory covering modern Senegal, Mali, Niger, and Chad. Their ultimate goal was to have an uninterrupted link between the Niger River and the Nile, hence controlling all trade to and from the Sahel region, by virtue of their existing control over the caravan (Camel train) routes through the Sahara. France also had an outpost near the mouth of the Red Sea in Djibouti (French Somaliland), which could serve

as an eastern anchor to a belt of French territory across the continent. The French thrust into the African interior was mainly from West Africa (modern day Senegal) eastward, through the Sahel along the southern border of the Sahara, a territory covering modern day Senegal, Mali, Niger, and Chad. Their ultimate aim was to have an uninterrupted link between the Niger River and the Nile, thus controlling all trade to and from the Sahel region, by virtue of their existing


unique program

* Mali: an epidemic of Yellow Fever broke out in the area of Kayes, where 35 suspect cases, of which 14 with mortal result, were identified between 7 and 27 October. * Morocco: According to a study of the Ministry of Labour and the International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour, made public in April, approximately 600 000 Moroccan children work, that is 11% of Moroccan children. * Benin: from 2 to 9 May, the NGO Plan Bénin organized in Cotonou a workshop on comic strips for children and teenagers of Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Mali and Togo. These children can use comic strips to express themselves about their rights and about their vision of development. * A '''regional consultation on violence against children in Central and Western Africa''' took place in Bamako (Mali) on 24 and 25 May 2005. It was organized by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Malian government, and brought together delegates of governments and NGO's of 24 countries and international organizations. They issued several recommendations towards African governments on the protection of children against violence (adoption and application of laws prohibiting corporal punishment and all forms of violence within the family, increased sensitizing of parents to assume responsibility for the nonviolent education of their children, punishment of sexual abuse of children by teachers, creation of council centers and training of counselors for child victims of violence, increase in the number of juvenile courts) and on the participation of children in all the stages of the development process of projects, programs and policies in their favour, as well as on the support of initiatives, developed by children to fight violence. They request the increase of budgets for child protection programmes and the generalization of child benefit systems to fight poverty. * Benin: from 2 to 9 May, the NGO Plan Bénin organized in Cotonou a workshop on comic strips for children and teenagers of Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Mali and Togo. These children can use comic strips to express themselves about their rights and about their vision of development. * A '''regional consultation on violence against children in Central and Western Africa''' took place in Bamako (Mali) on 24 and 25 May 2005. It was organized by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Malian government, and brought together delegates of governments and NGO's of 24 countries and international organizations. They issued several recommendations towards African governments on the protection of children against violence (adoption and application of laws prohibiting corporal punishment and all forms of violence within the family, increased sensitizing of parents to assume responsibility for the nonviolent education of their children, punishment of sexual abuse of children by teachers, creation of council centers and training of counselors for child victims of violence, increase in the number of juvenile courts) and on the participation of children in all the stages of the development process of projects, programs and policies in their favour, as well as on the support of initiatives, developed by children to fight violence. They request the increase of budgets for child protection programmes and the generalization of child benefit systems to fight poverty. * Benin: from 2 to 9 May, the NGO Plan Bénin organized in Cotonou a workshop on comic strips for children and teenagers of Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Mali and Togo. These children can use comic strips to express themselves about their rights and about their vision of development. * A '''regional consultation on violence against children in Central and Western Africa''' took place in Bamako (Mali) on 24 and 25 May 2005. It was organized by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Malian government, and brought together delegates of governments and NGO's of 24 countries and international organizations. They issued several recommendations towards African governments on the protection of children against violence (adoption and application of laws prohibiting corporal punishment and all forms of violence within the family, increased sensitizing of parents to assume responsibility for the nonviolent education of their children, punishment of sexual abuse of children by teachers, creation of council centers and training of counselors for child victims of violence, increase in the number of juvenile courts) and on the participation of children in all the stages of the development process of projects, programs and policies in their favour, as well as on the support of initiatives, developed by children to fight violence. They request the increase of budgets for child protection programmes and the generalization of child benefit systems to fight poverty. * The 23rd African Basketball Championship was held in Algiers, Algeria. The Angolan team finally beat the Senegalese team in the finals on August 24 to become the champions. * The 11th African Female Champion Clubs Basketball Cup (French language: ''Coupe d'Afrique des clubs champions féminins de basket'') took place from 2 October to 9 October in Bamako, Mali, and was won by Djoliba AC of Mali. * The 20th African Male Champion Clubs Basketball Cup (French language: ''Coupe d'Afrique des clubs champions masculins de basket'') took place from 26 November to 3 December in Abidjan. * The 3rd International Cyclists Tour of Cameroon (French language: ''Grand tour cycliste international du Cameroun'') was held from 26 February to 12 March, with cyclists from twenty countries taking part. * Burkina Faso: The First "Loop of Cotton" (French language: ''Boucle du coton'') took place from 16 May to 22 May with a 706.2 km course. 13 teams from Burkina Faso, Benin, Mali, Guinea, Niger and Togo competed. This race was organized as a homage to the African cotton producers. * The 8th edition of the ''Tour du Senegal'' took place from 22 September to 2 October 2005. The course, 1234 kilometers long, consists of a prologue, 8 stages and a ''critérium'' and touches the towns of Rufisque, Kaolack, Thiadiaye, Diourbel, Somone, Thiès, Saint-Louis (Saint-Louis, Senegal), Louga and Dakar. 17 teams of 6 cyclists from different African countries (Senegal, Angola, Morocco, Cameroon), from Europe (France, the Netherlands, Italy) and from Asia took part in it. Soccer * The junior African Cup of Nations in Cotonou (Benin). 8 countries took part in it: Nigeria, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Benin (Group A), Egypt, Angola, Morocco, Lesotho (group B). On 26 January, Nigeria beat Morocco and Egypt beat Benin in the semi finals. The finals took place on 29 January. It was marked by the victory of Nigeria over Egypt; Benin won the 3rd place, beating Morocco. The next junior African Cup of Nations will take place in the Republic of the Congo. * Samuel Eto'o, Cameroonian attacker of FC Barcelona was elected Best African Football Player of 2004 by the Moroccan magazine Al-Mountakhab, following a poll among 21 African and European media. Rugby (Rugby football) * The "Super 16 Trophy", an international rugby (rugby football) tournament, took place from 31 May to 5 June in Ouagadougou, with teams from Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and Togo. * Rwanda: The first novel on the Tutsi genocide (Rwandan Genocide) written by a Rwandan, ''Le Feu sous la soutane'' ("The Fire Under The Cassock", Editions L'Esprit Frappeur), by Benjamin Sehene, was published on 1 June 2005. * Mali: the fifth edition of the ''Etonnants Voyageurs'' festival ("Astonishing travellers"), led by Moussa Konaté and Michel Le Bris took place from 7 to 13 February 2005 in Mali, in the capital Bamako and several other cities of the country (Gao, Kidal, Koulikoro, Ségou, Timbuktu, Kayes, Kita (Kita, Mali), Sikasso, Mopti). Part of the manifestation are literary workshops, literary cafés (Coffeehouse (event)) and meetings on various topics: "Culture and commerce: defending cultural diversity" or "Literature and development: new perspectives". Several writers are invited: Kangni Alem (Togo), Florent Koua-Zotti (Benin), Abdourahman Waberi (Djibouti), Abdelkader Djemai (Algeria), Alpha Mandé Diarra (Mali) and Abdoulaye Ascofaré (Mali). In parallel, the second edition of ''Etonnants Scénarios'' ("Astonishing scenarios") was held in Bamako, welcoming professionals of the African cinema. * Senegal: The Goethe Institute (Goethe-Institut) of Senegal organized on 9 and 10 April a colloquium on the oeuvre of the Senegalese writer Aminata Sow Fall, entitled ''Une femme de lettres africaine de dimension internationale'' ("An African female writer of international importance"). * Rwanda: The first novel on the Tutsi genocide (Rwandan Genocide) written by a Rwandan, ''Le Feu sous la soutane'' ("The Fire Under The Cassock", Editions L'Esprit Frappeur), by Benjamin Sehene, was published on 1 June 2005. * Mali: the fifth edition of the ''Etonnants Voyageurs'' festival ("Astonishing travellers"), led by Moussa Konaté and Michel Le Bris took place from 7 to 13 February 2005 in Mali, in the capital Bamako and several other cities of the country (Gao, Kidal, Koulikoro, Ségou, Timbuktu, Kayes, Kita (Kita, Mali), Sikasso, Mopti). Part of the manifestation are literary workshops, literary cafés (Coffeehouse (event)) and meetings on various topics: "Culture and commerce: defending cultural diversity" or "Literature and development: new perspectives". Several writers are invited: Kangni Alem (Togo), Florent Koua-Zotti (Benin), Abdourahman Waberi (Djibouti), Abdelkader Djemai (Algeria), Alpha Mandé Diarra (Mali) and Abdoulaye Ascofaré (Mali). In parallel, the second edition of ''Etonnants Scénarios'' ("Astonishing scenarios") was held in Bamako, welcoming professionals of the African cinema. * Senegal: The Goethe Institute (Goethe-Institut) of Senegal organized on 9 and 10 April a colloquium on the oeuvre of the Senegalese writer Aminata Sow Fall, entitled ''Une femme de lettres africaine de dimension internationale'' ("An African female writer of international importance"). * Rwanda: The first novel on the Tutsi genocide (Rwandan Genocide) written by a Rwandan, ''Le Feu sous la soutane'' ("The Fire Under The Cassock", Editions L'Esprit Frappeur), by Benjamin Sehene, was published on 1 June 2005. * Mali: the fifth edition of the ''Etonnants Voyageurs'' festival ("Astonishing travellers"), led by Moussa Konaté and Michel Le Bris took place from 7 to 13 February 2005 in Mali, in the capital Bamako and several other cities of the country (Gao, Kidal, Koulikoro, Ségou, Timbuktu, Kayes, Kita (Kita, Mali), Sikasso, Mopti). Part of the manifestation are literary workshops, literary cafés (Coffeehouse (event)) and meetings on various topics: "Culture and commerce: defending cultural diversity" or "Literature and development: new perspectives". Several writers are invited: Kangni Alem (Togo), Florent Koua-Zotti (Benin), Abdourahman Waberi (Djibouti), Abdelkader Djemai (Algeria), Alpha Mandé Diarra (Mali) and Abdoulaye Ascofaré (Mali). In parallel, the second edition of ''Etonnants Scénarios'' ("Astonishing scenarios") was held in Bamako, welcoming professionals of the African cinema. * Senegal: The Goethe Institute (Goethe-Institut) of Senegal organized on 9 and 10 April a colloquium on the oeuvre of the Senegalese writer Aminata Sow Fall, entitled ''Une femme de lettres africaine de dimension internationale'' ("An African female writer of international importance"). * The ''Prix Ahmadou Kourouma 2005'' (named after the Côte d'Ivoire writer (Ahmadou Kourouma), deceased in 2003) was awarded on 28 April to Tanella Boni of Côte d'Ivoire for his novel ''Matins de couvre-feu'' ("Curfew Mornings", Editions du Serpent à plumes). * The ''Prix Sony Labou Tansi 2005'' for French-speaking theatre, awarded at the ''Festival des francophonies'' in Limousin (Limousin (région)), was granted to Mali writer Moussa Konaté. * Alain Mabanckou, Congolese (Republic of the Congo) writer, received the ''Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie'', awarded by the ''Agence de la francophonie'', for his novel ''Verre cassé'' ("Broken Glass"). * Tunisia: The fourth edition of the ''Festival international du film de l'environnement'' ("International Festival of Environmental Film") in Kairouan (Tunisia) ended Saturday 12 February with the award ceremony. ''Tortues de mer, le dernier cri d'alarme'' ("Sea turtle, the last cry for help") by the Lebanese (Lebanon) director Mohamed Sarfi received the Tapis d'or. * Mali: 3rd edition of the Cinematographic Meetings (rencontres cinématographiques de Bamako) of Bamako on 24 and 25 February 2005, organized by the ''Union des créateurs et entrepreneurs du cinéma et de l'audiovisuel de l'Afrique de l'Ouest'' ("Union of Western African film and audiovisual creators and producers", UCECAO). Souleymane Cissé, Malian director and president of the UCECAO declared that "these meetings must be a place for exchanging and sharing experiences on the problems of African cinema, and an occasion for the actors to think about an economically viable West African cinema". This edition was placed under a sign of solidarity with the war victim children of Darfour. * Burkina Faso: the 19th edition of the Panafrican Film and Television Festival of Ouagadougou took place from 26 February to 5 March 2005 in the Burkina Faso capital (Ouagadougou). The ''Étalon d'or de Yennenga (Étalon de Yennenga)'' (Grand prix of feature film) was won by ''Drum'' by Zola Maseko (South Africa). * Music: The 47th (Grammy Awards of 2005) Grammy Awards were held in Los Angeles (United States) on 13 February 2005. Senegalese singer Youssou N'Dour received a Grammy for his album ''Égypte'' in the category Best Contemporary World Music Album (Grammy Award for Best Contemporary World Music Album). The South African band Ladysmith Black Mambazo was awarded for its album ''Raise Your Spirit Higher (Raise Your Spirit Higher (2003 album))'' in the category Best Traditional World Music Album (Grammy Award for Best Traditional World Music Album). * At the Victoires de la musique 2005 (Paris, 5 March 2005), Malian singers Amadou & Mariam were rewarded in the category ''Reggae Ragga World Album of the Year'' for their album ''Dimanche à Bamako'' ("Sunday in Bamako"). * Burkina Faso: Bil Aka Kora received the Kundé d’or on 29 April. It was the second time this Burkinabé (Burkina Faso) artist won this prestigious Burkinabé musical award. * Cameroon: 1st biennial of Photography and Visual Arts, in Douala, Cameroon from 14 to 23 January 2005. Fourteen photographers and seventeen painters (African, Afro-Caribbean (African diaspora) and European) expose their works on the topic "Traces and Memory". * Mali: the 6th African Photography Encounters were held from the 10 to 17 November 2005 in Bamako. 37 photographers of 17 African countries expose their photographs around the topic "Another world". Festivals and other cultural aspects * Mali: 5th edition of the ''Festival of the desert'' in Essakane from 7 to 9 January 2005. * Mali: 5th edition of the ''Tamadacht'' festival from 18 to 20 January in the Azawagh valley. Organized by the commune of Andéramboukane to promote the Tuareg (Tuareg people) culture, this festival brings together Malians and Nigeriens. * Mali: 5th edition of the ''Festival of the desert'' in Essakane from 7 to 9 January 2005. * Mali: 5th edition of the ''Tamadacht'' festival from 18 to 20 January in the Azawagh valley. Organized by the commune of Andéramboukane to promote the Tuareg (Tuareg people) culture, this festival brings together Malians and Nigeriens. * Cameroon: The fifth edition of the jazz and blues festival ''Jazz sans frontière'' ("Jazz without borders") was held in Yaoundé from 21 to 24 February 2005. Among the performers were Etienne Mbappé and Kayou Jazz and Roots Project. * Mali: 5th edition of the ''Festival of the desert'' in Essakane from 7 to 9 January 2005. * Mali: 5th edition of the ''Tamadacht'' festival from 18 to 20 January in the Azawagh valley. Organized by the commune of Andéramboukane to promote the Tuareg (Tuareg people) culture, this festival brings together Malians and Nigeriens. * Cameroon: The fifth edition of the jazz and blues festival ''Jazz sans frontière'' ("Jazz without borders") was held in Yaoundé from 21 to 24 February 2005. Among the performers were Etienne Mbappé and Kayou Jazz and Roots Project. * Tunisia: The 4th edition of the ''Festival méditerranéen du théâtre d'enfants'' ("Mediterranean Festival of children's theatre") was organized in Ben Arous from 19 to 26 March 2005 with the participation of Algeria, Morocco, Spain, France, Italy, Turkey, Egypt, and the Netherlands (honorary visitor). * Mali: the 9th edition of the ''Festival des Masques et Marionnettes de Markala'' ("Markala Masks and Marionnettes Festival", FESMAMA) was held from 4 to 6 March 2005 in Markala, rural village in the Ségou (Ségou Region) region with companies from various areas of Mali, France and West Africa. * Mauritania: The second ''Festival des musiques nomades'' ("Festival of Nomadic Music") of Nouakchott was held in the Mauritanian capital from 4 to 8 April 2005 with among others Aïcha Mint Chighaly (Mauritania) and of Baaba Maal (Senegal). * Democratic Republic of the Congo: the fifth edition of the Panafrican Music Festival (Fespam) was held from 9 to 16 July in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire and Kinshasa. * Mali: Ali Farka Touré, musician and mayor of the town of Niafunké, in April 2005 created a foundation bearing his name. This foundation intends to organize a biannual jazz festival in Niafunké and to create a training center for young artists playing local traditional instruments. * Mali: The cultural cooperative ''Jamana'' (created by Alpha Oumar Konaré) on 13 April launched an Internet site with information in Bamanankan (Bambara language), in partnership with UNESCO. * Mali: Ali Farka Touré, musician and mayor of the town of Niafunké, in April 2005 created a foundation bearing his name. This foundation intends to organize a biannual jazz festival in Niafunké and to create a training center for young artists playing local traditional instruments. * Mali: The cultural cooperative ''Jamana'' (created by Alpha Oumar Konaré) on 13 April launched an Internet site with information in Bamanankan (Bambara language), in partnership with UNESCO. * Mali: The ''Festival dansa diawoura'' took place in Bafoulabé from 8 to 10 April 2005. * Mali: The cultural cooperative ''Jamana'' (created by Alpha Oumar Konaré) on 13 April launched an Internet site with information in Bamanankan (Bambara language), in partnership with UNESCO. * Mali: The ''Festival dansa diawoura'' took place in Bafoulabé from 8 to 10 April 2005. * Mali: the second edition of the ''West African Hunters Festival'' took place from 27 to 29 May in several cities of Mali (Bamako, Ségou, Sikasso and Yanfolila) and brought together hunters from Mali, Burkina Faso, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, and Niger. * Mali: The ''Festival dansa diawoura'' took place in Bafoulabé from 8 to 10 April 2005. * Mali: the second edition of the ''West African Hunters Festival'' took place from 27 to 29 May in several cities of Mali (Bamako, Ségou, Sikasso and Yanfolila) and brought together hunters from Mali, Burkina Faso, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, and Niger. * Senegal: 13th ''International Jazz Festival'' of Saint-Louis (Saint-Louis, Senegal) from 4 to 7 May 2005, with among others Florin Niculescu, Richard Bona, Philip Catherine and Alexander Monty. * Cameroon: 4th edition of the ''Festival international de voix de femmes'' ("International Festival for women voices, MASSAO 2005) in Douala from 29 April to 7 May. Werewere Liking, Cameronian multidisciplinary artist (music, theatre, literature, painting, dance) was rewarded with the ''Massao d'honneur'' ("Honorary Massao"). * Mali: A conference on "multilingualism for cultural diversity and for the participation of all in cyberspace" took place in Bamako (Mali) on 6 and 7 May in the presence of Koïchiro Matsuura, director general of UNESCO. * Senegal: 3rd edition of the ''International Theatre Festival for peace'' (Fest'art) in Dakar in May 2005. * Congo (Republic of the Congo): The fifth edition of the ''Panafrican Music Festival'' (Fespam) was held from 9 to 16 July in Brazzaville. * Mali: The third edition of the "Dense Bamako Danse" festival opened on 11 November 2005 in the Malian capital (Bamako). This festival of contemporary dance, organized by association ''Donko Seko'', brought together companies from South Africa, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Mozambique, Senegal and Chad. * Congo (Republic of the Congo): The fifth edition of the ''Panafrican Music Festival'' (Fespam) was held from 9 to 16 July in Brazzaville. * Mali: The third edition of the "Dense Bamako Danse" festival opened on 11 November 2005 in the Malian capital (Bamako). This festival of contemporary dance, organized by association ''Donko Seko'', brought together companies from South Africa, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Mozambique, Senegal and Chad. * Western Africa: The BCEAO (''Banque Centrale des États de l'Afrique de l'Ouest'', "Central Bank of the States of Western Africa") affirmed on 22 February to have recovered 99,21% of the franc CFA notes of the 1992 range, at the end of a demonetisation (Legal tender#Demonetisation) operation which was completed on 18 February. * Aeronautics Mali: The first stone of the ''Institut africain des métiers de l'aérien'' ("African Institute of Aeronautic Skills") was cast on 17 March 2005 at the Bamako-Sénou airport site. This new school was initiated by the airline Air France. * The countries of the G8 and the NEPAD ("New Partnership for Africa's Development") on 28 January in Dar Es Salaam announced actions for the development of agriculture in Eastern and Central Africa. Focus is on seeds, pesticides, the food trade, and on monitoring, warning and evaluation mechanisms for food safety. * On 4 and 5 February, on invitation by the Senegalese president Abdoulaye Wade, an international forum on "The global agricultural divide" was held in Dakar (Senegal) in the presence of several Heads of State: Amadou Toumani Touré (Mali), Jacques Chirac (France), Blaise Compaoré (Burkina Faso), Olusegun Obasanjo (Nigeria), Maaouiya Ould Taya (Mauritania), Tandja Mamadou (Niger). It brought together politicians, scientists, representatives of the civil society and agroalimentary companies around "views on developing agricultural territories". Rural organizations from Europe, Asia, Africa and North America met on an invitation by the ''Réseau des organisations paysannes et des producteurs de l'Afrique de l'Ouest'' ("Network of Rural Organizations and Producers of Western Africa", ROPPA) and the ''Conseil national de concertation et de coopération des ruraux'' ("National Council for Rural Dialogue and Co-operation", CNCR), to convey their claims: the right to food sovereignty for each country, the end of dumping practices and of disguised subsidies, and consideration for peasants' interests in negotiations of international treaties like those of the World Trade Organization. * GMO (Genetically modified organism): The West African peasants, organized in the ''Réseau des organisations paysannes et des producteurs de l'Afrique de l'Ouest'' ("Network of Rural Organizations and Producers of Western Africa", ROPPA) and the ''Réseau des chambres d’agriculture de l’Afrique de l’ouest'' ("Network of West African Chambers of Agriculture", RECAO), meeting in Bamako (Mali) on 21 June, opposed against genetically modified organisms (GMOs). * On 4 and 5 February, on invitation by the Senegalese president Abdoulaye Wade, an international forum on "The global agricultural divide" was held in Dakar (Senegal) in the presence of several Heads of State: Amadou Toumani Touré (Mali), Jacques Chirac (France), Blaise Compaoré (Burkina Faso), Olusegun Obasanjo (Nigeria), Maaouiya Ould Taya (Mauritania), Tandja Mamadou (Niger). It brought together politicians, scientists, representatives of the civil society and agroalimentary companies around "views on developing agricultural territories". Rural organizations from Europe, Asia, Africa and North America met on an invitation by the ''Réseau des organisations paysannes et des producteurs de l'Afrique de l'Ouest'' ("Network of Rural Organizations and Producers of Western Africa", ROPPA) and the ''Conseil national de concertation et de coopération des ruraux'' ("National Council for Rural Dialogue and Co-operation", CNCR), to convey their claims: the right to food sovereignty for each country, the end of dumping practices and of disguised subsidies, and consideration for peasants' interests in negotiations of international treaties like those of the World Trade Organization. * GMO (Genetically modified organism): The West African peasants, organized in the ''Réseau des organisations paysannes et des producteurs de l'Afrique de l'Ouest'' ("Network of Rural Organizations and Producers of Western Africa", ROPPA) and the ''Réseau des chambres d’agriculture de l’Afrique de l’ouest'' ("Network of West African Chambers of Agriculture", RECAO), meeting in Bamako (Mali) on 21 June, opposed against genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Cotton * Meeting in Bamako on 14 January 2005 of representatives of five Sub-Saharan cotton producing countries (Mali, Benin, Burkina Faso, Senegal and Chad) that insist on the need for developed countries to reduce subsidies to their own farmers. "Just for the cotton season 2004-2005, Central and Western Africa are estimated to have a deficit of more than 220 billion FCFA (CFA franc), or more than 400 million dollars, worsening poverty by destroying development efforts", they declared in a common statement. * On a meeting in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) on 12 March 2005 in the margin of the 3rd days of the African Cotton Association (ACA), the Ministers for Agriculture of Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali and Chad launched an appeal to African governments and the international community for the installation of a rescue fund for the African cotton producers. They also request a time frame for the United States and the European Union to reduce and totally abandon subsidies to European and American cotton producers. The competition of American and European subsidized cotton means a "loss of earnings" of 200 billion CFA francs (more than 300 million euros) for African cotton producers. * Meeting in Bamako on 14 January 2005 of representatives of five Sub-Saharan cotton producing countries (Mali, Benin, Burkina Faso, Senegal and Chad) that insist on the need for developed countries to reduce subsidies to their own farmers. "Just for the cotton season 2004-2005, Central and Western Africa are estimated to have a deficit of more than 220 billion FCFA (CFA franc), or more than 400 million dollars, worsening poverty by destroying development efforts", they declared in a common statement. * On a meeting in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) on 12 March 2005 in the margin of the 3rd days of the African Cotton Association (ACA), the Ministers for Agriculture of Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali and Chad launched an appeal to African governments and the international community for the installation of a rescue fund for the African cotton producers. They also request a time frame for the United States and the European Union to reduce and totally abandon subsidies to European and American cotton producers. The competition of American and European subsidized cotton means a "loss of earnings" of 200 billion CFA francs (more than 300 million euros) for African cotton producers. Other countries While the most significant persecution has happened in Iran and Egypt during this century and the last, other countries have restricted or persecuted Bahá'ís. In several countries with majority Muslim populations, they have done so on the same basis


leading contemporary

carried eight English (England) cannon in his supply train, and assembled eighty Christian bodyguards for his personal detail. al-Umari also recorded Kankan Musa's stories of the previous ''mansa''; Kankan Musa claimed that the previous ruler had abdicated the throne to journey to a land across the ocean, leading contemporary Malian historian Gaoussou Diawara to theorize that Abubakari reached the Americas years before Christopher Columbus. Some of his work can be found in the ''Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History.'' Appendix III: Salafism in Major Sunni Muslim Majority Countries Thirty-four countries with Sunni majority populations of 1m or more and the importance of Salafism in these countries are the subjects of brief commentaries. Salafism is defined as "the belief that society should be organized according to the Quran and Sunna only" (269). Sunni Countries with Salafi-Influenced Populations : Afghanistan (10m Pashtuns (Pashtun people)); Algeria (19m 31m Sunni Muslims); Bangladesh (14m 114m); Egypt (23m 62m); Indonesia (26m 185m); Jordan (2m 6m); Nigeria (37m 68m); Oman (2m 2m); Pakistan (43m 149m); Saudi Arabia (18m 18m); Somalia (5m 10m); Sudan (21m 21m); Tunisia (5m 10m); Yemen (8m 11m) (270-74). Non-Salafi Sunni Countries: Albania, Burkina Faso, Chad, Guinea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Libya, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Syria, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan (274-77). Outbreak areas have been identified in Zambia, Tanzania, Malawi and also Madagascar and Réunion. In the Sahel, the species is observed on a more incidental basis in Cape Verde, the central Niger River delta in Mali and around Lake Chad. The last widespread plague occurred from 1930-1944, when almost all of southern Africa was invaded. Distributing technology Presently the organization is collaborating with like-minded development organizations in an effort to target areas most in need of this sustainable technology. Since finishing the final design of the Universal Nut Sheller, The Full Belly Project has distributed machines in The Bahamas, Uganda, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Gambia, Zambia, the Philippines, Haiti, Guyana, India, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Senegal, Guatemala, Tajikistan, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe, and Malawi. Commons:Category:Mali WikiPedia:Mali Dmoz:Regional Africa Mali

Mali

'''Mali''' . The population of Mali is 14.5 million. Its capital is Bamako.

Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger (Niger River) and Senegal (Senegal River) rivers. The country's economic structure centers on agriculture and fishing. Some of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, ''Mali gold reserves rise in 2011 alongside price'' Retrieved on 17 January 2013 and salt. About half the population lives below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day. ''Human Development Indices'', Table 3: Human and income poverty, p. 35. Retrieved on 1 June 2009 A majority of the population (55%) are non-denominational Muslims. "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World’s Muslims: Unity and Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. August 9, 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2013.

Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire (for which Mali is named), and the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy, literature, and art. Topics. MuslimHeritage.com (5 June 2003). Retrieved on 8 October 2012. Sankore University. Muslimmuseum.org. Retrieved on 8 October 2012. At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa. Mali Empire (ca. 1200- ) The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed. The Black Past. Retrieved on 8 October 2012. In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan (then known as the Sudanese Republic) joined with Senegal in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. Shortly thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a 1991 coup led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state. Significant portions of its legislation is derived from sharia law.

In January 2012, an armed conflict broke out in northern Mali (Northern Mali conflict (2012–present)), which Tuareg rebels (National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad) took control of by April and declared the secession of a new state, Azawad. Lydia Polgreen and Alan Cowell, "Mali Rebels Proclaim Independent State in North", "New York Times" (6 April 2012) The conflict was complicated by a military coup (2012 Malian coup d'état) that took place in March UN Security council condemns Mali coup. Telegraph (23 March 2012). Retrieved on 24 March 2013. and later fighting between Tuareg and Islamist rebels. In response to Islamist territorial gains, the French military launched Opération Serval in January 2013. A month later, Malian and French forces recaptured most of the north. Presidential elections (Malian presidential election, 2013) were held on 28 July 2013, with a second round run-off held on 11 August, and legislative elections (Malian parliamentary election, 2013) were held on 24 November and 15 December 2013.

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