Mahdia

What is Mahdia known for?


white

of the kings of Damascus and Lucha (yellow with a white crescent); Cairo (white with a blue crescent); Mahdia in Tunisia (white with a purple crescent); Tunis (white with a black crescent); and Buda (white with a red crescent). Some of the 14 and 15th-century portolanos show the flag of Tunis as red with one or two crescents, which is presented on several portolanos as a symbol of the Ottoman Empire. From 16th to the 18th centuries this flag is usually shown with three white

of Egypt, red with three white crescents, each accompanied by a white star. This flag, in turn, influenced the design of the first flag of independent Egypt, which was green with a white crescent and three white stars to symbolize the peaceful co-existence of Muslims, Christians and Jews. During the past two centuries the crescent and star has featured on the flags of other Muslim countries. Operation Torch On 23 October 1942, ''Texas'' embarked upon her first major combat operation

of a Franciscan friar. There are discrepancies between these sources as far as the colours of fields or crescents are concerned. However, an account of flags from the Middle East and North Africa by the author of Libro de Conoscimento confirms the widespread use of the crescent of flags in that region. These include: the flags of the kings of Damascus and Lucha (yellow with a white crescent); Cairo (white with a blue crescent);Mahdia; in Tunisia (white


great commercial

dīwān year 2002 publisher Cambridge University Press location Cambridge isbn 0521816920 url http: books.google.nl books?id pXXYfJ9woRwC&dq %22ali+ibn+yahya%22+zirid&hl nl&source gbs_navlinks_s page 85 Africa * Unable to feed its population during a famine, the emir of the great commercial center of Mahdia has to recognize the de facto protectorate of Roger II of Sicily. '''Philip of Mahdia''', of Greek (Greeks) origin, was the emir of Palermo, the second ''ammiratus ammiratorum (Admiral)'', and successor of the great George of Antioch. He was a eunuch who rose through the ranks of the royal ''curia'' in Palermo until he was eventually one of King Roger II's most trusted men. On George's death in year 546 of the Hegira (Hijri year) (AD 1151 or 1152), Roger appointed him to the highest post in the kingdom. In 1060 Pisa engaged in its first battle with Genoa, and the Pisan victory helped to consolidate its position in the Mediterranean. Pope Gregory VII recognized in 1077 the new "laws and customs of the sea" instituted by the Pisans, and Emperor Henry IV granted them the right to name their own consuls, advised by a Council of Elders. This was simply a confirmation of the present situation, because in those years the marquis had already been excluded from power. In 1092 Pope Urban II awarded Pisa supremacy over Corsica and Sardinia, and at the same time raised the town to the rank of archbishopric. Pisa sacked the Tunisian city of Mahdia in 1088. Four years later Pisan and Genoese ships helped Alfonso VI of Castile to force El Cid out of Valencia.


local opposition

de Damas, 1935, p. Local opposition to the authorities began to intensify in September 945, when the Kharijite (Kharijites) insurgents (Insurgency) occupied Tunis, resulting in general pillaging. Paul Sebag, ''op. cit.'', p. 88 With the rise of the Zirid dynasty Tunis gained importance, but the Sunni population tolerated Shi'ite rule less and less, and carried out massacres against the Shi'ite community. In 1048 the Zirid ruler Al-Muizz ibn Badis rejected his city's obedience to the Fatimids and re-established Sunni rites throughout all of Ifriqiya. This decision infuriated the Shi'ite caliph Al-Mustansir Billah (Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah). To punish the Zirids, he unleashed the Banu Hilal Arab tribe on Ifriqaya; a large part of the country was put to fire, the Zirid capital Kairouan was razed in 1057, and only a few coastal towns, including Tunis and Mahdia, escaped destruction. Exposed to violence from the hostile tribes that settled around the city, the population of Tunis repudiated the authority of the Zirids and swore allegiance to the Hammadid prince El Nacer ibn Alennas (Nasir ibn Alnas), who was based in Béjaïa, in 1059. The governor appointed by Béjaïa, having reestablished order in the country, did not hesitate to free himself from the Hammadids to found the Khourassanid dynasty with Tunis as its capital. This small independent kingdom picked up the threads of trade and commerce with other nations, and brought the region back to peace and prosperity. New capital of Tunisia In 1159, the Almohad 'Abd al-Mumin took Tunis, overthrew the last Khourassanid leader and installed a new government in the kasbah of Tunis. The Almohad conquest marked the beginning of the dominance of the city in Tunisia. Having previously played a minor role behind Kairouan and Mahdia, Tunis was promoted to the rank of provincial capital. In 1228, Governor Abû Zakariya Yahyâ seized power and, a year later, took the title of Emir and founded the Hafsid dynasty. The city became the capital of a Hafsid kingdom stretching towards Tripoli and Fez (Fes). Walls were built to protect the emerging principal town of the kingdom, surrounding the medina, the kasbah and the new suburbs of Tunis. In 1270 the city was taken briefly by Louis IX of France, who was hoping to convert the Hafsid sovereign to Christianity. King Louis easily captured Carthage, but his army soon fell victim to an outbreak of dysentery. Louis himself died before the walls of the capital and the army was forced out. At the same time, driven by the reconquest of Spain, the first Andalusian Muslims and Jews arrived in Tunis and would become of fundamental importance to the economic prosperity of the Hafsid capital and the development of its intellectual life. A powerful fleet was built up under several admirals, or "emirs", of whom the greatest was George, formerly in the service of the Muslim prince of Mahdia. Mainly thanks to him, a series of conquests were made on the African coast (Kingdom of Africa) (1146–1153). Tripoli was captured in 1146 and Cape Bona (Bône) in 1148. These conquests were lost in the reign of Roger's successor William and never formed an integral part of the kingdom. The oldest representations of flags with the crescent are on 14th-century navigational charts, or portolanos, and manuscript of a Franciscan friar. There are discrepancies between these sources as far as the colours of fields or crescents are concerned. However, an account of flags from the Middle East and North Africa by the author of Libro de Conoscimento confirms the widespread use of the crescent on flags in that region. These include: the flags of the kings of Damascus and Lucha (yellow with a white crescent); Cairo (white with a blue crescent); Mahdia in Tunisia (white with a purple crescent); Tunis (white with a black crescent); and Buda (white with a red crescent). Some of the 14 and 15th-century portolanos show the flag of Tunis as red with one or two crescents, which is presented on several portolanos as a symbol of the Ottoman Empire. From 16th to the 18th centuries this flag is usually shown with three white crescents; in 1793 the number of crescents was reduced to one and an eight-pointed star was later added on, when the rule of the Ottoman Empire ended, Turkey was the only Muslim state regarded as a world power at the time. Its flag was known from West Africa to the Far East, and helped to popularize the crescent and star among the Muslim populations of many countries of Asia and Africa. Muhammad Ali, who became Pasha of Egypt in 1805, introduced the first national flag of Egypt, red with three white crescents, each accompanied by a white star. This flag, in turn, influenced the design of the first flag of independent Egypt, which was green with a white crescent and three white stars to symbolize the peaceful co-existence of Muslims, Christians and Jews. During the past two centuries the crescent and star has featured on the flags of other Muslim countries. Operation Torch On 23 October 1942, ''Texas'' embarked upon her first major combat operation when she sortied with Task Group 34.8 (TG 34.8), the Northern Attack Group for Operation Torch, the invasion of North Africa. The objective assigned to this group was Mehedia (Mahdia) near Port Lyautey and the port itself. The ships arrived off the assault beaches early in the morning of 8 November and began preparations for the invasion. ''Texas'' transmitted Lieutenant General (Lieutenant General (United States)) Dwight D. Eisenhower's first "Voice of Freedom" broadcast, asking the French not to oppose Allied landings on North Africa. When the troops went ashore, ''Texas'' did not come immediately into action to support them. At that point in the war, amphibious warfare doctrine was still embryonic; and many did not recognize the value of a pre-landing bombardment. Instead, the Army insisted upon attempting surprise. ''Texas'' finally entered the fray early in the afternoon when the Army requested her to destroy an ammunition dump near Port Lyautey. One more gunfire mission was provided on the 10th before the ceasefire on 11 November. Action Report, Battleship Texas, 19 November 1942 http: commons.wikimedia.org wiki File:N._Africa_Nov_1942_gun_firing.jpg Thus, unlike in later operations, she expended only 273 rounds of '''Philip of Mahdia''', of Greek (Greeks) origin, was the emir of Palermo, the second ''ammiratus ammiratorum (Admiral)'', and successor of the great George of Antioch. He was a eunuch who rose through the ranks of the royal ''curia'' in Palermo until he was eventually one of King Roger II's most trusted men. On George's death in year 546 of the Hegira (Hijri year) (AD 1151 or 1152), Roger appointed him to the highest post in the kingdom. In 1060 Pisa engaged in its first battle with Genoa, and the Pisan victory helped to consolidate its position in the Mediterranean. Pope Gregory VII recognized in 1077 the new "laws and customs of the sea" instituted by the Pisans, and Emperor Henry IV granted them the right to name their own consuls, advised by a Council of Elders. This was simply a confirmation of the present situation, because in those years the marquis had already been excluded from power. In 1092 Pope Urban II awarded Pisa supremacy over Corsica and Sardinia, and at the same time raised the town to the rank of archbishopric. Pisa sacked the Tunisian city of Mahdia in 1088. Four years later Pisan and Genoese ships helped Alfonso VI of Castile to force El Cid out of Valencia.


oil+works

: www.islalocalcouncil.com promseng.htm#claude publisher Senglea Local Council accessdate 5 October 2014 The emperor ordered the Viceroy of Sicily, Juan de Vega, to dismantle Mahdia despite it being a strategically important stronghold. The demolition tasks were carried out by Hernando de Acuña. Shortly after Mahdia was reoccupied by the Ottomans, but only to live by fishing and oil-works, and the town lost its logistic and commercial importance. It remained under Turkish rule until the 19th century. During the Nazi Occupation of Tunisia in World War II, Mahdia was the site where Khaled Abdelwahhab hid approximately two dozen persecuted Jews (Tunisian Jews). Climate '''Philip of Mahdia''', of Greek (Greeks) origin, was the emir of Palermo, the second ''ammiratus ammiratorum (Admiral)'', and successor of the great George of Antioch. He was a eunuch who rose through the ranks of the royal ''curia'' in Palermo until he was eventually one of King Roger II's most trusted men. On George's death in year 546 of the Hegira (Hijri year) (AD 1151 or 1152), Roger appointed him to the highest post in the kingdom. In 1060 Pisa engaged in its first battle with Genoa, and the Pisan victory helped to consolidate its position in the Mediterranean. Pope Gregory VII recognized in 1077 the new "laws and customs of the sea" instituted by the Pisans, and Emperor Henry IV granted them the right to name their own consuls, advised by a Council of Elders. This was simply a confirmation of the present situation, because in those years the marquis had already been excluded from power. In 1092 Pope Urban II awarded Pisa supremacy over Corsica and Sardinia, and at the same time raised the town to the rank of archbishopric. Pisa sacked the Tunisian city of Mahdia in 1088. Four years later Pisan and Genoese ships helped Alfonso VI of Castile to force El Cid out of Valencia.


946

being moved to Mahdia. With the growth of Bedouin Emirates and the continuing insecurity inland, the economy of Ifriqiya looked increasingly towards the Mediterranean, with the result the coastal cities grew in importance through maritime trade and piracy. The new residence was founded in 946 by al-Mansur before the eventual victory over Abu Yazid and replaced Mahdia as the capital of the empire. The city was planned as circular construction after the model of Baghdad


important military

, and the promontory on which an important military settlement had been since the time of the Phoenicians. In 1087 the town was attacked (Mahdia campaign) by raiding ships from Genoa and Pisa who burned the Muslim fleet in the harbor. The attack played a critical role in Christians' seizure of control


political cultural

The Fatimids established the Tunisian city of Mahdia and made it their capital city, before conquering Egypt, and building the city of Cairo in 969. Thereafter, Cairo became the capital of the caliphate, with Egypt becoming the political, cultural, and religious centre of the state. The 4th century AH 10th century CE has been called by Louis Massignon ‘the Ismaili century in the history of Islam’. In his “Mutanabbi devant le siècle ismaëlien de l’Islam”, in Mém. de l’Inst. Français


critical role

, and the promontory on which an important military settlement had been since the time of the Phoenicians. In 1087 the town was attacked (Mahdia campaign) by raiding ships from Genoa and Pisa who burned the Muslim fleet in the harbor. The attack played a critical role in Christians' seizure of control


small independent

as its capital. This small independent kingdom picked up the threads of trade and commerce with other nations, and brought the region back to peace and prosperity. New capital of Tunisia In 1159, the Almohad 'Abd al-Mumin took Tunis, overthrew the last Khourassanid leader and installed a new government in the kasbah of Tunis. The Almohad conquest marked the beginning of the dominance of the city in Tunisia. Having previously played a minor


408

of the Western Mediterranean, which allowed the First Crusade to be supplied by sea. Fuller, J.F.C., ''A Military History of the Western World, Volume I'', Da Capo Press, 1987, p. 408 ISBN 0-306-80304-6 The Zirid dynasty had its residence here in the 11th century, but was brought to an end by the Norman conquest of the city in 1148. In 1160 the city came under Almohad rule. Tunisia: History. LookLex

to Genoa, Venice (Republic of Venice), and Pisa. This enabled the troops of the First Crusade to be supplied by sea. In 1092 Genoa and Pisa in collaboration with Alfonso VI of León and Castile attacked the Muslim Taifa of Valencia and besieged Tortosa with support from troops

Mahdia

'''Mahdia''' ( al-Mahdiya), is a Tunisian coastal city with 79,545 inhabitants, south of Monastir (Monastir, Tunisia) and southeast of Sousse.

Mahdia is a provincial centre north of Sfax. It is important for the associated fish-processing industry, as well as weaving. It is the capital of Mahdia Governorate.

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