Luoyang

What is Luoyang known for?


unusual books

. After Shi Bing’s force was destroyed, he was discharged and recognized for his service with the honorary title of "General Who Makes the Waves Submit". According to Ge’s account, soon after he left for the Jin capital of Luoyang to search for "unusual books". In reality, Ge’s journey may have been inspired by the more mundane desire to parlay his military honors into an official position at the capital. During this time, the so-called "War of the Eight Princes" consumed the area around Luoyang, a civil conflict that would eventually result in almost sixteen years of political chaos, prior to the collapse of the Western Jin in 317. To the southeast of Luoyang, the rebel, Chen Min, occupied a large swath of territory east of the Yangzi River, and declared himself the Duke of Chu. Owing to such a staggering degree of social upheaval, Ge found the way north impassable, and wandered in the south. Biography A native of Changgu (昌谷, modern-day Luoyang, Henan (Luoyang)), Li was discouraged by some of his contemporaries from taking the Imperial Examination owing to naming taboo: his father's name happened to sound similar to Jinshi (Jinshi (imperial examination)). Encouraged by Han Yu, who admired his talent, Li took the examination but failed it. Despite his distant royal ancestry, J. D. Frodsham (1983). The Poems of Li He (790-816). San Francisco: NorthPointPress. ISBN 0865470847. Li died a petty and poor official at the age of 27. There is some debate over his actual dates but according to Frodsham (1983), "the weight of evidence suggests that he was born in a Horse year, since he wrote no less than twenty-three poems in which the horse stands as a symbol for himself". After the eighteen regional warlords led by Yuan Shao attacked Dong Zhuo at Hulao Pass, Li Ru advised that they move the capital from Luoyang to Chang'an and leave Lü Bu to ambush any of the warlords who attempted to pursue. Thanks to Li Ru's plan, Cao Cao was ambushed and almost killed before being saved by Cao Hong, leaving Dong Zhuo to make a clean getaway. Meeting and parting with Cao Cao The first incident that illustrates the righteousness of Chen Gong comes in Chapter 4, where Cao Cao was fleeing from the capital Luoyang after a foiled assassination attempt on Dong Zhuo. At the county of Zhongmu (中牟), where Chen Gong was the magistrate, Cao Cao was captured. When Chen Gong interrogated the fugitive, he was so impressed with Cao Cao's loyalty to the emperor that he decided to abandon his official post and join Cao Cao, who planned to return to his hometown of Qiao (Qiao (location)) (譙, present day Bozhou, Anhui) to raise an army against Dong Zhuo. A native of Luoyang, Yuan Zhen was a descendant of Northern Wei's imperial family (Tuoba). He lost his father at the age of seven and moved to Fengxiang (鳳翔), near today's Baoji, Shanxi with his mother Lady Zheng (鄭氏). Yuan began his writings at the age of fifteen. He was a member of Bai Juyi's literary circle and a key figure in the ancient literature revival. He was a friend of Bai Juyi and also of Xue Tao, a courtesan and famous poet who might have been his lover. Bai Juyi and Yuan Zhen made a "Green Mountain pact" to retire together as Taoist recluses once they had accumulated enough funds, but Yuan's untimely death kept them from achieving that dream. Hinsch, Bret. (1990). ''Passions of the Cut Sleeve''. University of California Press. p. 81 In 813, Yuan wrote a grave inscription for Du Fu, which contains some of the earliest known praise for his predecessor's works. Wikipedia:Luoyang


training military

at Nanjing comes under the Second Department of the General Staff Department and is responsible for training military attachés, assistant military attaches and associate military attaches as well as secret agents to be posted abroad. It also supplies officers to the military intelligence sections of various military regions and group armies. The Institute was formed from the PLA "793" Foreign Language Institute, which moved from Zhangjiakou after


centuries amp

: An Inside View of the Celestial Empire''. Pimlico (London), 2008. ISBN 978-1-84595-010-1. * Hill, John E. ''Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries  ''. BookSurge (Charleston (Charleston, South Carolina)), 2009. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1. * Jenner, W. J. ''Memories of Loyang''. Clarendon Press (Oxford), 1981. * Yang Hsüan-chih. ''Lo-yang ch‘ien-lan chi'', translated by Wang Yi-t‘ung as ''A Record of Buddhist


high position

submitted to Cao for protection. Cheng told Cao that Liu was an ambitious man who was admired by many, and he would not be a subject for long, so he should be taken care of as soon as possible. Cao refused under the rationale that he did not want the death of one individual affect the decision of others who might yield to the Han court. Early career Cao Hong's uncle Cao Ding, held a high position in the late Han Dynasty imperial court, and because of this connection, Cao Hong was given command of Qichun County (蘄春県) at a young age. In 190, Chen Wen (陳温), the governor of Yang Province (揚州) pledged allegiance to Cao Cao, who had just raised an army of his own to join the coalition against Dong Zhuo. Cao Hong was a close friend of Chen Wen, and together they joined Cao Cao. He became a general in Cao Cao's army along with Cao Ren, his cousin. After Dong moved the capital to Chang'an, Cao Cao set out to attack Chenggao without much assistance, because most of the other generals in the coalition found nothing but a burnt-down Luoyang from their initial successes, and were hesitant to engage Dong further. Cao Cao's forces were intercepted in Xingyang, and were greatly defeated. Xu Rong (Xu Rong (general)), a general of Dong Zhuo's army, had injured Cao Cao and killed his horse. At the time Cao Hong asked Cao Cao to take his horse, but the latter once wanted to relinquish his ambition and refused, Cao Hong then strongly rebuked his cousin and said: "The world can do without me, but can't without you!" 「天下可無洪,不可無君。」 See SGZ vol. 9. Hence, Cao Cao got on Cao Hong's horse, and the latter protected Cao Cao on foot, and returned to their base safely. At that time Buddhist monks from He Prefecture (和州, roughly modern Chaohu (Chaohu City), Anhui) submitted a sutra, the ''Dayun Sutra'' (大雲經), which purportedly foretold Wu Zetian's rise to power. Wu Zetian issued an edict that this find be commemorated by the construction of the impressive Dayun Temple (大雲寺). Cen opposed this as well, further drawing her displeasure. To remove Cen from the capital Luoyang, in late 690, she ordered him lead an army against the Tufan, but even before his army could reach the front, she recalled him to Luoyang and imprisoned him. One of Wu Zetian's favored secret police officials, Lai Junchen, then tortured Cen's son who was serving as Magistrate of Lingyuan (靈源) and obtained a confession implicating Ge and fellow chancellor Ouyang Tong, as well as a large group of other officials. In winter 691, Cen Changqian, Ge, and Ouyang were all executed. Cen Changqian's five sons were forced to commit suicide, and his ancestral tombs were destroyed. After Emperor Ruizong was eventually restored to the throne in 710, he restored Cen's titles and reburied him with honor. His nephew (actually son of his cousin i.e. a grandson of Cen Wenben) Cen Xi later also served as a chancellor during Emperor Ruizong's and Emperor Xuanzong (Emperor Xuanzong of Tang)'s reigns. As regent for Emperor An When Emperor An ascended the throne, his father (Prince Qing) was still living, as was Prince Qing's wife Consort Geng—who had remained in the capital Luoyang with him until his ascension. (Emperor An's mother Consort Zuo Xiao'e (左小娥), Prince Qing's concubine, had died sometime earlier.) However, Empress Dowager Deng was able to ensure exclusive control over the young emperor still, as empress dowager, by sending Consort Geng to join her husband Prince Qing in his Principality of Qinghe. In 618, Li Mi was ready for a major confrontation with the Sui general Wang Shichong, who had seized power at the eastern capital Luoyang as the regent to Sui's last emperor Yang Tong (Emperor Yang's grandson). Wei spoke with Li Mi's secretary general Zheng Ting (鄭頲), advocating that Li Mi take a defensive stance, refusing to engage Wang and draining Wang's food supplies. Zheng rejected the proposal, and the proposal apparently was never submitted to Li Mi. Subsequently, when Li Mi engaged Wang, Wang defeated him. Believing that he could no longer hold out against Wang, Li Mi fled to Tang Dynasty territory and surrendered to Emperor Gaozu of Tang. Wei followed him to Tang territory. Subsequently, with Li Mi's major general Xu Shiji (Li Shiji) (later known as Li Shiji) still holding the Liyang region, Wei requested that Emperor Gaozu send him to Liyang to persuade Xu to submit to Tang as well. Xu did so. However, despite the apparent Later Tang strength that the destruction of Former Shu showed, Emperor Zhuangzong's rule was actually becoming destabilized due to the soldiers' discontent toward his failure to implement his prior promises of rewards to them for their achievements in destroying Later Liang and Former Shu, and the discontent was further exacerbated by the subsequent executions of Guo and another major general, Li Jilin (Zhu Youqian) the Prince of Xiping by Emperor Zhuangzong and his wife Empress Liu (Empress Liu (Zhuangzong)). Thereafter, Emperor Zhuangzong's adoptive brother Li Siyuan (Emperor Mingzong of Later Tang) rebelled at Daming (大名, in modern Handan, Hebei). By summer 926, another mutiny at the capital Luoyang caused Emperor Zhuangzong to die in battle. Li Siyuan subsequently declared himself emperor (as Emperor Mingzong). ''Zizhi Tongjian'', vol. 275 (:zh:s:資治通鑑 卷275). At some time prior to 700, Zhang was serving as the secretary general of Jing Prefecture (荊州, roughly modern Jingzhou, Hubei), when, on one occasion, Wu Zetian was having a conversation with the senior chancellor (chancellor of Tang Dynasty) Di Renjie, asking Di's recommendation for someone with extraordinary talent, to serve as chancellor or general. Di responded, "As far as literary talent is concerned, Your Imperial Majesty already have them in Su Weidao and Li Jiao Di's fellow chancellors , but if you truly want extraordinary talent, I know Zhang Jianzhi, the secretary general of Jing Prefecture. Even though he is old, he is capable of being chancellor." In response, Wu Zetian promoted Zhang to be the military advisor to the prefect of the capital prefecture Luo Prefecture (洛州, roughly modern Luoyang, Henan), sending Yang Yuanyan (楊元琰) to replace him. (When Yang reached Jing Prefecture, Zhang and Yang rowed a boat on the Yangtze River together, and they secretly discussed Wu Zetian's overthrow of Tang Dynasty. During the conversation, Yang expressed sentiment that he wanted to see Tang's restoration—a sentiment that Zhang kept in his mind for later.) A few days after Zhang's promotion, Wu Zetian was again asking Di for a recommendation, and Di responded, "I had just recommended Zhang Jianzhi, and Your Imperial Majesty has not yet promoted him." She responded, "I already did." Di responded, "I recommended a chancellor, not a military advisor." Wu Zetian then, while not promoting Zhang to be chancellor at that time, promoted him to be the deputy minister of justice (秋官侍郎, ''Qiuguan Shilang''). Failed attempt to guide Emperor Shun onto the right path Emperor Shun, whose disposition was generally meek but weak, quickly himself became controlled by those eunuchs and officials around him, who were largely corrupt. Sun despised this situation, and in 126, when the eunuch Zhang Fang (張防) was accused of corruption by the governor of the capital district, Yu Xu (虞詡) but instead turned the situation around and convinced Emperor Shun that Yu had falsely accused him and should be sentenced to death, Sun and another eunuch who helped restore Emperor Shun, Zhang Xian (張賢), interceded at great personal peril to themselves. Yu was spared, while Zhang was exiled. However, officials who were close to Zhang then attacked Sun and his fellow eunuch-marquesses of being overly arrogant. Emperor Shun therefore sent them out of the capital Luoyang, to their marches. Of the 19, Sun alone became sufficiently enraged by this development that he had his marquess seal and emblems returned to the emperor and secretly stayed in the capital, looking to find another chance to try to guide the emperor onto the right path. He was soon captured, but Emperor Shun, remembering his accomplishments, simply sent him back to his march without further punishment, but also without listening to his advice on stamping out corruption. * Weiyang Palace (未央宮 - "The Endless Palace"), in (Han) Chang'an (長安), now 7 km 4 miles northeast of downtown Xi'an (西安), Shaanxi province: imperial palace of the prestigious Western Han Dynasty for two centuries. This is the largest palace ever built on Earth, covering 4.8 km² (1,200 acres), which is 6.7 times the size of the current Forbidden City, or 11 times the size of the Vatican City. * Southern Palace (南宮) and Northern Palace (北宮), in Luoyang (洛陽), Henan province: imperial palaces of the Eastern Han Dynasty for two centuries, the Southern Palace being used for court hearings and audiences, the Northern Palace being the private residence of the emperor and his concubines. * Taiji Palace (太極宮 - "The Palace of the Supreme Ultimate"), also known as the Western Apartments (西内), in (Tang) Chang'an (長安), now downtown Xi'an (西安), Shaanxi province: imperial palace during the Sui Dynasty (who called it Daxing Palace - 大興宮) and in the beginning of the Tang Dynasty (until A.D. 663). Area: 4.2 km² (1,040 acres), imperial section proper: 1.92 km² (474 acres). In 145, the young Emperor Chong died, and in an effort to be open to people, Empress Dowager Liang announced his death openly immediately. She summoned the young emperor's third cousins Liu Suan (劉蒜), the Prince of Qinghe, and Liu Zuan (劉纘), the son of Liu Hong (劉鴻) the Prince of Bohai, to the capital Luoyang, to be examined as potential successors. Prince Suan was probably an adult, and was described as solemn and proper, and the key officials largely favored him. However, Liang Ji wanted a young emperor whom he could control, so he convinced Empress Dowager Liang to make the seven-year-old Liu Zuan emperor (as Emperor Zhi (Emperor Zhi of Han)). Empress Dowager Liang continued to serve as regent. Strategies As the stalemate was reached again, Cao Cao's emissary returned to the capital Luoyang with a letter from Sun Quan, which informed Cao that Sun planned to attack Guan Yu from his rear, Jing Province (Jingzhou (ancient China)). Sun Quan asked Cao Cao to keep this secret so that Guan Yu would not be prepared, and most of Cao Cao's advisors agreed with the plan. However, Dong Zhao (Dong Zhao (Three Kingdoms)) objected, pointing out that Liu Bei and Sun Quan would also be the two adversaries of Cao Cao despite the temporary subjection of Sun Quan to Cao Cao. For the long term goal, it would be in the best interest of Cao Cao to weaken both adversaries, instead of letting one adversary become too strong in the long run. In the short run, if Guan Yu knew about Sun Quan's attack in his rear, he would certainly withdraw his army to reinforce his home base in Jing Province, and the siege of Fancheng would be lifted. In addition, Fancheng was under siege for some period of time, and the morale of Cao Cao's forces was low. If this critical information was not passed along to the defenders, some people inside Fancheng might turn their back on Cao Cao's side, because the food supplies were running out and they knew nothing about the secret agreement with Sun Quan. Furthermore, Dong Zhao pointed out that even if Guan Yu knew Sun Quan's intention, he would not retreat swiftly because of his stubbornness and his confidence on the two cities of Jiangling and Gong'an. Origin Medicine peddler Hometown Luoyang, Henan First appearance Chapter 36 Background Xue Yong is from Luoyang, Henan. He excels in martial arts, in particular, staff (Gun (staff)) and spear (Qiang (spear)) movements. He earns a living as a medicine peddler by performing martial arts and physical feats on the streets to promote the drugs he sells. He is nicknamed "Sick Tiger". Emperor Ai ascended the throne at the age of 11 after his father, the Emperor Zhaozong, was assassinated on the orders of the paramount warlord Zhu Quanzhong (Emperor Taizu of Later Liang) in 904, and while Emperor Ai was emperor, the Tang court, then at Luoyang, was under the control of officials Zhu put in charge. In 905, under the instigation of his associates Liu Can (Liu Can (Tang Dynasty)) and Li Zhen (Li Zhen (Later Liang)), Zhu had Emperor Ai issue an edict summoning some 30 senior aristocrats at Baima Station (白馬驛, in modern Anyang, Henan), near the Yellow River; the aristocrats were thereafter ordered to commit suicide, and their bodies were thrown into the Yellow River. Less than two years later in 907, Zhu made his final move against Emperor Ai himself, forcing the young emperor to abdicate to him. In Zhu's new Later Liang Dynasty, the former Tang emperor carried the title of Prince of Jiyin, but in 908, Zhu had the prince poisoned, at the age of 15. In 904, Zhu forced Emperor Zhaozong to move the capital from Chang'an to Luoyang, which was even more firmly under his control. Later that year, fearing that the adult Emperor Zhaozong would try to rise against him while he was away on campaigns against other warlords, he had Emperor Zhaozong assassinated. Bypassing Li Yu and the other older princes, he had an edict issued in Emperor Zhaozong's name creating Li Zuo crown prince and changing his name to Li Zhu. Shortly after, Li Zhu took the throne (as Emperor Ai). Empress He, who survived the assassination, was honored empress dowager. In the Battle of Central Henan, 390,000 Chinese soldiers, led by General Tang Enbo (汤恩伯), were deployed to defend the strategic position of Luoyang. The 12th Army (Twelfth Army (Japan)) spearheaded by the 3rd Tank Division (3rd Tank Division (Imperial Japanese Army)) of the IJA crossed the Yellow River around Zhengzhou in late April and defeated Chinese forces near Xuchang, then swung around clockwise and besieged Luoyang. Luoyang was defended by three Chinese divisions. The 3rd Tank Division began to attack Luoyang on May 13 and took it on May 25. - Chinese Empire (Imperial Chinese) China Various, including Beijing, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Luoyang, Xi'an, Kaifeng, Zhengzhou -221 BCE 1912 2133 ''Weakened by Western Empires, and the court reluctance for reform, China became a republic in 1912, but continues to occupy most of the area occupied by the Qing dynasty.'' - - Han Dynasty China Chang'an, Luoyang, Xuchang -206 BCE 220 426 - - Jin Dynasty (265–420) China Luoyang, (265-311) Chang'an, (312-316) Jiankang (317-420) 265 420 155 ''Subdivided into two dynasties. Western Jìn Dynasty, (265-316) Eastern Jìn Dynasty (317-420).'' - - Wei Empire (Cao Wei) China Luoyang 220 265 45 ''See also Three Kingdoms''. - Family background and marriage to Emperor Ling The later Empress Song was born into a clan that was honored, but not particularly powerful, during the Eastern Han Dynasty. Her father Song Feng (宋酆) was a grandnephew of Consort Song, the imperial consort of Emperor Zhang (Emperor Zhang of Han) who gave birth to his first crown prince Liu Qing (Liu Qing (prince)). During the early reign of Emperor Ling, he served as the commander of the capital (Luoyang) defense forces. Her aunt was the wife of Prince Liu Kui (劉悝) of Bohai, the brother of Emperor Ling's predecessor Emperor Huan (Emperor Huan of Han). Domination by Empress Dowager He and He Jin Emperor Ling died in 189 and was succeeded by his 13-year-old son, Liu Bian (Prince of Hongnong) (born to Empress He (Empress He (Ling))), who became known as Emperor Shao. Empress He, now empress dowager, became regent to the young emperor, while her older brother, General-in-Chief He Jin, became the most powerful official in the imperial court. He Jin and Yuan Shao plotted to exterminate all the Ten Attendants, a group of ten influential eunuch officials in the court, but Empress Dowager He disapproved of their plan. In a fateful move, He Jin summoned Dong Zhuo, a warlord controlling the battle-tested Liang Province (涼州; covering present-day Gansu), to march on the capital Luoyang to threaten Empress Dowager He into eliminating the Ten Attendants. After the eunuchs discovered He Jin's plot, they lured him into the palace and murdered him. In response, Yuan Shao led the imperial guards on an indiscriminate massacre of the palace eunuchs. The surviving eunuchs kidnapped Emperor Shao and his younger brother, the eight-year-old Prince of Chenliu (raised by his grandmother Empress Dowager Dong), and fled north towards the Yellow River, but were finally forced to commit suicide by throwing themselves into the river. In the spring of 190, several provincial officials and warlords formed a coalition against Dong Zhuo, claiming that he was set on usurping the throne and had effectively kidnapped Emperor Xian. Yuan Shao, Administrator of Bohai (渤海; covering present-day Cangzhou, Hebei), was nominated to be the leader of the coalition. The coalition armies was stationed at Henei (河內; in present-day Jiaozuo, Henan) and appeared to be ready to move on the capital Luoyang. However, the coalition was actually rather disorganized, and Yuan Shao did not have effective command over the entire alliance. Besides, the coalition members were also hesitant to directly confront Dong Zhuo and his strong Liang Province military. Still, Dong Zhuo was anxious and chose to move the capital to Chang'an in the west to avoid the coalition. About a month later, Dong Zhuo forced Emperor Xian and the imperial court to move to Chang'an, along with Luoyang's residents, and in the process, he ordered the former capital to be destroyed by fire. During the move, Dong Zhuo remained near Luoyang, ready to resist any coalition attacks on him. In 191, the coalition tried to further de-legitimize Dong Zhuo's position by offering to enthrone Liu Yu (Liu Yu (warlord)), who was eligible to be Emperor since he was a member of the royal clan. Liu Yu remained faithful to Emperor Xian and firmly declined to take the throne. As the coalition members continued to bicker over battle plans, a minor general under Yuan Shu, Sun Jian, took a calculated risk and attacked Dong Zhuo directly near Luoyang. After scoring a number of victories over Dong Zhuo's forces, Sun Jian eventually forced Dong to retreat to Chang'an, and Luoyang came under the coalition's control. In 195, turmoil ensued in Chang'an when Li Jue and Guo Si killed Fan Chou together, and later turned against each other. Li Jue held Emperor Xian hostage while Guo Si kidnapped the imperial officials, and both sides engaged in battle. Later that year, Li Jue and Guo Si made peace and agreed to allow Emperor Xian to return to the old capital, Luoyang, but later regretted their decision and pursued him. While Li Jue and Guo Si were never able to capture Emperor Xian again, the imperial court was rendered poor and unable to fend for itself. As Luoyang had been previously devastated by fire during Dong Zhuo's time, the city lacked the basic essentials of life and many officials starved to death or resorted to cannibalism. Around this time, Ju Shou suggested to Yuan Shao to welcome Emperor Xian to his province so that he could take effective control of the government. However, Guo Tu and Chunyu Qiong opposed Ju Shou's view, claiming that if Yuan Shao brought Emperor Xian to his territory, he would need to yield to the emperor on key decisions and follow proper court protocol. Yuan Shao remained hesitant and did not come to a conclusion on whether to receive the emperor or not. In 757, a joint Tang-Huige army recaptured Chang'an and then the eastern capital Luoyang, forcing An Lushan's son and successor An Qingxu to flee to Yecheng (Ye, China). Tang forces put Yecheng under siege, and Li Siye, one of the Tang commanders at the siege, made Duan the prefect of Huai Prefecture (懷州, in modern Jiaozuo, Henan) to be responsible for logistics—the shipping of food supplies from the area to the army at Yecheng. In spring 759, Li Siye died in battle during the siege. The Anxi army supported Li Siye's subordinate Lifei Yuanli (荔非元禮) to take over the command, and Emperor Suzong agreed. Duan remained as Lifei's deputy. Subsequently, at Duan's request, Li Siye's casket was sent to Hezhong (河中, in modern Yuncheng (Yuncheng, Shanxi), Shanxi), where it was buried in grand ceremony at Duan's expense. This touched Lifei greatly, and he recommended Duan for a promotion in rank. In 762, while a number of armies were at Hezhong, including the Anxi army, Lifei was killed in an army mutiny, along with many other officers, but the soldiers respected Duan and did not dare to harm him. Subsequently, Bai Xiaode (白孝德) was put in command of the Anxi army, and Duan remained as Bai's deputy. This continued after Bai was made the military governor of Fufang Circuit (鄜坊, headquartered in modern Yan'an, Shaanxi). Meanwhile, Emperor Jingzong continued to, in addition to games, have a desire to tour the realm, despite the pleas from advisory officials not to do so. For example, in 825, despite many pleas not to, he visited Mount Li (驪山). He also continued to prepare for a visit to the eastern capital Luoyang, even though such visits required great expenses — since the eastern capital, long damaged by campaigns ever since the Anshi Rebellion, required extensive repairs to its palace if it were to receive the emperor. Only after that explanation by the chancellor Pei Du in 826, as well as semi-mocking offers by the warlords Zhu Kerong and Wang Tingcou to assist the repairs, did Emperor Jingzong abandon the idea of visiting Luoyang. In 814, Wu Shaoyang died. Emperor Xianzong did not confirm Wu Shaoyang's son Wu Yuanji as his successor. In response, Wu Yuanji began attacking the nearby circuits to create pressure on the imperial government. Emperor Xianzong declared a general campaign against Wu Yuanji. Wu sought aid from Li Shidao and Wang Chengzong, who repeatedly petitioned Emperor Xianzong to pardon Wu Yuanji, to no avail. Li Shidao thereafter retained a group of assassins to carry out guerilla warfare tactics around the eastern capital Luoyang, to try to disrupt the campaign against Zhangyi and to create a sense of terror among the officials and the people. When the imperial pressure on Zhangyi still being unrelenting, with the imperial generals Wu Chongyin and Li Guangyan frequently dealing Zhangyi troops defeats (although imperial troops were unable to decisively defeat Zhangyi), Li Shidao decided to assassinate the chancellor Wu Yuanheng, whom Emperor Xianzong had put in charge of the campaign against Zhangyi, as well as the official Pei Du, a major proponent of the campaign. In summer 814, assassins that Li Shidao sent killed Wu Yuanheng and wounded Pei, terrifying the officials and the people at Chang'an. Emperor Xianzong's resolve against Zhangyi did not change, however, and when he came to believe that Wang was responsible for the assassination, he declared a general campaign against Wang as well. He also promoted Pei to be a chancellor. (Later, after investigations by Lü Yuanying (呂元膺) the defender of Luoyang after a plot by Li Shidao's subordinates to riot at Luoyang was foiled, Emperor Xianzong found out that Li Shidao was responsible for Wu Yuanheng's assassination, but by that point, as he was already waging campaigns against Wu Yuanji and Wang, he could not, and did not, declare yet another campaign against Li Shidao as well at that point.) *Central Aviation School (trainers): 16 Armstrong Whitworth A.W.16, also used as fighters in the early stage of the Second Sino-Japanese War. *Luoyang Aviation School (trainers): Breda Ba.25, Ba.28 (Breda Ba.25#Variants) *Liuzhou Aviation School (trainers): Around 20 Avro Avian(616 IVM), 6 Avro Cadet, 5 Avro Tutor, 7 Nakajima (Nakajima Aircraft Company) Ko-4 (Japanese license produced Nieuport-Delage NiD 29 C.1) This seal passed on even as dynasties rose and fell. It was seen as a legitimising device, signalling the Mandate of Heaven. During turbulent periods, such as the Three Kingdoms period, the seal became the object of rivalry and armed conflict. Regimes which possessed the seal declared themselves, and are often regarded historically, as legitimate. At the end of the Han Dynasty in the 3rd Century AD, General Sun Jian found the Imperial Seal when his forces occupied the evacuated Han imperial capital Luoyang, in the sequence of the campaign against Dong Zhuo, giving it to his chief, warlord Yuan Shu. When Yuan Shu was defeated, the Seal came into the hands of Cao Cao, whose son Cao Pi proclaimed the Wei Dynasty (Cao Wei) as the legitimate successor state to Han and the other rival dynasties Shu-Han and Wu to be illegitimate. As empress As Emperor Xian continued his reign of being constantly under the control of one warlord or another, he and Empress Fu were apparently in a loving relationship, but both saw their power increasingly becoming minimal. Later in 195, during Emperor Xian's flight back to the old capital Luoyang, Empress Fu was personally carrying silk, which were seized by soldiers ostensibly protecting her—such that even her own personal bodyguards were killed, and their blood splashed on her. When they returned to Luoyang, the court was ill-supplied, and while there is no record indicating that Empress Fu personally was under threat of starvation, a number of imperial officials died of hunger or were killed by robbers. Materially, the court became much better supplied once Cao Cao arrived in 196 and took Emperor Xian and his court under control. Cao relocated the court to his headquarters of Xu (in modern Xuchang, Henan). Family background and marriage to Cao Cao Lady Bian was born in 159 in Baiting (白亭) of Qi commandery (齊郡; in modern Shandong) although her family was registered in Langye commandery (琅琊; in modern southeastern Shandong). Because her family was poor, she was a courtesan in a brothel when she was young. When she was 19, Cao Cao took her as a concubine. In 189, when Cao Cao fled from Dong Zhuo at Luoyang, Yuan Shu spread rumours that Cao Cao had died. Lady Bian refused to believe them and persuaded Cao Cao's followers not to desert him. When Cao Cao came back, he was impressed at her conduct. She bore him four sons—Cao Pi, Cao Zhang, Cao Zhi, and Cao Xiong. After the death of Cao Cao's oldest son Cao Ang, Cao Cao's wife Lady Ding (who was not Cao Ang's biological mother but adopted him as her own) was constantly mournful, and Cao Cao became so displeased that he divorced her. He then made Lady Bian his principal wife. In 219 (after Cao Cao had been created the King of Wei in 216), Emperor Xian of Han created her the Queen of Wei. She was known for her wisdom and humility. She was particularly praised for refusing to celebrate lavishly (as her attendants had suggested) when her son Cao Pi was made Heir in 217. Around this time, Emperor Wen also started preparing for a campaign against rival Northern Wei, seeking to recover several provinces lost to Northern Wei during the reign of Emperor Shao. In spring 430, he put Dao Yanzhi in command of a 50,000-man army to attack Northern Wei. Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei, when informed by Emperor Wen's messengers that all Emperor Wen was interested in was to recover the provinces south of the Yellow River, retorted angrily that he would withdraw but return in the winter once the Yellow River froze, and that was what he initially did—withdrawing his armies south of the Yellow River to areas north, allowing Liu Song to recover the four key cities of Luoyang, Hulao, Huatai (滑台, in modern Anyang, Hunan), and Qiao'ao (碻磝, in modern Liaocheng, Shandong) without a fight. Instead of advancing further north against Northern Wei proper, however, Emperor Wen stopped, and stretched his troops to become a Yellow River defense force, even though he had entered into an alliance with Xia (Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms))'s emperor Helian Ding to conquer and divide Northern Wei. With Emperor Wen's forces inactivte, Northern Wei's Emperor Taiwu was able to attack Helian Ding and greatly damage Xia (eventually leading to its destruction in 431), while his other generals, even in Emperor Taiwu's absence, prepared to counterattack. In winter 430, Emperor Wen's general Du Ji (杜驥), unable to defend Luoyang, abandoned it. Hulao soon also fell. Upon hearing this, Dao retreated, leaving the general Zhu Xiuzhi (朱脩之) defending Huatai alone. In spring 431, Emperor Wen sent Tan north to try to relieve Zhu at Huatai, but with Northern Wei forces cutting Tan's supply route off, Tan was unable to reach Huatai and forced to withdraw as well. Zhu, without support, was soon captured when Huatai fell. Emperor Wen's first attempt to regain the provinces south of the Yellow River had resulted in failure. After Cao Mao became emperor, he gradually established a circle around him—a number of officials who were unquestioned in their support of the Simas, but who might also have something to gain from allegiance to the emperor, including Sima Shi's cousin Sima Wang, Wang Chen (王沈), Pei Xiu, and Zhong Hui. By doing this, he was hoping that he could minimize suspicion against him but at the same time gradually win their heart. In 255, he made a failed attempt to capture power back—when Sima Shi died while at Xuchang, Sima Zhao was at Xuchang as well. Cao Mao issued an edict which, under the rationale that Sima Shi had just defeated Guanqiu and Wen's rebellion and that the southeastern empire was still not complete pacified, ordered Sima Zhao to remain at Xuchang and that Sima Shi's assistant Fu Gu (傅嘏) return to the capital Luoyang with the main troops. Under Fu and Zhong's advice, however, Sima Zhao returned to Luoyang anyway against edict, and was able to maintain control of the government. Indeed, from that point on, he would not let Cao Mao or Empress Dowager Guo to be out of his control, and when Zhuge Dan made a failed rebellion in 257, believing that Sima Zhao would soon usurp the throne, Sima Zhao would insist on the emperor and the empress dowager accompanying him on the campaign against Zhuge. Biography When Luoyang fell under the control of the warlord Dong Zhuo, Sima Lang was able to escape with his entire family. He returned with them to his place of birth and escaped danger. Parthians also played a role in the Silk Road transmission of Buddhism from Central Asia to China. An Shih Kao, a Parthian nobleman and Buddhist (Buddhism) missionary, went to the Chinese capital Luoyang in 148 CE where he established temples and became the first man to translate Buddhist scriptures into Chinese (Chinese language). Biography Zhu served as a county clerk in his early career and was noted for his filial piety and modesty. He was soon made a prefecture official and followed Sun Jian on his rise to power. In 188 he was promoted to the rank of Major (司马) and led an army to attack rival armies in Changsha, Lingling (Lingling District), Guiyang (all in present-day Hunan). Zhu was a skilled and successful tactician, and was promoted to the rank of Commandant (都尉) by Sun Jian because of his victories. Zhu assisted in Sun Jian's defeat of Dong Zhuo in the Battle of Yangren, and upon the army's entrance into Luoyang was promoted to the rank of Colonel (校尉), with special command to lead a regiment of cavalry to Xu Province and reinforce its governor, Tao Qian (Tao Qian (Han Dynasty)), in the fight against the Yellow Turban Rebellion. Sun Hao and his clan were escorted to the Jin capital Luoyang. Sun Hao, now a captive, humiliated himself by covering himself with mud and having himself bound behind his back. Jin's Emperor Wu had him unbound and seated next to himself at the next imperial gathering, commenting "I have set this seat for you for a long time." Sun Hao's response was, "I also had a seat for your imperial majesty in Jianye." When the key official Jia Chong, seeking to humiliate Sun, asked him, "I heard that you had such cruel punishments as poking out people's eyes and peeling the facial skin off people. What kind of punishment is this?" Sun's response was, "If a subordinate planned to murder his emperor or was treacherous, I would use those punishments on him." Jia, who was instrumental in Cao Wei's emperor Cao Mao's death, was humiliated and could not further respond. When Liu Yao was young, he, along with his cousin Liu Cong, were studying in the Jin (Jin Dynasty (265-420)) capital Luoyang, when on one occasion he committed an unspecified crime punishable by death. He therefore fled to Chaoxian (朝鮮, near modern Pyeongyang, North Korea -- not, in this case, a generic geographic term for Korea). Later, after a general pardon, he returned, but decided to live in the mountains away from trouble. Late reign In 324, the first real battle between Later Zhao and Han Zhao occurred at Xin'an (新安, in modern Luoyang, Henan), ushering an era in which Later Zhao and Han Zhao would continuously battle for years. In 325, their armies fought a major battle near Luoyang (which the two, as well as Jin, had fought over for months), and after some initial Han Zhao successes, Later Zhao's general Shi Hu decisively defeated and captured Han Zhao's general Liu Yue (劉岳), after Liu Yao himself encountered difficulties with his army discipline and could not come to Liu Yue's aid. Later Zhao took this opportunity to effectively take the modern central Henan, northern Jiangsu, and western Shandong under its control. Wikipedia:Luoyang


passing interest

with only a passing interest in porcelain will be satisfied. At time of writing the museum is free, though a ticket price may already have been re-instated. * *


literary talent

, to serve as chancellor or general. Di responded, "As far as literary talent is concerned, Your Imperial Majesty already have them in Su Weidao and Li Jiao Di's fellow chancellors , but if you truly want extraordinary talent, I know Zhang Jianzhi, the secretary general of Jing Prefecture. Even though he is old, he is capable of being chancellor." In response, Wu Zetian promoted Zhang to be the military advisor to the prefect of the capital prefecture Luo Prefecture (洛州, roughly


social culture

of the An-Shi rebellion (An Lushan Rebellion), which took place between 755-763, profoundly affected Chinese social culture in general and Wang Wei in particular. In 756, Wang Wei was residing in the capital of Chang'an, where he was captured by the rebels when they took the city. Although the emperor Xuanzong and his court and most of the governmental officials had already evacuated to Sichuan, Wang Wei had come down with dysentery and at that time was an invalid and thus unable to travel, ref


prominent culture

of around one million, second only to Chang'an, which, at the time, was the largest city in the world. Abramson (2008), p. viii. During the short-lived Five Dynasties, Luoyang was the capital of the Later Liang (Later Liang (Five Dynasties)) (only for a few years before the court moved to Kaifeng) and Later Tang. During the North Song Dynasty, Luoyang was the 'Western Capital' and birthplace of Zhao Kuangyin, the founder of the Song Dynasty. It served as a prominent

culture center, housing some of the most important philosophers. Administrative divisions thumb right 200px Manshui bridge and Yi River (File:Luoyang groty z rzezbami wotywnymi Longmen Shiku - Smoczych Wrot i okolice 07.JPG) 200px thumbnail Luoyang Longmen Railway Station Luoyang-Longmen HST Station (File:Luòyáng HST station.jpg) The prefecture-level city of Luoyang administers 5 “built-up" urban districts (district of China), 1 additional district, 1 county-level city


play live

and a second floor with private rooms and a pool. They have many artists that sing and play live music from 9:30PM. Full bar plus popcorn or fruit. On the same street there are a few bars, all of them with live music and a variety of drinks. *


political rivalry

led to Zhang being considered a controversial figure, which prevented him from becoming an official court historian. His political rivalry with the palace eunuchs during the reign of Emperor Shun (Emperor Shun of Han) (r. 125–144) led to his decision to retire from the central court to serve as an administrator of Hejian, in Hebei. He returned home to Nanyang for a short time, before being recalled to serve in the capital once more in 138. He died there a year later, in 139. thumb right 220px A 2nd-century Lacquerware lacquer-painted (Image:Painted figures on a lacquer basket, Eastern Han Dynasty2.jpg) scene on a basket box showing famous figures from Chinese history who were paragons of filial piety; Zhang Heng became well-versed at an early age in the Chinese classics (Five Classics) and the philosophy of China's earlier sages. Born in the town of Xi'e in Nanyang Commandery (located north of modern Nanyang City (Nanyang, Henan), Henan province), Zhang Heng came from a distinguished but not very affluent family. Xiao and Knechtges (1996), 397. Yan (2007), 127. His grandfather, Zhang Kan, had been governor of a commandery, and one of the leaders who supported the restoration of the Han Dynasty by Emperor Guangwu (Emperor Guangwu of Han) (r. 25–57), following the death of the usurper Wang Mang and his short-lived Xin Dynasty (CE 9–23). Crespigny (2007), 1049. Asiapac (2004), 120. Loewe (1968), 105. At age ten, Zhang's father died, leaving him in the care of his mother and grandmother. An accomplished writer in his youth, Zhang left home in 95 to pursue his studies in the ancient capitals of Chang'an and Luoyang. While traveling to Luoyang, Zhang passed by a hot spring near Mount Li and dedicated one of his earliest fu poems (Fu (poetry)) to it, the ''Wenquan'' (溫泉). Neinhauser et al. (1986), 211. After studying for some years at Luoyang's (Taixue), he became well-versed in the classics (Chinese classic texts), and befriended notable persons, such as the mathematician and calligrapher Cui Yuan (Cui Yuan (Han Dynasty)) (78–143), the official and philosophical commentator Ma Rong (79–166), and the philosopher Wang Fu (Wang Fu (philosopher)) (78–163). Government authorities offered Zhang appointments to several offices, including a position as one of the Three Excellencies, yet he acted modestly and turned down those positions. At age twenty-three, he returned home with the title "Officer of Merit in Nanyang," serving as the master of documents under the administration of Governor Bao De (in office from 103–111). As he was charged with composing inscriptions and dirges for Bao De, he gained experience in writing official documents. As Officer of Merit in the commandery, he was also responsible for local appointments to office and recommendations to the capital of nominees for higher office. Crespigny (2007), 1229. He spent much of his time composing rhapsodies (Rhapsody (music)) on the capital cities. When Bao De was recalled to the capital in 111, to serve as a minister of finance, Zhang continued his literary work at home in Xi'e. Zhang Heng began his studies in astronomy at the age of thirty, and began publishing his works in astronomy (Chinese astronomy) and mathematics (Chinese mathematics). DATE OF DEATH 139 PLACE OF DEATH Luoyang, China * December 24 – Christmas Eve 2000 Indonesia bombings: 18 people are killed in multiple Islamist bomb attacks on churches across Indonesia. * December 25 – A shopping center fire at Luoyang, Henan, China (People's Republic of China) kills 309. * December 30 – Rizal Day bombings: A series of bombs explode in various places in Metro Manila, Philippines, within a span of a few hours, killing 22 and injuring about 100. China * Luoyang falls without much resistance to the armies of the Qin (Qin (state)), ending the reign of the emperor Zhou Nan Wang. Although a successor was appointed as Dong Zhou Hui Wang, traditionally in Chinese history this is considered the end of the Zhou Dynasty. * The Du Jiang Yan Irrigation System is constructed, ending flooding and irrigating thousands of square miles of land through an ingeniously designed system. * The Han dynasty is restored in China (Chinese history) as Liu Xiu (Emperor Guangwu of Han) proclaims himself Emperor, starting the ''Jianwu'' era (until 56). * Luoyang becomes the capital of the '''''Houhan''''' or Eastern Han Dynasty. * Accession of Han Zhangdi. * Revolt against the Chinese (China) in Tarim (Tarim Basin): Cachera and Turpan are besieged. Luoyang orders the evacuation of Tarim. Ban Chao makes the rebels retreat towards Khotan. At the same time, the Chinese army of Ganzhou reconquers Turpan in Northern Xiongnu. Ban Chao convinces the emperor of the need to control Central Asia in the fight against Xiongnu. Asia * Caravans (Camel train) make regular departures from Luoyang with Chinese ginger, cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) (a type of cinnamon (cinnamomum aromaticum)), and silk to be bartered in Central Asia for gold, silver, glassware, pottery, cloth, and intaglio (intaglio (jewellery)) gems (Gemstone) from Rome. * As a result of a quarrel between Numan III, the Lakhmid (Lakhmids) ruler, and the Persian Chosroes (Khosrau II of Persia), the Persian border with Arabia is no longer guarded. * Emperor Yang Guang of the Sui Dynasty orders the capital to be transferred from Chang'an to Luoyang, and orders the Grand Canal (Grand Canal of China) to be built. * Amshuvarma becomes king of Licchavi. * Scholars who have denounced eunuch (Eunuch (court official))s are arrested, killed or banished from the capital and official life in Han Dynasty China. This was the first of the Disasters of Partisan Prohibitions, which ended in 184. * A Roman envoy (Sino-Roman relations) arrives by sea in Rinan commandery in southern China (central Vietnam). He travels to the Chinese capital Luoyang and is greeted by Emperor Huan (Emperor Han Huandi of China) of the Han Dynasty. China * Confucian scholars who had denounced the court eunuchs are arrested, killed or banished from the capital of Luoyang and official life during the second episode of the Disasters of Partisan Prohibitions, which did not formally end until 184 with the onslaught of the Yellow Turban Rebellion. Asia * Due to a culmination of major droughts, floods, locust plagues, and epidemics, a widespread famine breaks out in the dual Chinese capital cities of Chang'an (primary capital) and Luoyang (secondary capital). The scarcity of food drives the price of grain to unprecedented heights, ending a once prosperous era under emperors Taizong (Emperor Taizong of Tang) and Gaozong (Emperor Gaozong of Tang) on a sad note. * Emperor Temmu of Japan issues a decree forbidding the Japanese-style cap of ranks and garments, and changing them into Chinese ones. He also makes a decree forbidding men to wear leggings and women to let down their hair on their backs. It is from this time that the practice begins of women riding on horseback like men. He issues an edict prescribing the character of ceremonies and language to be used on occasions of ceremony. Ceremonial kneeling and crawling are both abolished, and the ceremonial custom of standing of the Tang Court is practiced. Li Yuan ruled until 626 before being forcefully deposed by his son Li Shimin, Prince of Qin. Li Shimin had commanded troops since the age of 18, had prowess with a bow (Bow (weapon)), sword (Chinese swords), lance, and was known for his effective cavalry charges. Wikipedia:Luoyang

Luoyang

pic LY name.svg piccap "Luoyang", as written in Chinese picsize 125px s 洛阳 t 洛陽 psp Loyang l Northern bank of the Luo River p Luòyáng w Loyang j Lok 6 -joeng 4 y Lohk-yèuhng poj Lo̍k-iông order st '''Luoyang''' ( ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province of Central China. It borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the east, Pingdingshan to the southeast, Nanyang (Nanyang, Henan) to the south, Sanmenxia to the west, Jiyuan to the north, and Jiaozuo to the northeast. As of the final 2010 census, Luoyang had a population of 6,549,941 inhabitants with 1,857,003 people living in the built-up (''or metro'') area made of city's five urban districts, all of which except the Jili District not urbanized yet. http: www.citypopulation.de php china-henan-admin.php

Situated on the central plain (Central Plain (China)) of China, Luoyang is one of the cradles of Chinese civilization (History of China#Ancient era), and is one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China (Historical capitals of China).

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