, successive kingdoms of Java (Mataram (Mataram Kingdom), Kediri (Kediri (historical kingdom)), Singhasari and Majapahit), Ayutthaya (Ayutthaya Kingdom) in Thailand, Vietnam and China. O.W. Wolters, 1999, pp. 27-40, 126-154 China occupies a special place in that the other three often in turn paid tribute to China, although in practice the obligations imposed on them were minimal. The most notable tributary states were Cambodia, Lan Xang (succeeded by Vientiane and Luang Prabang) and Lanna (Lannathai). Cambodia in particular, was described by the Vietnamese emperor Gia Long as "an independent country that is slave of two" (Chandler p. 119). The system was eventually ended by the arrival of the Europeans in the mid-19th century. Culturally, they introduced Western geographical practices, which assumed that every area was subject to one sovereign. Practically, the colonisation of French Indochina, Dutch East Indies, British Malaya (History of Malaysia#Colonial era) and Burma brought pressure from the colonisers for fixed boundaries to their possessions. The tributary states were then divided between the colonies and Siam, which exercised much more centralised power, but over a smaller area, than hitherto. **Luang Namtha - Louangnamtha Airport **Luang Prabang - Luang Prabang International Airport '''Focus City''' **Oudomxay - Oudomsay Airport '''Crown Prince Vong Savang''' was born on September 27, 1931, at the Royal Palace Luang Prabang, Laos. His father was King Savang Vatthana and mother was Queen Khamphoui. He died at the hands of the communists in a so-called "seminar camp" in Laos on May 2, 1978. Commons:Category:Luang Prabang
, the Irrawaddy dolphin and Khone Phapheng Falls at Si Phan Don or, as they are known in English, the Four Thousand Islands; Wat Phu, an ancient Khmer (Khmer Empire) temple complex; and the Bolaven Plateau for waterfalls and coffee. Pro-poor tourism Pro-poor tourism, which seeks to help the poorest people in developing countries, has been receiving increasing attention by those involved in development; the issue has been addressed through small-scale projects in local
on the main street phone tollfree fax hours price content A no name place serving delicious shakes for 5,000 kip and fantastic sweet crepes starting at 7,000 kip. *
with delicious Lao BBQ and Lao whiskey. Free Wi-Fi, cable TV and filtered water. *
style sculptures carved into the cave walls, and hundreds of discarded Buddhist figures laid out over the floors and wall shelves. They were put there as their owners did not wish to destroy them, so a difficult journey is made to the caves to place their unwanted statue there. Many beautiful '''Lao Buddhist sculptures''' are carved right into the Pak Ou caves. Near ''Pak Ou'' (mouth of the Ou river) the ''Tham Ting'' (lower cave) and the ''Tham Theung'' (upper cave) are near Luang Prabang, Laos. They are a magnificent group of caves that are only accessible by boat, about two hours upstream from the center of Luang Prabang, and have recently become more well known and frequented by tourists.The caves are noted for their impressive Buddhist and Lao (Laotian art) style sculptures carved into the cave walls, and hundreds of discarded Buddhist figures laid out over the floors and wall shelves. They were put there as their owners did not wish to destroy them, so a difficult journey is made to the caves to place their unwanted statue there. thumb left Kháy phen served as an appetizer dish. (Image:Kháy phen appetizer.jpg) In Laos, ''Cladophara'' spp. (Species#Abbreviated names) (ໄຄ Commons:Category:Luang Prabang
Prabang . He made further incursions westwards into the Irrawaddy River region in modern-day Burma before withdrawing. In adopting Chinese customs, the Vietnamese court also adopted the Chinese world view. In 1805, the Emperor Gia Long referred to Vietnam as ''trung quốc'', the "middle kingdom". ''Vietnam and the Chinese Model'', Alexander Barton Woodside, Council on East Asian Studies Harvard, Cambridge (Massachusetts) and London 1988: P18 In 1811, Gia
alt url email address lat long directions phone fax hours price USD25-30+ content Guesthouse in the city centre, close to the Royal Palace and the morning market. Rooms offer air-con, TV, Wi-Fi (unreliable) and free water. *
and resolving disputes. Indra, the king of gods, sent his son, Khun Borom, to be the ruler of the Tai people. Khun Borom ruled the Tai people for 25 years, teaching them to use new tools and other arts. After this quarter-century span, Khun Borom divided the Tai kingdom among his seven sons, giving each one of them a portion of the kingdom to rule. The eldest son, Khun Lo, was given the kingdom of Muang Sua- modern-day Luang Prabang. Other sons were given the kingdoms of Siang Khwang (Xiang_Khouang), Ayutthaya (Ayutthaya Kingdom), Chiang Mai, Sipsong Pan Na (Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture) (Southern Yunnan, China), Hamsavati (Bago, Burma) (a Mon (Mon (ethnic group)) state in modern-day Myanmar), and an unknown area apparently in north-central Vietnam, sometimes identified with Nghe-an province. The provinces were divided into four different classes. The first class were the border provinces. The second class were those that once had their own princely house. Third class were provinces that were created recently by splitting them from other provinces. Fourth class were provinces near the capital. Additionally tributary states like the principalities of Lannathai, the Laotian (Laos) kingdoms of Vientiane and Luang Prabang, Cambodia, or the Malay (Malays (ethnic group)) sultanate Kedah were also part of the country, but with an even higher autonomy than the provinces. In this Mandala system the semi-independent countries sometimes were tributary to more than one country. The Burmese failure to take Phichai formed a prelude to Taksin's second-expedition to Chaing Mai. Damrong Rajanubhab, p. 438 In 1773, a Burmese army which threatened Phichai was drawn into an ambush and was heavily routed. Phraya Phichai, the Phichai Governor, engaged the Burmese in a hand to hand fight until his two long swords were broken, and thus won the name of "Broken Sword." Damrong Rajanubhab, p. 444 When a Thai army under the command of Chao Phraya Chakri and Chao Phraya Surasih reached Lampang, Phraya Chaban and Phraya Kawila, the two leading officials who had deserted the Burmese joined him in laying siege to Chaing Mai and soon King Taksin arrived on the spot. The city fell to the Thai armies in January 1775, but the Burmese Governor and the commander managed to escape with their families. Before his departure for Thonburi, the King conferred honours and distinction on those who had contributed to success of his campaign. Phraya Chaban was made Governor of Chaing Mai with the title of Phraya Wichienprakarn, while Phraya Kawila and Phraya Waiwongsa governed Lampang and Lamphun respectively. W.A.R.Wood, pp. 263-264 Chao Phraya Chakri was directed to prolong his stay in order to assist them in the pacification of the north, which included the Laotian states. However, the Burmese King considered that as the Laotian states constituted his base for the maintenance of Burmese power in the territory further east, namely, Luang Prabang and Vientiane, Chiang Mai must be taken back, and so a Burmese army of 6,000 men was sent there to carry out its mission in 1776. The Burmese entered the city, but were forced out by a Thai army under Chao Phraya Surasih which had marched to its relief. Chaing Mai had suffered from the recent campaigns so badly that its population was greatly reduced and impoverished, and in the event of a new Burmese attack, it could not defend itself. For these reasons, King Taksin abandoned the city and its remaining inhabitants were transplanted to Lampang. Chiang Mai thus became a deserted city and remained so for fifteen years. Damrong Rajanubhab, p. 530 Over the next few years, Taksin managed to gain control over Chiang Mai, and put Cambodia under the vassalage of Siam by 1779 after repeated military campaigns. Commons:Category:Luang Prabang
; gastronomy and ancient temples in the capital of Vientiane; backpacking in Muang Ngoi Neua and Vang Vieng; ancient and modern culture and history in The Plain of Jars region (main article: Phonsavan); Laos Civil War history in Sam Neua (Xam Neua); Trekking and visiting hill tribes in a number of areas including Phongsaly and Luang Namtha; spotting tigers and other wildlife in Nam Et-Phou Louey; caves and waterfalls near Thakhek; relaxation
at the Mekong garden cafe. A free tuk-tuk departs daily from both Ock Pop Tok Shops in town at 10:00, 12:00, and 14:00. *
WHS City of Luang Prabang Image 252px (File:Luang Prabang pano Wikimedia Commons.jpg) State Party Laos Type Cultural Criteria ii, iv, v ID 479 Region Asia (List of World Heritage Sites in Asia) Year 1995 Session 19th Link http: whc.unesco.org en list 479
'''Luang Prabang''', or '''Louangphrabang''' (Lao: ຫຼວງພຣະບາງ (wikt:ຫລວງພະບາງ), literally: "Royal Buddha Image (in the Dispelling Fear mudra)," pronounced ), is a city in north central Laos, at the confluence of the Nam Khan and Mekong Rivers about 300 km north of Vientiane. It is the capital of Luang Prabang Province. The population of the city is about 50,000. http: www.dailymail.co.uk travel article-2146908 Luang-Prabang-New-Delhi-From-simply-divine-reassuringly-sumptuous.html
The city was formerly the capital of a kingdom of the same name. It had also been known by the ancient name of '''Chiang Thong'''. chiang-tong Until the communist (communism) takeover in 1975, it was the royal capital and seat of government of the Kingdom of Laos. The old town centre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The main part of the city consists of four main roads on a peninsula between the Nam Khan and Mekong Rivers. The city is well known for its numerous Buddhist (Buddhism) temples and monasteries. Every morning, hundreds of monks from the various monasteries walk through the streets collecting alms. One of the major landmarks in the city is a large steep hill on which sits Wat Chom Si.