Lower Navarre

What is Lower Navarre known for?


huge stone

and other neolithic monuments dot the landscape, including the Tour d'Urkulu (Urkulu) high in the mountains at 1,149m—a 2,000-year-old circular platform of huge stone blocks. Lower Navarre is well delimited by mountain ranges on the west (with Mount Iparla as its highest and most iconic landmark), south (Roncevaux, Mount Urkulu and Pyrenees altogether) and the east (bounded by the western mountains of Soule). History The lands of the Lower Navarre were part of the Duchy


live long

to it that she would not live long enough to embarrass his master. In August 1476, the paralyzed and forlorn Isabelle of Armagnac, who in her youth had been promised to the king of England, died in horrible pain after drinking a potion prepared by the doctor to "cure" her. She was only 45. Gaston de Lyon immediately claimed the Quatre-Vallées. His attitude was so revolting that the duke of Alençon and the duke of Vendôme, relatives of Isabelle of Armagnac, sued Gaston de Lyon to prevent him from obtaining the Quatre-Vallées. The trial lasted for more than a century. At last, ruined and discouraged, the descendants of Gaston de Lyon ceded the Quatre-Vallées to Henry III of Navarre, who owned many Pyrenean fiefs (Béarn, Lower Navarre, Bigorre, County of Foix, Nébouzan). agitated for irredentism, claiming for Spain the French Navarre (Lower Navarre), French Basque Country and Roussillon (French Catalonia) as well. ''Serrano Suñer, tragedia personal y fascismo político'', Javier Tusell, ''El País'', 2 September 2003: "Serrano ante él Hitler llegó a sugerir que el Rosellón debia ser español, por catalán, y que Portugal no tenía sentido como unidad política independiente." ''El último de los de Franco'', Santiago Pérez Díaz, ''El País'' 7 September 2003 thumb Basque Country (Image:Euskal Herriko herrialdeen mapa.svg) '''Lower Navarrese''' (or Low Navarrese) is a dialect of the Basque language spoken in the Lower Navarre (Basque: ''Nafarroa Beherea'') region of France. It differs somewhat from Upper Navarrese, which is more generally spoken in the Spanish (Spain) Basque Country (Basque Country (greater region)).


bringing young

when its Huguenot sovereign became King Henry IV of France; with the declaration of the French Republic and execution of Louis XVI, the last King of France and Navarre, the kingdom was merged into a unitary French state. The club is known for its cantera policy of bringing young Basque (Basque people) players through the ranks, as well as recruiting top Basque players from other clubs (like Joseba Etxeberria or Javi Martínez). Athletic official policy is signing


modern design

of the French department of the Pyrénées Atlantiques - Zuberoa and Lapurdi. The coat of arms of the third traditional province, Lower Navarre, as the version it is of the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Navarre, is omitted and represented by the latter. The modern design is based on the current simplified heraldry of these territories. Pierre de Marca, a Béarnese author, suggests that the attackers were a ''reduced number'' of mostly local Lower Navarre Low


landscape including

and other neolithic monuments dot the landscape, including the Tour d'Urkulu (Urkulu) high in the mountains at 1,149m—a 2,000-year-old circular platform of huge stone blocks. Lower Navarre is well delimited by mountain ranges on the west (with Mount Iparla as its highest and most iconic landmark), south (Roncevaux, Mount Urkulu and Pyrenees altogether) and the east (bounded by the western mountains of Soule). History The lands of the Lower Navarre were part of the Duchy


years advocating

a campaign for years advocating for the creation of a separate Basque département, while these demands have gone unheard by the French administration. Transport The Gare de Bayonne is on the high-speed TGV line between Paris and Hendaye for connections with Spain. In practice, the line slows considerably beyond Bordeaux although there are plans to improve the service. There are regional rail services along the Basque coast, to Pau and through the Landes (Landes (department)) to Dax (Dax, Landes) and Bordeaux. There is a line along the Nive valley through Labourd and Lower Navarre to Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port, used principally by tourists and hikers. In AD 1515, the bulk of Navarre south of the Pyrenees—Upper Navarre—was at last absorbed into the incipient Kingdom of Spain but retained some exclusive rights. The small portion of Navarre lying north of the Pyrenees—Lower Navarre—later came under French rule when its Huguenot sovereign became King Henry IV of France; with the declaration of the French Republic and execution of Louis XVI, the last King of France and Navarre, the kingdom was merged into a unitary French state. The club is known for its cantera policy of bringing young Basque (Basque people) players through the ranks, as well as recruiting top Basque players from other clubs (like Joseba Etxeberria or Javi Martínez). Athletic official policy is signing professional players native to the greater Basque Country (Basque Country (greater region)), including Biscay, Guipúzcoa, Álava and Navarre (in Spain); and Labourd, Soule and Lower Navarre (in France). Still, in recent times, this policy has been somewhat relaxed and players with direct Basque ancestry have played for the team. This has gained Athletic both admirers and critics. The club has been praised for promoting home grown players and club loyalty. Athletic is one of only four professional clubs in Spain (the others being Real Madrid (Real Madrid C.F.), Barcelona (FC Barcelona) and Osasuna (CA Osasuna)) that is not a sports corporation; the club is owned and operated by its associates (socios). **Labourd(''Lapurdi''): from the Roman city of Lapurdum (modern Bayonne). **Lower Navarre (French: ''Basse Navarre'', Basque: ''Nafarroa Behera'', ''Benafarroa''). From the medieval Kingdom of Navarre, itself of disputed etymology (either Basque ''nabar'': "brownish, multicolor", also "ploughshare"; or Romance ''nava'': "river bank"; or Basque ''naba'' (valley, plain) + ''herri'' (people, land)). Compare Kingdom of Navarre#Etymology **Soule: deformation of the original Basque name ''Zuberoa'' or ''Xiberue'' In parts of Navarre this holiday is called ''xubilaro'' or ''subilaro'' from ''subil'', the word for a Yule log plus the suffix ''-zaro''. In parts of Lower Navarre the word ''suklaro'' is used, a contraction of ''sekularo''. ''Sekularo'' has no clear etymology but is likely to be related to Latin ''saecularis''. Azkue, RM 1905 ''Diccionario Vasco Español Frances'' repr. Bilbao 1984 The original Zazpiak Bat features a design of traditional arms of six Basque territories, namely Álava, Guipúzcoa, and Biscay (the three which make the Basque Autonomous Community) plus Navarre (both in Spain); and the two that are part of the French department of the Pyrénées Atlantiques - Zuberoa and Lapurdi. The coat of arms of the third traditional province, Lower Navarre, as the version it is of the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Navarre, is omitted and represented by the latter. The modern design is based on the current simplified heraldry of these territories. Pierre de Marca, a Béarnese author, suggests that the attackers were a ''reduced number'' of mostly local Low Navarrese (Lower Navarre), Souletines, and Baztanese, whose main motivation may well have been plunder. Nevertheless he also suggests that the Duke of Vasconia, Lop (Lupo II of Gascony), may have been their commander. Pierre de Marca, ''Historie du Béarn'' (quoted by Narbaitz, op.cit.) This opinion is also held by the authors of the General History of Languedoc who claim that Duke Lop was the leader of the ''Gascons'' that attacked Charlemagne. Devic and Vaissette, Historie Genérale du Languedoc, 1872 (quoted by Narbaitz, op.cit.) long_EW W location Lower Navarre agitated for irredentism, claiming for Spain the French Navarre (Lower Navarre), French Basque Country and Roussillon (French Catalonia) as well. ''Serrano Suñer, tragedia personal y fascismo político'', Javier Tusell, ''El País'', 2 September 2003: "Serrano ante él Hitler llegó a sugerir que el Rosellón debia ser español, por catalán, y que Portugal no tenía sentido como unidad política independiente." ''El último de los de Franco'', Santiago Pérez Díaz, ''El País'' 7 September 2003 thumb Basque Country (Image:Euskal Herriko herrialdeen mapa.svg) '''Lower Navarrese''' (or Low Navarrese) is a dialect of the Basque language spoken in the Lower Navarre (Basque: ''Nafarroa Beherea'') region of France. It differs somewhat from Upper Navarrese, which is more generally spoken in the Spanish (Spain) Basque Country (Basque Country (greater region)).


loyalty

of Navarre now under Spanish rule, restored Navarrese official institutions and bodies in the Lower Navarre, e.g. the Parliament in 1523, the Chancery in 1524, the Royal Mint a bit later in Saint-Palais (Saint-Palais, Pyrénées-Atlantiques) (Donapaleu in Basque), etc. In 1525 a new military inroad led by the Spanish viceroy of Navarre subdued the region, and tried to earn the loyalty of the nobles, but they hung unanimously onto their allegiance to the Albrets, and both the lord of Luxe

professional players native to the greater Basque Country (Basque Country (greater region)), including Biscay, Guipúzcoa, Álava and Navarre (in Spain); and Labourd, Soule and Lower Navarre (in France). Still, in recent times, this policy has been somewhat relaxed and players with direct Basque ancestry have played for the team. This has gained Athletic both admirers and critics. The club has been praised for promoting home grown players and club loyalty. Athletic


personal

, the clergy being represented by the bishops of Bayonne and Dax, their vicars-general, the parish priest of St-Jean-Pied-de-Port, and the priors of Saint-Palais, d'Utziat and Haramples. The area north of the Pyrenees (Lower Navarre) remained an independent kingdom with large additional French estates until 1620. Henry III of Navarre became King Henry IV of France in 1589. In 1607, he united to the French crown his personal fiefs that were under French sovereignty (i.e. County of Foix

with Henry III of Navarre, son of Antoine de Bourbon and Jeanne d'Albret. Henry III of Navarre became King Henry IV of France in 1589. In 1607, he united to the French crown those of his personal fiefs that were under French sovereignty (i.e. County of Foix, Bigorre, Quatre-Vallées, and Nébouzan, but not Béarn and Lower Navarre, which were sovereign countries outside of the kingdom of France), and so Bigorre became part of the Crown lands of France royal domain

;''PKFHSPKFHS personal fascismo politico elpepiesp 20030902elpepinac_28 Tes Serrano Suñer, tragedia personal y fascismo político'', Javier Tusell, ''El País'', 2 September 2003: "Serrano ante él Hitler llegó a sugerir que el Rosellón debia ser español, por catalán, y que Portugal no tenía sentido como unidad política independiente." ''


political support

agitated for irredentism, claiming for Spain the French Navarre (Lower Navarre), French Basque Country and Roussillon (French Catalonia) as well. ''Serrano Suñer, tragedia personal y fascismo político'', Javier Tusell, ''El País'', 2 September 2003: "Serrano ante él Hitler llegó a sugerir que el Rosellón debia ser español, por catalán, y que Portugal no tenía sentido como unidad política independiente." ''El último de los de Franco'', Santiago Pérez Díaz, ''El País'' 7 September 2003 thumb Basque Country (Image:Euskal Herriko herrialdeen mapa.svg) '''Lower Navarrese''' (or Low Navarrese) is a dialect of the Basque language spoken in the Lower Navarre (Basque: ''Nafarroa Beherea'') region of France. It differs somewhat from Upper Navarrese, which is more generally spoken in the Spanish (Spain) Basque Country (Basque Country (greater region)).


current main

current main settlement) In Navarre, the civil wars between the Agramontese and the Beaumontese paved the way for the Spanish conquest of the bulk of Navarre (Spanish conquest of Iberian Navarre) from 1512 to 1521. The Navarrese territory north of the Pyrenees (Lower Navarre) remaining out of Spanish rule was formally absorbed by France in 1620. In the decades after the Spanish annexation, the Basque Country suffered attempts at religious, ideological and national homogenization, coming to a head in the 1609-1611 Basque witch trials at either side of the border of the kingdoms. Demographics The Basque Country has a population of approximately 3 million as of early 2006. The population density, at about 140 km² (360 sq. mile) is above average for both Spain and France, but the distribution of the population is fairly unequal, concentrated around the main cities. A third of the population is concentrated in the Greater Bilbao metropolitan area, while most of the interior of the French Basque Country and some areas of Navarre remain sparsely populated: density culminates at about 500 km² for Biscay but falls to 20 km² in the northern inner provinces of Lower Navarre and Soule. A readable map of population density for each municipality can be consulted online on the website ''muturzikin.com'' Up to this point the area of the river Adour was referred to as the County of Vasconia after the early 9th century. At the turn of the century, after so much unrest and a progressive period of feudalization, the viscounty of Labourd is first mentioned, at this first stage comprising a larger extent than the current one. In 1020 Duke Sancho VI (Sancho VI William of Gascony) ceded the jurisdiction over Labourd and what came to be known as Lower Navarre, to King Sancho III ''the Great'' (Sancho III of Navarre) of Pamplona. This monarch made it officially a Viscounty in 1023, naming as Viscount certain Lupo Sancho, a relative of the Duke of Gascony. This territory included all modern Labourd and possibly some parts of modern Navarre north of the Bidasoa river. A small portion of Navarre north of the Pyrenees, Lower Navarre, along with the neighbouring Principality of Béarn survived as an independent kingdom which passed by inheritance. Navarre received from Henry II of Navarre, the son of Jean d'Albret, a representative assembly, the clergy being represented by the bishops of Bayonne and Dax, their vicars-general, the parish priest of St-Jean-Pied-de-Port, and the priors of Saint-Palais, d'Utziat and Haramples. The area north of the Pyrenees (Lower Navarre) remained an independent kingdom with large additional French estates until 1620. Henry III of Navarre became King Henry IV of France in 1589. In 1607, he united to the French crown his personal fiefs that were under French sovereignty (i.e. County of Foix, Bigorre, Quatre-Vallées, and Nébouzan, but not Béarn and Lower Navarre, which were sovereign countries outside of the kingdom of France), and so the county of Foix became part of the royal domain (Crown lands of France). '''Béarn''' ( agitated for irredentism, claiming for Spain the French Navarre (Lower Navarre), French Basque Country and Roussillon (French Catalonia) as well. ''Serrano Suñer, tragedia personal y fascismo político'', Javier Tusell, ''El País'', 2 September 2003: "Serrano ante él Hitler llegó a sugerir que el Rosellón debia ser español, por catalán, y que Portugal no tenía sentido como unidad política independiente." ''El último de los de Franco'', Santiago Pérez Díaz, ''El País'' 7 September 2003 thumb Basque Country (Image:Euskal Herriko herrialdeen mapa.svg) '''Lower Navarrese''' (or Low Navarrese) is a dialect of the Basque language spoken in the Lower Navarre (Basque: ''Nafarroa Beherea'') region of France. It differs somewhat from Upper Navarrese, which is more generally spoken in the Spanish (Spain) Basque Country (Basque Country (greater region)).

Lower Navarre

'''Lower Navarre''' ( ) is a traditional region of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques ''département (département in France)'' of France. It corresponds to the northernmost ''merindad'' of the Kingdom of Navarre during the Middle Ages. After the Spanish conquest of Iberian Navarre (1512–24), this ''merindad'' was restored to the rule of the native king, Henry II (Henry II of Navarre). Its capitals were Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port and Saint-Palais (Saint-Palais, Pyrénées-Atlantiques). In the extreme north there was the little sovereign Principality of Bidache. Its extent is of 1,284 km 2 , and has a decreasing population of 44,450 (in 1901), 25,356 (in 1990).

Although this denomination is not completely correct from the historical point of view, it is also known as ''Merindad de Ultrapuertos'' ("the regions beyond the mountain passes") by the southerners, and ''Deça-ports'' ("this side of the mountain passes") by the Gascon-speakers. Despite its lost administrative cohesion, the memory of its past heyday has left an imprint on its inhabitants, who keep identifying themselves as Lower Navarrese and therefore Navarrese. The ''Nafarroaren Eguna'' or Day of Navarre is a festival held in Baigorri (Saint-Etienne-de-Baigorry) every year to strengthen their bonds and celebrate their Basque identity. The territory is also claimed by Basque nationalists to be one of the seven constituent regions making up the Basque Country.

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