Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture

What is Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture known for?


346

plateaus, is a major agricultural and residential area. Both Hanji Town (the county seat of Linxia County) and Linxia City are located in this valley. Xie Ai was initially regarded as only capable in civilian matters, and apparently served as a civilian official during the rule of Zhang Chonghua's father Zhang Jun (Zhang Jun (Former Liang)). In 346, in light of Zhang Jun's death and succession by Zhang Chonghua, Later Zhao launched a major attack against Former Liang, with intent

to destroy Former Liang. Under the recommendation of the general Zhang Chen (張耽), who knew of Xie's capabilities in military strategy, Zhang Chonghua made Xie a general and had him face the Later Zhao forces commanded by Wang Zhuo (王擢) and Ma Qiu (麻秋). After an initial victory later in 346, Zhang Chonghua created Xie the Count of Fulu. In 347, as Ma sieged the important city Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu), Zhang Chonghua sent Xie to try to relieve the city


attitude

districts.

+of+the+Kansu+Provincial+Government+Committee.+When+I+called+on+him%2C+he+asked+me+many+questions+regarding+the+attitude+of+...+ma+chuan+yuan+super title Asia, Volume 40 author American Asiatic Association year 1940 publisher Asia Magazine location page 659 isbn pages accessdate 2011-05-08 (Original from the University of Michigan) The hydro dams thumb The Liujiaxia Dam (File:6058-Liujiaxia-Dam.jpg), in Liujia Gorge In 1955, just a few years after the creation


school called

Muslims in China , by the Hanafi Sunni Gedimu and Sufi Khafiya (Ma Laichi) and Jahriyya. So much so that even the Yihewani (Ikhwan) Chinese sect, which is fundamentalist and was founded by Ma Wanfu who was originally inspired by the Salafis, condemned Ma Debao and Ma Zhengqing as heretics when they attempted to introduce Salafism as the main form of Islam. Ma Debao established a Salafi school, called the Sailaifengye (Salafi) menhuan in Lanzhou and Linxia Hui Autonomous


fierce fighting'

and culture In the past, Linxia City was called Hezhou, and the surrounding area was known as Hezhou Prefecture. The Hui Minorities War thumb Qianheyan Mosque, Linxia City (File:5688-Linxia-City-Qianheyan-Mosque.jpg) During the Hui Minorities' War (Dungan revolt (1862–1877)) in the 1860s Hezhou Prefecture was a scene of fierce fighting between the Muslim (Hui (Hui people), Dongxiang (Dongxiang people), and Salar (Salar people), in modern terms) rebels on one side and the Han Chinese militias and, later, government troops, on the other side. From 1862 to 1872, Hezhou City (today's Linxia City) was the stronghold of the Muslim (mostly Hui) rebels led by the Khufiyya imam Ma Zhan'ao and his associates Ma Haiyan and Ma Qianling. ) are located in Liujia Gorge, or ''Liujiaxia'' (literally, "Liu Family's Gorge"), just downstream from where the Tao River flows into the Yellow River. The site is on the eastern outskirts of Liujiaxia Town. Since Liujiaxia Town (Town (China)) is the county seat of Yongjing County, it is often marked on less detailed maps simply as "Yongjing". The Daxia River starts in the northern part of Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, where its drainage basin covers large parts of Hezuo County-level City and Xiahe County. It then flows northeast into Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, where it is crosses the breadth of Linxia County, and Linxia City; its lower course forms the border between Linxia County and the neighboring Dongxiang Autonomous County to the east. The river forms a large bay at its fall into the Liujiaxia Reservoir. Within Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, the wide valley of Daxia River, flanked on both sides by loess plateaus, is a major agricultural and residential area. Both Hanji Town (the county seat of Linxia County) and Linxia City are located in this valley. Xie Ai was initially regarded as only capable in civilian matters, and apparently served as a civilian official during the rule of Zhang Chonghua's father Zhang Jun (Zhang Jun (Former Liang)). In 346, in light of Zhang Jun's death and succession by Zhang Chonghua, Later Zhao launched a major attack against Former Liang, with intent to destroy Former Liang. Under the recommendation of the general Zhang Chen (張耽), who knew of Xie's capabilities in military strategy, Zhang Chonghua made Xie a general and had him face the Later Zhao forces commanded by Wang Zhuo (王擢) and Ma Qiu (麻秋). After an initial victory later in 346, Zhang Chonghua created Xie the Count of Fulu. In 347, as Ma sieged the important city Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu), Zhang Chonghua sent Xie to try to relieve the city. As Xie arrived at the frontline, he was seen wearing a white cap and riding in a wagon—making him appear to be a civilian—and Ma felt insulted that Xie apparently did not consider his siege an emergency. He sent some elite soldiers to make an attack against Xie, but Xie calmly responded, and Ma's elite soldiers thought they were getting into a trap and stopped their advance. Meanwhile, an army sent by Xie had already gone behind them and started an attack. Xie then advanced as well and dealt Ma a great loss. In the fall, Ma attacked Former Liang again and was again repelled by Xie. (However, Xie's victories appeared to be insufficient for Former Liang to regain the territories lost in the initial Later Zhao attack, south of the Yellow River.) Later that year, Li Yan (李儼), a warlord who had occupied Longxi Commandery (隴西, roughly modern Dingxi, Gansu) and become a Former Qin vassal but who had also maintained contact with Former Liang, formally declared independence and cut off relations with Former Qin and Former Liang, occupying the commanderies around him. In early 367, Zhang Tianxi personally attacked Li and took a number of cities from him. Li became fearful and apologized to Former Qin, seeking assistance. The Former Qin prime minister Wang Meng (Wang Meng (Former Qin)) led a force to try to relieve Li's capital Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu), and Wang and Zhang's forces came to a stalemate at Fuhan. Wang proposed a compromise—that Zhang would be allowed to capture Li's people and bring them back to his domain, while Wang would be allowed to carry Li east. Zhang Tianxi accepted, and a major confrontation with Former Qin was averted. In 391, Lü Guang tried to make a surprise attack against Western Qin while its prince, Qifu Gangui, was attacking the rebel Mo Yigan (沒奕干), but Qifu Gangui quickly responded upon hearing about the attack, and so Lü Guang withdrew. This appeared to, however, start a series of battles with Western Qin. In 392, Lü Guang sent his brother Lü Bao (呂寶) against Western Qin and son Lü Zuan against Western Qin's vassal, the Qiang (Qiang people) chief Peng Xi'nian (彭奚念), and both Lü Bao and Lü Zuan were defeated, although Lü Guang then personally attacked Peng, capturing Peng's city Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu) and forcing him to flee. In summer 400, Later Qin's general, Yao Xing's uncle Yao Shuode (姚碩德) launched a major attack against Western Qin. Initially, Qifu Gangui was successful in cutting off Yao Shuode's supply line, but Yao Xing then personally came to Yao Shuode's aid. Qifu Gangui divided his army to try to ascertain Later Qin's intentions, but the armies lost communication in the fog, and Later Qin attacked them and greatly defeated them, taking nearly the entire Western Qin army captive. Yao Xing advanced to Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu), forcing Qifu Gangui to flee back to Jincheng. With his army lost, however, Qifu Gangui concluded that he could not sustain a state any more, and instructed his officials to surrender to Later Qin, while he himself surrendered to Southern Liang's prince Tufa Lilugu, who welcomed him as an honored guest. Tufa Lilugu's brother Tufa Juyan (禿髮俱延) suspected Qifu Gangui's intentions, and suggested that Tufa Lilugu exile him to the Yifu (乙弗) tribe (probably west of the Qinghai Lake), a suggestion that Tufa Lilugu rejected. However, worried that Qifu Gangui would try to reestablish his state, he sent an army to watch over him. Qifu Gangui, fearing that he would be executed, then regained trust from Tufa Lilugu by sending Qifu Chipan, his brothers, and their mother to the Southern Liang capital Xiping as hostages. He himself, however, as soon as the Southern Liang guard was down, fled to Fuhan and surrendered to Later Qin. Second reign After his restoration, Qifu Gangui again created his wife Princess Bian as princess and Qifu Chipan as crown prince, and he temporarily set his capital at Dujianshan (度堅山, in modern Baiyin, Gansu). In 410, he attacked Later Qin's Jincheng Commandery and captured it, and later in 410 moved the capital back to Wanchuan. He then captured several more Later Qin commanderies. However, in spring 411, he returned the captured officials to Later Qin and sought peace, offering to again submit as a vassal. Yao Xing created him the Prince of Henan. However, in winter 411 he again captured several Later Qin commanderies. In spring 412, he moved the capital to Tanjiao (譚郊, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu), and left Qifu Chipan in charge of Wanchuan. As Southern Liang and Later Qin subject In 400, Qifu Gangui suffered a major defeat at the hands of the Later Qin emperor Yao Xing, and most of his state was seized by Later Qin. Qifu Gangui concluded that he could not sustain a state any more, and instructed his officials to surrender to Later Qin, while he himself surrendered to Southern Liang's prince Tufa Lilugu, who welcomed him as an honored guest. Tufa Lilugu's brother Tufa Juyan (禿髮俱延) suspected Qifu Gangui's intentions, and suggested that Tufa Lilugu exile him to the Yifu (乙弗) tribe (probably west of the Qinghai Lake), a suggestion that Tufa Lilugu rejected. However, worried that Qifu Gangui would try to reestablish his state, he sent an army to watch over him. Qifu Gangui, fearing that he would be executed, then regained trust from Tufa Lilugu by sending Qifu Chipan, his brothers, and their mother to the Southern Liang capital Xiping as hostages. He himself, however, as soon as the Southern Liang guard was down, fled to Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu) and surrendered to Later Qin. In spring 412, Qifu Gangui moved the capital to Tanjiao (譚郊, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu), leaving Qifu Chipan in command of Wanchuan. In summer 412, while at Tanjiao, Qifu Gangui was assassinated by Qifu Guoren's son Qifu Gongfu (乞伏公府), who also killed more than 10 brothers of Qifu Chipan. Qifu Gongfu then took up a defense position at Daxia (大夏, in modern Linxia as well). Qifu Chipan sent his brothers Qifu Zhida (乞伏智達) and Qifu Muyigan (乞伏木奕干) to attack Qifu Gongfu, while moving the capital to Fuhan. Qifu Zhida, meanwhile, defeated Qifu Gongfu and executed him, his sons, and his brother Qifu Achai (乞伏阿柴). Qifu Chipan was now the undisputed heir, and he claimed the title Prince of Henan. In 426, with Western Qin's prince Qifu Chipan attacking Northern Liang, Northern Liang's prince Juqu Mengxun sent messengers to persuade Helian Chang to attack the Western Qin capital Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu). Helian Chang, in response, sent his general Hulu Gu (呼盧古) to attack Wanchuan (苑川, in modern Baiyin, Gansu) and Wei Fa (韋伐) to attack Nan'an (南安, in modern Dingxi, Gansu), and while Western Qin was able to hold Wanchuan, Nan'an fell, at great loss. In winter 426, Xia forces commanded by Hulu and Wei attack Fuhan, forcing Qifu Gangui to move the capital to Dinglian (定連, also in Linxia), and Hulu and Wei then captured another important Western Qin city, Xiping (西平, in modern Xining, Qinghai), and while they then withdrew, Western Qin had been dealt a major blow. Meanwhile, Western Qin's prince Qifu Mumo, unable to stand pressures from Northern Liang and Tuyuhun, sought to surrender to Northern Wei, and with Northern Wei promising to give Xia's Pingliang and Anding Commanderies to him as his domain, he abandoned his capital Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu) and headed east, intending to join Northern Wei forces at Shanggui. Upon hearing this, Helian Ding personally tried to intercept Qifu Mumo, who was forced to stop at Nan'an (南安, in modern Longxi, Gansu), with his territory having otherwise all fallen to Tuyuhun.


covers large

Gorge, or ''Liujiaxia'' (literally, "Liu Family's Gorge"), just downstream from where the Tao River flows into the Yellow River. The site is on the eastern outskirts of Liujiaxia Town. Since Liujiaxia Town (Town (China)) is the county seat of Yongjing County, it is often marked on less detailed maps simply as "Yongjing". The Daxia River starts in the northern part of Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, where its drainage basin covers large parts of Hezuo County-level City and Xiahe County. It then flows northeast into Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, where it is crosses the breadth of Linxia County, and Linxia City; its lower course forms the border between Linxia County and the neighboring Dongxiang Autonomous County to the east. The river forms a large bay at its fall into the Liujiaxia Reservoir. Within Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, the wide valley of Daxia River, flanked on both sides by loess plateaus, is a major agricultural and residential area. Both Hanji Town (the county seat of Linxia County) and Linxia City are located in this valley. Xie Ai was initially regarded as only capable in civilian matters, and apparently served as a civilian official during the rule of Zhang Chonghua's father Zhang Jun (Zhang Jun (Former Liang)). In 346, in light of Zhang Jun's death and succession by Zhang Chonghua, Later Zhao launched a major attack against Former Liang, with intent to destroy Former Liang. Under the recommendation of the general Zhang Chen (張耽), who knew of Xie's capabilities in military strategy, Zhang Chonghua made Xie a general and had him face the Later Zhao forces commanded by Wang Zhuo (王擢) and Ma Qiu (麻秋). After an initial victory later in 346, Zhang Chonghua created Xie the Count of Fulu. In 347, as Ma sieged the important city Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu), Zhang Chonghua sent Xie to try to relieve the city. As Xie arrived at the frontline, he was seen wearing a white cap and riding in a wagon—making him appear to be a civilian—and Ma felt insulted that Xie apparently did not consider his siege an emergency. He sent some elite soldiers to make an attack against Xie, but Xie calmly responded, and Ma's elite soldiers thought they were getting into a trap and stopped their advance. Meanwhile, an army sent by Xie had already gone behind them and started an attack. Xie then advanced as well and dealt Ma a great loss. In the fall, Ma attacked Former Liang again and was again repelled by Xie. (However, Xie's victories appeared to be insufficient for Former Liang to regain the territories lost in the initial Later Zhao attack, south of the Yellow River.) Later that year, Li Yan (李儼), a warlord who had occupied Longxi Commandery (隴西, roughly modern Dingxi, Gansu) and become a Former Qin vassal but who had also maintained contact with Former Liang, formally declared independence and cut off relations with Former Qin and Former Liang, occupying the commanderies around him. In early 367, Zhang Tianxi personally attacked Li and took a number of cities from him. Li became fearful and apologized to Former Qin, seeking assistance. The Former Qin prime minister Wang Meng (Wang Meng (Former Qin)) led a force to try to relieve Li's capital Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu), and Wang and Zhang's forces came to a stalemate at Fuhan. Wang proposed a compromise—that Zhang would be allowed to capture Li's people and bring them back to his domain, while Wang would be allowed to carry Li east. Zhang Tianxi accepted, and a major confrontation with Former Qin was averted. In 391, Lü Guang tried to make a surprise attack against Western Qin while its prince, Qifu Gangui, was attacking the rebel Mo Yigan (沒奕干), but Qifu Gangui quickly responded upon hearing about the attack, and so Lü Guang withdrew. This appeared to, however, start a series of battles with Western Qin. In 392, Lü Guang sent his brother Lü Bao (呂寶) against Western Qin and son Lü Zuan against Western Qin's vassal, the Qiang (Qiang people) chief Peng Xi'nian (彭奚念), and both Lü Bao and Lü Zuan were defeated, although Lü Guang then personally attacked Peng, capturing Peng's city Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu) and forcing him to flee. In summer 400, Later Qin's general, Yao Xing's uncle Yao Shuode (姚碩德) launched a major attack against Western Qin. Initially, Qifu Gangui was successful in cutting off Yao Shuode's supply line, but Yao Xing then personally came to Yao Shuode's aid. Qifu Gangui divided his army to try to ascertain Later Qin's intentions, but the armies lost communication in the fog, and Later Qin attacked them and greatly defeated them, taking nearly the entire Western Qin army captive. Yao Xing advanced to Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu), forcing Qifu Gangui to flee back to Jincheng. With his army lost, however, Qifu Gangui concluded that he could not sustain a state any more, and instructed his officials to surrender to Later Qin, while he himself surrendered to Southern Liang's prince Tufa Lilugu, who welcomed him as an honored guest. Tufa Lilugu's brother Tufa Juyan (禿髮俱延) suspected Qifu Gangui's intentions, and suggested that Tufa Lilugu exile him to the Yifu (乙弗) tribe (probably west of the Qinghai Lake), a suggestion that Tufa Lilugu rejected. However, worried that Qifu Gangui would try to reestablish his state, he sent an army to watch over him. Qifu Gangui, fearing that he would be executed, then regained trust from Tufa Lilugu by sending Qifu Chipan, his brothers, and their mother to the Southern Liang capital Xiping as hostages. He himself, however, as soon as the Southern Liang guard was down, fled to Fuhan and surrendered to Later Qin. Second reign After his restoration, Qifu Gangui again created his wife Princess Bian as princess and Qifu Chipan as crown prince, and he temporarily set his capital at Dujianshan (度堅山, in modern Baiyin, Gansu). In 410, he attacked Later Qin's Jincheng Commandery and captured it, and later in 410 moved the capital back to Wanchuan. He then captured several more Later Qin commanderies. However, in spring 411, he returned the captured officials to Later Qin and sought peace, offering to again submit as a vassal. Yao Xing created him the Prince of Henan. However, in winter 411 he again captured several Later Qin commanderies. In spring 412, he moved the capital to Tanjiao (譚郊, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu), and left Qifu Chipan in charge of Wanchuan. As Southern Liang and Later Qin subject In 400, Qifu Gangui suffered a major defeat at the hands of the Later Qin emperor Yao Xing, and most of his state was seized by Later Qin. Qifu Gangui concluded that he could not sustain a state any more, and instructed his officials to surrender to Later Qin, while he himself surrendered to Southern Liang's prince Tufa Lilugu, who welcomed him as an honored guest. Tufa Lilugu's brother Tufa Juyan (禿髮俱延) suspected Qifu Gangui's intentions, and suggested that Tufa Lilugu exile him to the Yifu (乙弗) tribe (probably west of the Qinghai Lake), a suggestion that Tufa Lilugu rejected. However, worried that Qifu Gangui would try to reestablish his state, he sent an army to watch over him. Qifu Gangui, fearing that he would be executed, then regained trust from Tufa Lilugu by sending Qifu Chipan, his brothers, and their mother to the Southern Liang capital Xiping as hostages. He himself, however, as soon as the Southern Liang guard was down, fled to Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu) and surrendered to Later Qin. In spring 412, Qifu Gangui moved the capital to Tanjiao (譚郊, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu), leaving Qifu Chipan in command of Wanchuan. In summer 412, while at Tanjiao, Qifu Gangui was assassinated by Qifu Guoren's son Qifu Gongfu (乞伏公府), who also killed more than 10 brothers of Qifu Chipan. Qifu Gongfu then took up a defense position at Daxia (大夏, in modern Linxia as well). Qifu Chipan sent his brothers Qifu Zhida (乞伏智達) and Qifu Muyigan (乞伏木奕干) to attack Qifu Gongfu, while moving the capital to Fuhan. Qifu Zhida, meanwhile, defeated Qifu Gongfu and executed him, his sons, and his brother Qifu Achai (乞伏阿柴). Qifu Chipan was now the undisputed heir, and he claimed the title Prince of Henan. In 426, with Western Qin's prince Qifu Chipan attacking Northern Liang, Northern Liang's prince Juqu Mengxun sent messengers to persuade Helian Chang to attack the Western Qin capital Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu). Helian Chang, in response, sent his general Hulu Gu (呼盧古) to attack Wanchuan (苑川, in modern Baiyin, Gansu) and Wei Fa (韋伐) to attack Nan'an (南安, in modern Dingxi, Gansu), and while Western Qin was able to hold Wanchuan, Nan'an fell, at great loss. In winter 426, Xia forces commanded by Hulu and Wei attack Fuhan, forcing Qifu Gangui to move the capital to Dinglian (定連, also in Linxia), and Hulu and Wei then captured another important Western Qin city, Xiping (西平, in modern Xining, Qinghai), and while they then withdrew, Western Qin had been dealt a major blow. Meanwhile, Western Qin's prince Qifu Mumo, unable to stand pressures from Northern Liang and Tuyuhun, sought to surrender to Northern Wei, and with Northern Wei promising to give Xia's Pingliang and Anding Commanderies to him as his domain, he abandoned his capital Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu) and headed east, intending to join Northern Wei forces at Shanggui. Upon hearing this, Helian Ding personally tried to intercept Qifu Mumo, who was forced to stop at Nan'an (南安, in modern Longxi, Gansu), with his territory having otherwise all fallen to Tuyuhun.


traditional local

Jing (1998), pp. 76-77 Even the more generous payments (averaging 1,100 per person) to those affected by the Bapanxia Dam were not an adequate substitute for the loss of the farmland. Traditional local products Linxia is famous for a certain style of round glasses worn during the Qing Dynasty that are still made there today. Administration thumb A government building in Linxia City (File:5660-Linxia-Prefecture-government-buildings.jpg) <


412

the Prince of Henan. However, in winter 411 he again captured several Later Qin commanderies. In spring 412, he moved the capital to Tanjiao (譚郊, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu), and left Qifu Chipan in charge of Wanchuan. As Southern Liang and Later Qin subject In 400, Qifu Gangui suffered a major defeat at the hands of the Later Qin emperor Yao Xing, and most of his state was seized by Later Qin. Qifu Gangui concluded that he could not sustain a state any

him. Qifu Gangui, fearing that he would be executed, then regained trust from Tufa Lilugu by sending Qifu Chipan, his brothers, and their mother to the Southern Liang capital Xiping as hostages. He himself, however, as soon as the Southern Liang guard was down, fled to Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu) and surrendered to Later Qin. In spring 412, Qifu Gangui moved the capital to Tanjiao (譚郊, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu), leaving

Qifu Chipan in command of Wanchuan. In summer 412, while at Tanjiao, Qifu Gangui was assassinated by Qifu Guoren's son Qifu Gongfu (乞伏公府), who also killed more than 10 brothers of Qifu Chipan. Qifu Gongfu then took up a defense position at Daxia (大夏, in modern Linxia as well). Qifu Chipan sent his brothers Qifu Zhida (乞伏智達) and Qifu Muyigan (乞伏木奕干) to attack Qifu Gongfu, while moving the capital to Fuhan. Qifu Zhida, meanwhile, defeated Qifu Gongfu and executed him, his sons, and his brother


fierce fighting

and culture In the past, Linxia City was called Hezhou, and the surrounding area was known as Hezhou Prefecture. The Hui Minorities War thumb Qianheyan Mosque, Linxia City (File:5688-Linxia-City-Qianheyan-Mosque.jpg) During the Hui Minorities' War (Dungan revolt (1862–1877)) in the 1860s Hezhou Prefecture was a scene of fierce fighting between the Muslim (Hui (Hui people), Dongxiang (Dongxiang people), and Salar (Salar people), in modern terms) rebels on one side and the Han Chinese militias and, later, government troops, on the other side. From 1862 to 1872, Hezhou City (today's Linxia City) was the stronghold of the Muslim (mostly Hui) rebels led by the Khufiyya imam Ma Zhan'ao and his associates Ma Haiyan and Ma Qianling. ) are located in Liujia Gorge, or ''Liujiaxia'' (literally, "Liu Family's Gorge"), just downstream from where the Tao River flows into the Yellow River. The site is on the eastern outskirts of Liujiaxia Town. Since Liujiaxia Town (Town (China)) is the county seat of Yongjing County, it is often marked on less detailed maps simply as "Yongjing". The Daxia River starts in the northern part of Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, where its drainage basin covers large parts of Hezuo County-level City and Xiahe County. It then flows northeast into Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, where it is crosses the breadth of Linxia County, and Linxia City; its lower course forms the border between Linxia County and the neighboring Dongxiang Autonomous County to the east. The river forms a large bay at its fall into the Liujiaxia Reservoir. Within Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, the wide valley of Daxia River, flanked on both sides by loess plateaus, is a major agricultural and residential area. Both Hanji Town (the county seat of Linxia County) and Linxia City are located in this valley. Xie Ai was initially regarded as only capable in civilian matters, and apparently served as a civilian official during the rule of Zhang Chonghua's father Zhang Jun (Zhang Jun (Former Liang)). In 346, in light of Zhang Jun's death and succession by Zhang Chonghua, Later Zhao launched a major attack against Former Liang, with intent to destroy Former Liang. Under the recommendation of the general Zhang Chen (張耽), who knew of Xie's capabilities in military strategy, Zhang Chonghua made Xie a general and had him face the Later Zhao forces commanded by Wang Zhuo (王擢) and Ma Qiu (麻秋). After an initial victory later in 346, Zhang Chonghua created Xie the Count of Fulu. In 347, as Ma sieged the important city Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu), Zhang Chonghua sent Xie to try to relieve the city. As Xie arrived at the frontline, he was seen wearing a white cap and riding in a wagon—making him appear to be a civilian—and Ma felt insulted that Xie apparently did not consider his siege an emergency. He sent some elite soldiers to make an attack against Xie, but Xie calmly responded, and Ma's elite soldiers thought they were getting into a trap and stopped their advance. Meanwhile, an army sent by Xie had already gone behind them and started an attack. Xie then advanced as well and dealt Ma a great loss. In the fall, Ma attacked Former Liang again and was again repelled by Xie. (However, Xie's victories appeared to be insufficient for Former Liang to regain the territories lost in the initial Later Zhao attack, south of the Yellow River.) Later that year, Li Yan (李儼), a warlord who had occupied Longxi Commandery (隴西, roughly modern Dingxi, Gansu) and become a Former Qin vassal but who had also maintained contact with Former Liang, formally declared independence and cut off relations with Former Qin and Former Liang, occupying the commanderies around him. In early 367, Zhang Tianxi personally attacked Li and took a number of cities from him. Li became fearful and apologized to Former Qin, seeking assistance. The Former Qin prime minister Wang Meng (Wang Meng (Former Qin)) led a force to try to relieve Li's capital Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu), and Wang and Zhang's forces came to a stalemate at Fuhan. Wang proposed a compromise—that Zhang would be allowed to capture Li's people and bring them back to his domain, while Wang would be allowed to carry Li east. Zhang Tianxi accepted, and a major confrontation with Former Qin was averted. In 391, Lü Guang tried to make a surprise attack against Western Qin while its prince, Qifu Gangui, was attacking the rebel Mo Yigan (沒奕干), but Qifu Gangui quickly responded upon hearing about the attack, and so Lü Guang withdrew. This appeared to, however, start a series of battles with Western Qin. In 392, Lü Guang sent his brother Lü Bao (呂寶) against Western Qin and son Lü Zuan against Western Qin's vassal, the Qiang (Qiang people) chief Peng Xi'nian (彭奚念), and both Lü Bao and Lü Zuan were defeated, although Lü Guang then personally attacked Peng, capturing Peng's city Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu) and forcing him to flee. In summer 400, Later Qin's general, Yao Xing's uncle Yao Shuode (姚碩德) launched a major attack against Western Qin. Initially, Qifu Gangui was successful in cutting off Yao Shuode's supply line, but Yao Xing then personally came to Yao Shuode's aid. Qifu Gangui divided his army to try to ascertain Later Qin's intentions, but the armies lost communication in the fog, and Later Qin attacked them and greatly defeated them, taking nearly the entire Western Qin army captive. Yao Xing advanced to Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu), forcing Qifu Gangui to flee back to Jincheng. With his army lost, however, Qifu Gangui concluded that he could not sustain a state any more, and instructed his officials to surrender to Later Qin, while he himself surrendered to Southern Liang's prince Tufa Lilugu, who welcomed him as an honored guest. Tufa Lilugu's brother Tufa Juyan (禿髮俱延) suspected Qifu Gangui's intentions, and suggested that Tufa Lilugu exile him to the Yifu (乙弗) tribe (probably west of the Qinghai Lake), a suggestion that Tufa Lilugu rejected. However, worried that Qifu Gangui would try to reestablish his state, he sent an army to watch over him. Qifu Gangui, fearing that he would be executed, then regained trust from Tufa Lilugu by sending Qifu Chipan, his brothers, and their mother to the Southern Liang capital Xiping as hostages. He himself, however, as soon as the Southern Liang guard was down, fled to Fuhan and surrendered to Later Qin. Second reign After his restoration, Qifu Gangui again created his wife Princess Bian as princess and Qifu Chipan as crown prince, and he temporarily set his capital at Dujianshan (度堅山, in modern Baiyin, Gansu). In 410, he attacked Later Qin's Jincheng Commandery and captured it, and later in 410 moved the capital back to Wanchuan. He then captured several more Later Qin commanderies. However, in spring 411, he returned the captured officials to Later Qin and sought peace, offering to again submit as a vassal. Yao Xing created him the Prince of Henan. However, in winter 411 he again captured several Later Qin commanderies. In spring 412, he moved the capital to Tanjiao (譚郊, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu), and left Qifu Chipan in charge of Wanchuan. As Southern Liang and Later Qin subject In 400, Qifu Gangui suffered a major defeat at the hands of the Later Qin emperor Yao Xing, and most of his state was seized by Later Qin. Qifu Gangui concluded that he could not sustain a state any more, and instructed his officials to surrender to Later Qin, while he himself surrendered to Southern Liang's prince Tufa Lilugu, who welcomed him as an honored guest. Tufa Lilugu's brother Tufa Juyan (禿髮俱延) suspected Qifu Gangui's intentions, and suggested that Tufa Lilugu exile him to the Yifu (乙弗) tribe (probably west of the Qinghai Lake), a suggestion that Tufa Lilugu rejected. However, worried that Qifu Gangui would try to reestablish his state, he sent an army to watch over him. Qifu Gangui, fearing that he would be executed, then regained trust from Tufa Lilugu by sending Qifu Chipan, his brothers, and their mother to the Southern Liang capital Xiping as hostages. He himself, however, as soon as the Southern Liang guard was down, fled to Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu) and surrendered to Later Qin. In spring 412, Qifu Gangui moved the capital to Tanjiao (譚郊, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu), leaving Qifu Chipan in command of Wanchuan. In summer 412, while at Tanjiao, Qifu Gangui was assassinated by Qifu Guoren's son Qifu Gongfu (乞伏公府), who also killed more than 10 brothers of Qifu Chipan. Qifu Gongfu then took up a defense position at Daxia (大夏, in modern Linxia as well). Qifu Chipan sent his brothers Qifu Zhida (乞伏智達) and Qifu Muyigan (乞伏木奕干) to attack Qifu Gongfu, while moving the capital to Fuhan. Qifu Zhida, meanwhile, defeated Qifu Gongfu and executed him, his sons, and his brother Qifu Achai (乞伏阿柴). Qifu Chipan was now the undisputed heir, and he claimed the title Prince of Henan. In 426, with Western Qin's prince Qifu Chipan attacking Northern Liang, Northern Liang's prince Juqu Mengxun sent messengers to persuade Helian Chang to attack the Western Qin capital Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu). Helian Chang, in response, sent his general Hulu Gu (呼盧古) to attack Wanchuan (苑川, in modern Baiyin, Gansu) and Wei Fa (韋伐) to attack Nan'an (南安, in modern Dingxi, Gansu), and while Western Qin was able to hold Wanchuan, Nan'an fell, at great loss. In winter 426, Xia forces commanded by Hulu and Wei attack Fuhan, forcing Qifu Gangui to move the capital to Dinglian (定連, also in Linxia), and Hulu and Wei then captured another important Western Qin city, Xiping (西平, in modern Xining, Qinghai), and while they then withdrew, Western Qin had been dealt a major blow. Meanwhile, Western Qin's prince Qifu Mumo, unable to stand pressures from Northern Liang and Tuyuhun, sought to surrender to Northern Wei, and with Northern Wei promising to give Xia's Pingliang and Anding Commanderies to him as his domain, he abandoned his capital Fuhan (枹罕, in modern Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu) and headed east, intending to join Northern Wei forces at Shanggui. Upon hearing this, Helian Ding personally tried to intercept Qifu Mumo, who was forced to stop at Nan'an (南安, in modern Longxi, Gansu), with his territory having otherwise all fallen to Tuyuhun.


association year

%2C+as+well+as+written%2C+Chinese+in+school+when+he+was+twelve&q ruins+in+the+south+suburb+ title Asia, Volume 40 author American Asiatic Association year 1940 publisher Asia Magazine location page 659 isbn pages accessdate 2011-05-08 (Original from the University of Michigan)

+of+the+Kansu+Provincial+Government+Committee.+When+I+called+on+him%2C+he+asked+me+many+questions+regarding+the+attitude+of+...+ma+chuan+yuan+super title Asia, Volume 40 author American Asiatic Association year 1940 publisher Asia Magazine location page 659 isbn pages accessdate 2011-05-08 (Original from the University of Michigan) The hydro dams thumb The Liujiaxia Dam (File:6058-Liujiaxia-Dam.jpg), in Liujia Gorge In 1955, just a few years after the creation


major agricultural

plateaus, is a major agricultural and residential area. Both Hanji Town (the county seat of Linxia County) and Linxia City are located in this valley. Xie Ai was initially regarded as only capable in civilian matters, and apparently served as a civilian official during the rule of Zhang Chonghua's father Zhang Jun (Zhang Jun (Former Liang)). In 346, in light of Zhang Jun's death and succession by Zhang Chonghua, Later Zhao launched a major attack against Former Liang, with intent

Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture

'''Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture''' ( ; Xiao'erjing: '''لٍشِا خُوِذُو ذِجِجِوْ''' ) formerly known as '''Guhezhou''' is located in Gansu province, south of the provincial capital Lanzhou, bordering Qinghai to the west. It is an autonomous prefecture for the Muslim Hui people, a large Chinese ethnic group. It also includes two autonomous counties for other Muslim groups, namely Dongxiang (Dongxiang people), Salar (Salar people), and Bonan (Bonans).

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