title Inventing Lebanon: Nationalism and the State Under the Mandate url http: books.google.com books?id zRwOcE9wJAQC&pg PA18 accessdate 2013-04-02 date 2003-02-08 publisher I.B.Tauris isbn 978-1-86064-857-1 page 18 During this period current Lebanon was divided into several provinces. The Northern and Southern Mount Lebanon, Tripoli, Baalbek and Beqaa Valley and Jabal Amel. In the Southern Mount Lebanon in 1590, Fakhr-al-Din II became successor to Korkmaz. He soon
US dollars publisher EarthTrends accessdate 2008-12-31 Economic recovery has been helped by a financially sound banking system and resilient small- and medium-scale manufacturers, with family remittances, banking services, manufactured and farm exports, and international aid as the main sources of foreign exchange. Lebanon's economy has made impressive gains since the launch of "Horizon 2000," the government's $20 billion reconstruction program in 1993. Real Gross
, the Ottoman Empire in 1885 – died in Beirut, Lebanon in 1967) was a Lebanese (Lebanon)-Armenian (Armenians) composer and conductor. He most notably composed the music to "Mer Hayrenik", the Armenian national anthem. He also made the arrangement of a famous traditional Armenian lullaby "Oror Im Palas" (in Armenian (Armenian language) Օրօր Իմ Բալաս). He is founder and director conductor of "Gnar" wind orchestra and the "Gusan"
– died in Beirut, Lebanon in 1967) was a Lebanese (Lebanon)-Armenian (Armenians) composer and conductor. He most notably composed the music to "Mer Hayrenik", the Armenian national anthem. He also made the arrangement of a famous traditional Armenian lullaby "Oror Im Palas" (in Armenian (Armenian language) Օրօր Իմ Բալաս). He is founder and director conductor of "Gnar" wind orchestra and the "Gusan" choirs in Istanbul
in chocolate cornflakes in milk and ''Bahibak Ad Eh'' (''I Love You So'') she plays role of a girl in love, to date all directed by Jad Choueiri and have caused controversy for their "vulgarity". In 2008 she starred in the movie Bidoun Rakaba (
Coyotepec into a pottery-making family. He was named after Charlemagne by his grandmother, who was an admirer of the king. From a young age, he showed talent in fashioning figures in clay. When he was grown, he attended the Fine Arts Workshop of Rufino Tamayo in Oaxaca city (Oaxaca, Oaxaca). He has become the first potter sculptor in the medium, winning his first recognition in 1985 for his work. His fame increased with his development of human skulls made of barro negro in the years that followed. Each piece Carlomagno makes is unique in some way, but certain themes such as oral histories, indigenous legends, certain Christian themes and death, called "our grandmother." In Mexico, he has exhibited his work in dozens of expositions and has won three national level awards. His work has also been featured in five published books. Martinez’s work has also been exhibited in countries such as the United States, Colombia, Argentina, Lebanon, Germany, Spain and Japan, with one of his latest exhibits in New York in 2008. In that same year, he created a mural in barro negro at the Baseball Academy in San Bartolo Coyotepec sponsored by the Alfredo Harp Helú Foundation. Geographic range The Blunt-nosed viper can be found in these places, Algeria, Tunisia, Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Iraq, Iran, Russian Caucasia (Caucasus), Armenia, Georgia (Georgia (country)), Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhistan, Tadzikhistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Kashmir, India. Levant blunt-nosed viper Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, north Jordan, Caucasus (incl. Armenia), Azerbaijan, Dagestan, Iran, southern Afghanistan, Pakistan (Kashmir), and north India - * Ayatollah Ali Khamenei - The Supreme Leader of Iran and officially the Spiritual Leader of Hezbollah. * Ayatollah Fadlallah - The only Grand Ayatollah in Lebanon. Often thought to be the spiritual leader of Hezbollah, a claim that Fadlallah and Hezbollah deny. * Hasan Nasrallah, the current Secretary-General of Hezbollah. More specifically it is found in Iraq, Syria,
, Lebanon. The luxurious desert residence of Al-Walid II in Qasr al-Hallabat (in present-day Jordan) was also decorated with floor mosaics that show a high level of technical skill. The best preserved panel at Hallabat is divided by a Tree of Life flanked by "good" animals on one side and "bad" animals on the other. Among the Hallabat representations are vine scrolls, grapes, pomegranates, oryx, wolves, hares, a leopard, pairs of partridges, fish, bulls, ostriches
constantly shelled (Katyusha rocket launcher) the Israeli north, especially the town of Kiryat Shmona, which was a Likud stronghold inhabited primarily by Jews who had fled the Arab world. Lack of control over Palestinian areas was an important factor in causing civil war in Lebanon (Lebanese civil war). '''Hezbollah''' Other transliterations (Romanization of Arabic) include '''Hizbullah''', '''Hizbollah''', '''Hezballah''', '''Hizballah''', '''Hisbollah''', and '''Hizb
States . Generally, it follows the consensus of the Nonaligned Movement and the OAU on economic and political issues not directly affecting its own interests. Ghana has been extremely active in international peacekeeping activities under UN auspices in Lebanon, Afghanistan, Rwanda, and the Balkans, in addition to an eight-year sub-regional initiative with its ECOWAS partners to develop and then enforce a cease-fire in Liberia. url http: www.malaysianews.net story
a kingdom centered at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia c. the 18th century BC. The Hittite empire reached its height c. the 14th century BC, encompassing a large part of Anatolia, north-western Syria about as far south as the mouth of the Litani River (in present-day Lebanon), and eastward into upper Mesopotamia. The Hittite military made successful use of chariot (Chariot#Hittites)s. Kate Santon: ''Archaeology'', Parragon Books Ltd, London 2007 By the mid-14th century BC (under king Suppiluliuma I), they had carved out an empire that included most of Asia Minor as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia. After c. 1180 BC, the empire disintegrated (Bronze Age collapse) into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some surviving until the 8th century BC. Its origins can be thought to have been with the Zanclean flood of 5.33 million years ago, described in more detail under ''Mediterranean basin''. Two of the first commonly noted human civilizations began near the eastern Mediterranean sea. Common rhetoric suggests that Civilization first developed in Mesopotamia beginning with Sumer in the 4th millennium BC. Soon after, the Nile River valley of ancient Egypt was unified under the Pharaohs in the 4th millennium BC, and civilization quickly spread through the Fertile Crescent to the east coast of the sea and throughout the Levant, which happens to make the Mediterranean countries of Egypt (Ancient Egypt), Syria, Lebanon, Palestine and Israel part of the cradle of civilization. These areas shared similar climates and geographies, but it was more difficult to spread technologies and crops, such as flax, lentil, peas, barley, and cotton to other portions of the Mediterranean basin. Soon after World War II, the British government decided to leave Palestine. The United Nations attempted to solve the dispute by putting forward the 1947 UN Partition Plan, which divided the British Mandate of Palestine between the Arab and Jewish populations. On November 29, 1947, the Jewish Agency, including the Palestinian Jews, accepted the plan as it would help lead to the establishment of a new Zion, while the Arab states rejected it. On May 14, 1948, the Jewish population declared independence as the State of Israel. A 1948 Palestine War, called the War of Independence (Milhemet Ha'azmaut) by Israelis and the Catastrophe (Nakba) by Palestinians had begun. The armies of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria declared war on the newly formed state of Israel and invaded, but did not succeed in conquering Israel. (For a more detailed account, see 1948 Arab-Israeli War). During the fighting a significant population exchange had taken place in the area, as an estimated 700,000 Arab Palestinians fled or were expelled (1948 Palestinian exodus) from the Israeli controlled areas, and a comparable number of Jews is displaced and expelled from the Arab countries (Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim lands). In September 1970 (Black September in Jordan) King Hussein of Jordan drove the Palestine Liberation Organization out of his country. On 18 September 1970 Syrian tanks invaded Jordan, intending to aid the PLO. At the request of the U.S., Israel moved troops to the border and threatened Syria, causing the Syrians to withdraw. The center of PLO activity then shifted to Lebanon, where the 1969 Cairo agreement gave the Palestinians autonomy within the south of the country. The area controlled by the PLO became known by the international press and locals as "Fatahland" and contributed to the 1975–1990 Lebanese Civil War. The event also led to Hafez al-Assad taking power in Syria. Egyptian President Nasser died immediately after and was succeeded by Anwar Sadat.
The earliest evidence (Archaeological evidence) of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was the home of the Phoenicians, a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years (c. (Circa) 1550–539 BC). In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, and eventually became one of the Empire's leading centers of Christianity. In the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established. As the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their religion and identity. However, a new religious group, the Druze (Druze in Lebanon), established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, a religious divide that would last for centuries. During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church (Roman Catholic) and asserted their communion with Rome. The ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era.
The region eventually came under the rule of the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918. Following the collapse of the Empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon were mandated to France (French Mandate of Lebanon). The French (France) expanded the borders of Mount Lebanon Governorate, which was mostly populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing a unique political system
Before the Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990), the country experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture, commerce, and banking.