be preached “to every creature”. The proclamation of the Christian message also included medical work. Three hospitals were opened in rural Thailand as well as a leprosy control program. Many of the patients were refugees. In the Philippines, community development programs were launched. Alcoholic rehabilitation began in Japan, and rehabilitation work among prostitutes was begun in Taipei and Bangkok. '''''Terminalia elliptica''''' (syn. ''T. alata'' Heyne ex Roth, ''T. tomentosa
largest_city capital government_type Marxist-Leninist (Marxism-Leninism) single-party state leader_title1 President (President of Laos) leader_name1 Choummaly Sayasone leader_title2 Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Laos) leader_name2 Thongsing Thammavong leader_title3 President of the National Assembly (National Assembly of Laos) leader_name3 Pany Yathotou leader_title4 President of Construction (Lao Front for National Construction) leader_name4 Sisavath Keobounphanh legislature National Assembly (National Assembly (Laos)) sovereignty_type Formation (History of Laos) established_event1 Kingdom of Lan Xang (Lan Xang) established_date1 1354–1707 established_event2 Luang Phrabang (Kingdom of Luang Phrabang), Vientiane (Kingdom of Vientiane) and Champasak (Kingdom of Champasak) established_date2 1707–1778 established_event3 Vassal of Thonburi (Thonburi Kingdom) and Siam (Rattanakosin Kingdom) established_date3 1778–893 established_event4 War of Succession (Chao Anu Rebellion) established_date4 1826–8 established_event5 French Indochina established_date5 1893–1949 established_event6 Independence Commons:Category:Laos
that Setthathirath removed the image without authority when the government of Chiang Mai fell into strife. Some ethnomusicologists believe that Laos is a country where the ancient art music of the Khmer people has been best preserved -- as well as diverse forms of folk music related to the oldest types of Indian music, music that has largely disappeared in India itself. They claim to find in Laos a scale which the ancient Hindus called the "celestial scale," the Gandhara grama, which is a tempered heptatonic scale, or a division of the octave into seven equal parts. thumb 250px right A khene player in Isan (Image:Khenesarong.jpg) The '''''khene''''' ( Commons:Category:Laos
a movement in China in the second century, traveled to South Korea and crossed over to Japan by the sixth century. Hence we could call it the Northern Buddhism (w:Northern Buddhism). **Steve Cioccolanti in: ''Buddha to Jesus: An Insider's View of Buddhism and Christianity'', Monarch Books, 2010, p. 173 In a new study published in Systematics and Biodiversity, researchers describe a new rodent species called
. The martial art of muay Lao, the national sport, Commons:Category:Laos
henry-hampton-dies-at-58-produced-eyes-on-the-prize.html title New York Times Obit publisher Nytimes.com date 1998-11-24 accessdate 2011-10-03
dances from around the world have had an impact on Cambodian social culture include the Cha-cha (Cha-cha-cha (dance)), Bolero, and the Madison (Madison (dance)). Zenith-branded products are sold in North America, Germany, Thailand (to 1983), Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, India and Myanmar. The corridor presently contains working-class residents and immigrant populations from Laos and Vietnam. Although the Central Corridor construction is mostly an existing roadway and no land will be condemned, the disruption to existing transit and pedestrian ways has been cited as a concern by some groups. There is also concern that stops for light rail will be placed too far apart and, along with reductions in bus service, transportation options for people will be reduced. Others are concerned about gentrification, where rising property values and taxes could force out lower-income residents. Commons:Category:Laos
First exposure In 1964, Random House published ''Invisible Government'' by David Wise (David Wise (journalist)) and Thomas Ross. The book exposed the role the CIA was playing in foreign policy. This included the CIA coups in Guatemala (Operation PBSUCCESS) and Iran (Operation Ajax) and the Bay of Pigs Invasion. It also revealed the CIA's attempts to overthrow President Sukarno in Indonesia and the covert operations taking place in Laos and Vietnam. The CIA considered buying up the entire printing of ''Invisible Government'' but this idea was rejected when Random House pointed out that if this happened they would have to print a second edition. Indochina The last phase of the Indochina conflict occurred during Schlesinger's tenure. Although all U.S. combat forces had left South Vietnam in the spring of 1973, the United States continued to maintain a military presence in other areas of Southeast Asia. Some senators criticized Schlesinger and questioned him sharply during his confirmation hearings in June 1973 after he stated that he would recommend resumption of U.S. bombing in North Vietnam and Laos if North Vietnam launched a major offensive against South Vietnam. However, when the North Vietnamese did begin an offensive early in 1975, the United States could do little to help the South Vietnamese, who collapsed completely as the North Vietnamese entered Saigon in late April. Schlesinger announced early in the morning of 29 April 1975 the evacuation from Saigon by helicopter of the last U.S. diplomatic, military, and civilian personnel. Further reading * Assessment of sexual health needs of males who have sex with males in Laos and Thailand. Naz Foundation International Gay Guise: What to do when your client has sex with men and is not gay, 2007 July August Psychotherapy Networker Contracting members include: Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Angola; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Armenia; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahamas; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belarus; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bhutan; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China (People's Republic of China); Colombia; Comoros; Congo (Republic of the Congo); Costa Rica; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Côte d'Ivoire; Democratic People's Republic of Korea; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Estonia; Finland; France; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia (Georgia (country)); Germany; Ghana; Greece; Grenada; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Holy See; Honduras; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran (Islamic Republic of); Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kyrgyzstan; Laos; Latvia; Lebanon; Lesotho; Liberia; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia (Macedonia (country)); Signed as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia naming dispute)" Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mexico; Moldova; Monaco; Mongolia; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Republic of Korea; Romania; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; San Marino; Sao Tome and Principe; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Swaziland; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Thailand; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United Republic of Tanzania; United States of America; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Venezuela; Vietnam; Yemen; Zambia; and Zimbabwe. Lao (Laos) tuk-tuks come as tuk-tuks or jumbo tuk-tuks. Jumbos have a larger 3- or 4-cylinder four-stroke engine, and many are powered by Daihatsu engines. Jumbos' larger engine and cabin size allow for greater loads, up to 12 persons, and higher top speeds. Jumbos are (with few exceptions) only found in Vientiane and Luang Prabang. * ''Psittacula eupatria nipalensis'', Nepalese Alexandrine Parakeet - Eastern Afghanistan, Pakistan, North (North India) and central India, Nepal, Bhutan to Assam in Northeast India. * ''Psittacula eupatria siamensis'', Laos' or Siamese Alexandrine Parakeet - Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, north and east Thailand "The Quiet One" A heavily-modified pair of OH-6As were utilized by the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) via Air America (Air America (airline)) for a covert wire-tapping mission in 1972. The aircraft, dubbed '''500P''' (penetrator) by Hughes, began as an ARPA (DARPA) project, codenamed "Mainstreet", in 1968. Development included test and training flights in Culver City, California and at Area 51 in 1971. In order to reduce their acoustic signature, the helicopters (N351X and N352X) received a four-blade 'scissors' style tail rotor (later incorporated into the Hughes-designed AH-64 Apache), a fifth rotor blade and reshaped rotor tips, a modified exhaust system and various performance-boosts. Deployed to a secret base in southern Laos (PS-44) in June 1972, one of the helicopters was heavily damaged during a training mission late in the summer. The remaining helicopter deployed a wiretap near Vinh, Vietnam on the night of 5–6 December 1972, which provided the United States with useful information during the Linebacker II (Operation Linebacker II) campaign and Paris Peace Talks. Shortly thereafter, the aircraft were returned to the U.S., dismantled and quietly found new homes as the now-standard 500s. Chiles, James R. ''Air America's Black Helicopter.'' Washington: Air & Space Smithsonian (Smithsonian Business Ventures), February–March 2008, pp. 62–70. ISSN 0886-2257. Retrieved: 6 February 2008. Vietnam The Navy entered the Vietnam War in 1960, when the UDTs delivered a small watercraft far up the Mekong River into Laos. In 1961, Naval advisers started training the South Vietnamese UDT. These men were called the ''Liên Đoàn Người Nhái'' (LDNN), roughly translated as the "soldiers that fight under the sea." * ''Orthriophis taeniurus schmackeri'' - Native to the Ryukyu Islands of Japan. * ''Orthriophis taeniurus yunnanensis'' - Native to China (People's Republic of China), India, Laos, Myanmar, eastern Thailand and Vietnam. * ''Orthriophis taeniurus ssp.'' - Native to Burma, Thailand and Vietnam. *Kyrgyzstan: Red Crescent Society of Kyrgyzstan *Laos: Lao Red Cross *Latvia: Latvian Red Cross McDaniel accuses the "US Drug War" and the UN Office of Drugs and Crime for helping cause the arrest, forced dislocation, prosecution, starvation, death and extrajudicial killings of Akha people in Thailand and Laos. The US Drug War Against the Akha. Ethnic Cleansing, Genocide. Akha.org page by Matthew McDaniel. With many links. How the Thai Government Killed the Akha and Took Their Land - US Drug War Death Pics in Thailand - Akha.org "US-Thailand’s 'License To Kill'. 2274 Extra-Judicial Killings In 90 Days". ''The Akha Journal of the Golden Triangle.'' By Matthew McDaniel. Vol. 1, No. 2, October 2003. Relevant section of journal 2: 2p6.pdf - Cover and first part of journal 2: 2p1.pdf - Link list for all parts of the journals. "A Jolly Good Drug War". By Matthew McDaniel. Thailand 2003. Extrajudicial drug-war killings of innocent people. Photo gallery, and press compilation. Captions by Matthew McDaniel. US Drug War Brings Mass Die Off to Akha of Laos. By Matthew McDaniel in Laos. December 1, 2005. Akha.DailyKos.com McDaniel has filed reports with the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, 1503 Filing Index for first two filings - Akha.org and the International Criminal Court. The Crime of Genocide Akha vs. Thailand - Akha.org *'''Korea''' (Joseon Dynasty) - Sunjo (King Sunjo of Joseon), King of Joseon (Rulers of Korea) (1800–1834) * '''Laos''' - Anuvong, King of Laos (1803–1828) * '''Maldives''' - Mu'in ad-Din I Muhammad, Sultan of the Maldives (1799–1835) *'''Korea''' (Joseon Dynasty) - Sunjo (King Sunjo of Joseon), King of Joseon (Rulers of Korea) (1800–1834) * '''Laos''' - Anuvong, King of Laos (1803–1828) * '''Maldives''' - Mu'in ad-Din I Muhammad, Sultan of the Maldives (1799–1835) *#Heonjong (King Heonjong of Joseon), King of Joseon (Rulers of Korea) (1834–1849) * '''Laos''' - Mantha Thourath, King of Laos (1817–1836) * '''Maldives''' - Mu`in ad-Din I Muhammad, Sultan of the Maldives (1799–1835) *# Ong Chan, King of Lanna (1759–1761) *'''Laos''' (Kingdom of Champasak) - Sayakumane, King of Champsak (1737–1791) *'''Luang Phrabang (Kingdom of Luang Phrabang)''' - Sotika-Kuomane, King of Sotika-Kuomane (1749–1768) From the late 1800s to early 19th century, the Yao migrated into the Thai highlands, Vietnam and the highlands of Laos. The migration was agitated by the opium trade said by the Chinese government. But The Iu Mien say all the emigration was because of the Chinese taking their land. In addition to China, Yao also live in northern Vietnam (where they are called Dao), northern Laos, and Burma. There are around 60,000 Yao in northern Thailand, where they are one of the six main hill tribes (Hill tribe (Thailand)). The lowland-living Lanten of Laos, who speak Kim Mun (Kim Mun language), and the highland-living Iu Mien of Laos are two different Yao groups. There are also many Yao living in the United States (Mien American), mainly refugees from the highlands of Laos who speak the Iu Mien language. The Iu Mien do not call themselves "Yao". Not all "Yao" are Iu Mien. A group of 61,000
"Iago" Simon Caterson, writing in The Australian, described it as "one of the least reliable but most fascinating memoirs in the annals of Australian publishing". During the 1958, she steamed off Taiwan during
'''Laos''' (( ), is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma and the People's Republic of China (China) to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south, and Thailand to the west. Since 1975, it is ruled by a Marxist and communist government. Its population was estimated to be around 6.8 million in July 2014.
Significant corruption exists in the Lao government, military, and communist party in the LPDR, and the legacy of a command economy, as well as excess spending on military and defense budgets during the Cold War and its aftermath, have continued to impoverish Laos. According to the anti-corruption non-governmental organization Transparency International, Laos remains one of the most corrupt countries in the world. This has deterred foreign investment and created major problems with the rule of law, including the nation's ability to enforce contract and business regulation. Transparency International "Laos Corruption Perceptions Index" (2005-2014) http: www.theglobaleconomy.com Laos transparency_corruption Consequently, a third of the population of Laos currently lives below the international poverty line (living on less than US$ (United States dollar)1.25 per day). According to the Global Hunger Index (2013), Laos ranks as the 25th hungriest nation in the world out of the list of the 56 nations with the worst hunger situation(s). Welthungerhilfe, IFPRI, and Concern Worldwide: 2013 Global Hunger Index - The challenge of hunger: Building Resilience to Achieve Food and Nutrition Security. Bonn, Washington D. C., Dublin. October 2013. Laos has had a poor human rights record most particularly dealing with the nation's acts of genocide being committed towards its Hmong (Hmong people) population.
Laos traces its history to the kingdom of Lan Xang, which existed from the 14th to the 18th century when it split into three kingdoms. In 1893, it became a French protectorate (French colonial empire), with the three kingdoms — Luang Phrabang (Kingdom of Luang Phrabang), Vientiane (Kingdom of Vientiane) and Champasak (Kingdom of Champasak) — uniting to form what is now known as Laos. It briefly gained independence in 1945 after Japanese occupation (History of Laos to 1945#Japanese occupation of Laos), but returned to French rule until it was granted autonomy in 1949. Laos became independent in 1953, with a constitutional monarchy under Sisavang Vong. Shortly after independence, a long civil war (Laos Civil War) ended the monarchy, when the Communist (Communism) Pathet Lao movement came to power in 1975.
Laos is a single-party (Single-party state) socialist republic. It espouses Marxism and is governed by a single party communist politburo dominated by military generals. The Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the Vietnam People's Army continue to have significant influence in Laos. The capital city is Vientiane. Other large cities include Luang Prabang, Savannakhet, and Pakse. The official language is Lao (Lao language). Laos is a multi-ethnic country with the politically and culturally dominant Lao people making up approximately 60% of the population, mostly in the lowlands. Mon-Khmer (Mon-Khmer languages) groups, the Hmong (Hmong people), and other indigenous hill tribes, accounting for 40% of the population, live in the foothills and mountains.
Laos' strategy for development is based on generating electricity from its rivers and selling the power to its neighbours, namely Thailand, China, and Vietnam.
It is a member of the Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA), Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), East Asia Summit and La Francophonie. Laos applied for membership of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1997; on 2 February 2013, it was granted full membership.