Languedoc

What is Languedoc known for?


quot event

Brand extension From 2001 on, Langguth also embarked on a brand extension, and has introduced several other wines under the Blue Nun name, including a German Riesling ice wine, a Languedoc Merlot and a Spanish rosé. Sales in 2004 rose by 11% in the UK, but from a low base. He succeeded his father in 1222. At the moment of his accession, he and the new count of Foix, Roger Bernard II the Great (Roger-Bernard II of Foix), besieged Carcassonne. On 14 September 1224, the Albigensian Crusaders surrendered and the war came to an end, each southern lord making peace with the church. However, in 1225, the council of Bourges excommunicated (excommunication) him and launched a crusade against him, the king of France, Louis VIII (Louis VIII of France), called ''the Lion'', wanting to renew the conflict in order to enforce his royal rights in Languedoc. Roger-Bernard tried to keep the peace, but the king rejected his embassy and the counts of Foix and Toulouse took up arms again. The war was largely a discontinuous series of skirmishes and, in January 1229, Raymond, defeated, was forced to sign the Treaty of Paris (Treaty of Paris (1229)) (also known as the "Treaty of Meaux"), by which he ceded the former viscounty of Trencavel to the king and his daughter Joan (Joan of Toulouse) was forced to marry Alphonse (Alphonse of Toulouse), brother of the new king, Louis the Lion's successor, Louis IX (Louis IX of France). The tide soon turned, however. On the 9th a concerted rising of the townsmen in Boniface's favour put Nogaret and his allies to flight, and the pope was free. His death at Rome on October 11 saved Nogaret. The election of the timid Benedict XI (pope Benedict XI) was the beginning of that triumph of France which lasted through the Avignon captivity (Avignon papacy). Early in 1304 Nogaret went to Languedoc to report to Philip IV, and was rewarded by gifts of land and money. Then he was sent back with an embassy to Benedict XI to demand absolution for all concerned in the struggle with Boniface VIII. Benedict refused to meet Nogaret, and excepted him from the general absolution which he granted on May 12, 1304, and on June 7 issued against him and his associates at Anagni the bull (papal bull) ''Flagitiosum scelus''. Nogaret replied by apologies for his conduct based upon attacks upon the memory of Boniface, and when Benedict died on July 7, 1304 he pointed to his death as a witness to the justice of his cause. Under later Roman rule (after 355), most of ''Occitania'' was known as ''Aquitania'', Jean-Pierre Juge (2001) ''Petit précis - Chronologie occitane - Histoire & civilisation'', p. 14 itself part of the Seven Provinces (Septem Provinciae) with a wider Provence, while the northern provinces of what is now France were called ''Gallia'' (Gaul). Gallia Aquitania (or ''Aquitanica'') is thus also a name used since medieval times for Occitania (i.e. Limousin (Limousin (province)), Auvergne (Auvergne (province)), Languedoc and Gascony), including Provence as well in the early 6th century. Thus the historic Duchy of Aquitaine must not be confused with the modern French region called Aquitaine: this is the main reason why the term ''Occitania'' was revived in the mid-19th century. The names "Occitania" Joseph Anglade, ''Grammaire de l'ancien provençal ou ancienne langue d'oc'', 1921, Part I, Chapter 1, p. 9: ''Le mot ''Langue d'Oc'' a d'abord désigné le ''pays'' où se parlait cette langue; c'était une expression géographique. Le pays de langue d'oc s'appelait en latin ''Occitania'' (formé sans doute sur ''Aquitania'')'' ("The words ''Langue d'Oc'' first designated the ''country'' where the language was spoken: it was a geographical expression. The land of the langue d'oc was called ''Occitania'' in Latin (probably coined from ''Aquitania''"). and "Occitan language" (''Occitana lingua'') appeared in Latin texts from as early as 1242-1254 Frederic Mistral, ''Lo Tresor dóu Felibrige'' (1878-1886), vol. II, p. 1171: "Les textes abondent qui montrent l'origine française ou ecclésiastique


book publishing

and he took his vows two years later. "Lives of the Saints, For Every Day of the Year", edited by Rev. Hugo Hoever, S.O.Cist., Ph.D., New York: Catholic Book Publishing Co., 1955, p. 229 Born at Melgueil in Languedoc, he was educated by his uncle, the bishop of Maguelonne, whom he succeeded in 1529. In 1536 he was transferred to Montpellier. From England he was several times given safe-conduct to France, and he took an active part


manufacturing leading

a businessman or a priest. But he declined both offers and took up studying manufacturing, leading him to the city of Lyons. Two years later, a cousin and inspector of manufactures offered Roland a position in Rouen. He gladly accepted the job. Roland then was transferred to Languedoc, where he became an enthusiastic economist but soon became ill from overwork. He was then offered the less stressful job of lead inspector of Picardy which was the third most important manufacturing province in France in 1781. *24.2% of the Midi-Pyrénées territory formed part of Gascony: western half of Haute-Garonne department (departments of France), southwest of Tarn-et-Garonne, Gers in its entirety, extreme north of Hautes-Pyrénées. Gascony here includes the province of Comminges, which historically was a Pyrenean (Pyrenees) province, but later expanded all the way north to Muret in the southern suburbs of Toulouse, then was fragmented, and became an eastern fringe of Gascony. Gascony also extends over the Aquitaine region. *23.4% of Midi-Pyrénées was part of Languedoc: the eastern half of Haute-Garonne, southeast of Tarn-et-Garonne, Tarn (Tarn (department)) in its entirety, northwest and northeast of Ariège. Languedoc includes the sub-province of Albigeois (Tarn department), which is sometimes considered as a province separate from Languedoc. Languedoc also extends over the Languedoc-Roussillon region. *19.9% of Midi-Pyrénées was formerly Rouergue: Aveyron department in its entirety, and extreme east of Tarn-et-Garonne. The former province of Rouergue lay entirely within the modern Midi-Pyrénées. As northern Italy came to free itself in the late 11th century from imperial rule and episcopal authority, it established municipal authorities (known as ''consulates'') who, with the increase in literacy, came to rely heavily on the lay notary to produce, archive, and standardize public instruments under municipal seal. In addition, the Venetian pillaging of Byzantine libraries revived bookish learning and led to the founding of law schools, such as at the University of Bologna which trained notaries-at-law. Similarly, as schools for notaries relied on Byzantine law and came to determine the development of the notarial corps, by the 10th century, the Carolingian and the Byzantine traditions were no longer distinguishable. The Italian notarial profession was transmitted from Lombardy to southern France through trade, first to Languedoc, and eventually northward to Bruges (Flemish Belgium), and on to the eastern Mediterranean. Although Psalmanazar intentionally obscured many details of his early life, he is believed to have been born in southern France, perhaps in Languedoc or Provence, to Catholic (Catholicism) parents sometime between 1679 and 1684. George Psalmanazar: the Celebrated Native of Formosa by the Special Collections Department of University of Delaware Library. Last modified 2003 – 3–11 (March 11). Accessed 2007 – 3–10 (March 10). The Native of Formose by Alex Boese. Museum of Hoaxes. Last modified 2002. Accessed 2007 – 3–11 (March 11). His birth name is unknown. According to his posthumously published autobiography, he was educated in a Franciscan school and then a Jesuit academy. In both of these institutions, he claimed to have been celebrated by his teachers for what he called "my uncommon genius for languages." George Psalmanazar, ''Memoirs,'' London, 1764, pg. 79 Indeed, by his own account Psalmanazar was something of a child prodigy, since he notes that he attained fluency in Latin by the age of seven or eight, and excelled in competition with children twice his age. Later encounters with a sophistic philosophy tutor made him disenchanted with academicism, however, and Psalmanazar discontinued his education around the time he was fifteen or sixteen. *Gascony (''Gascogne'') (Gascony) - from the Duchy of Vasconia (also ''Wasconia''), itself derived from the ancient tribe of the Vascones. In Latin and Romance languages in medieval times, ''Vascones'' came to apply to all the Basque-speaking peoples (Basque people). *Languedoc - the region speaking the ''langue d'oc (Languedocien)'' (as opposed to the regions whose language (langue d'oïl) developed into modern French) *Limousin (Limousin (région)) - from an adjective referring to the local centre, Limoges Life He was born in the Galata district (today Karaköy neighborhood) of Constantinople. His father, Louis Chénier, a native of Languedoc, after twenty years in the Levant as a cloth-merchant, was appointed to a position equivalent to that of French consul (Consulate general) at Constantinople. His mother, Élisabeth Santi-Lomaca, whose sister was grandmother of Adolphe Thiers, was of Greek (Greeks) origins. Oldpoetry.com under vines and is the single biggest wine-producing region (List of wine-producing regions) in the world, being responsible for more than a third of France's total wine production. K. MacNeil ''The Wine Bible'' pg 293 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345 As recently as 2001, the region produced more wine than the entire United States (American wine). K. MacNeil ''The Wine Bible'' pg 294 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345 Nicetas then went on to Languedoc. In 1167 in the presence of Mark and other representatives of Cathar churches in Languedoc, France and Catalonia, Nicetas presided over the Council of Saint-Félix at which he renewed the ''consolamenta'' and confirmed the episcopal office of six Cathar bishops: Most well known as a painter, his bold, arguably brutal depictions of the South Wales valleys are his most powerful legacy. ‘Pithead Funeral’, a response to the Aberfan disaster that affected him so deeply, stands out amongst his work together with 'Fallen Figure' (opposite). Also the series of miner’s paintings produced following the week he spent sketching underground in a Welsh (Wales) coal mine. In sharp contrast are the paintings and drawings produced as a result of the considerable time he spent in the Languedoc region of France.


musical tradition

; He then traveled throughout the American east for a few years, and eventually settled in New York. Forest, Jim. Biography Of aristocratic background, Déodat de Séverac was profoundly influenced by the musical tradition of his native Languedoc. He is noted for his vocal and choral music, which include settings

work is ''The Old Musical Box'' in B-flat major, but his masterpiece is the suite (suite (music)) ''Cerdaña'' (written 1904—1911), filled with the local color of Languedoc. His motet ''Tantum ergo'' is also still sung on occasion. Biography Of aristocratic background, Déodat de Séverac was profoundly influenced by the musical tradition of his native Languedoc. He is noted for his vocal and choral music, which include settings of verse in Provençal language

'' in B-flat major, but his masterpiece is the suite (suite (music)) ''Cerdaña'' (written 1904—1911), filled with the local color of Languedoc. His motet ''Tantum ergo'' is also still sung on occasion. Biography Of aristocratic background, Déodat de Séverac was profoundly influenced by the musical tradition of his native Languedoc. He is noted for his vocal and choral music, which include settings of verse in Provençal (Provençal language) (the historic language


traditional commercial

, stayed in Castres in 1585. The Protestants of Castres were brought to terms, however, by King Louis XIII (Louis XIII of France) in 1629, and Richelieu (Cardinal Richelieu) came himself to Castres to have its fortifications dismantled. Nonetheless, after these religious wars, the town, now in peace, enjoyed a period of rapid expansion. Business and traditional commercial activities revived, in particular fur and leather-dressing, tanning, and above all wool trade. Culture flourished anew


massive+summer

of tourism. First, a massive summer tourism industry on the coast, with huge sea resorts such as Cap d'Agde, Palavas-les-Flots, or Le Grau-du-Roi, built in the 1970s. Tourism related to history and art is also strong, as the region contains the historic cities of Carcassonne, Toulouse, Montpellier, countless Roman monuments (such as the Roman arenas in Nîmes), medieval abbeys, Romanesque (Romanesque architecture) churches, and old castles (such as the ruined Cathar castles


shows strong

Maria sopra Minerva . The Piliny culture in northern Hungary and Slovakia grew from the tumulus culture, but used urn burials as well. The pottery shows strong links to the Gáva-culture, but in the later phases, a strong influence of the Lusatian culture is found. In Italy the late bronze age-early iron age proto-Villanovan and Villanovan culture show similarities with the urnfields of central Europe. Urnfields are found in the French Languedoc and Catalonia from the 9th to 8th centuries. The change in burial custom was most probably influenced by developments further east. On two occasions, he had to leave France for conspiring against the government of his mother and her Prime Minister Cardinal Richelieu. After waging an unsuccessful war in Languedoc leading to the Battle of Castelnaudary in 1632, he took refuge in Flanders. Reconciled with his brother Louis XIII (Louis XIII of France), he plotted against Richelieu in 1635, fled from the country again, and then submitted to the king and the cardinal. The "black truffle" or "black Périgord truffle" ( under vines and is the single biggest wine-producing region (List of wine-producing regions) in the world, being responsible for more than a third of France's total wine production. K. MacNeil ''The Wine Bible'' pg 293 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345 As recently as 2001, the region produced more wine than the entire United States (American wine). K. MacNeil ''The Wine Bible'' pg 294 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345 Nicetas then went on to Languedoc. In 1167 in the presence of Mark and other representatives of Cathar churches in Languedoc, France and Catalonia, Nicetas presided over the Council of Saint-Félix at which he renewed the ''consolamenta'' and confirmed the episcopal office of six Cathar bishops: Most well known as a painter, his bold, arguably brutal depictions of the South Wales valleys are his most powerful legacy. ‘Pithead Funeral’, a response to the Aberfan disaster that affected him so deeply, stands out amongst his work together with 'Fallen Figure' (opposite). Also the series of miner’s paintings produced following the week he spent sketching underground in a Welsh (Wales) coal mine. In sharp contrast are the paintings and drawings produced as a result of the considerable time he spent in the Languedoc region of France.


famous paintings

. This art includes cave paintings, such as the famous paintings at Pech Merle in the Lot (Lot (département)) in Languedoc which date back to 16,000 BC, Lascaux, located near the village of Montignac (Montignac, Dordogne), in the Dordogne, dating back to between 13,000 and 15,000 BC, or perhaps, as far back as 25,000 BC, the Cosquer Cave, the Chauvet Cave, and the Trois-Frères cave (Trois-Frères); and portable art, such as animal carvings and great goddess


literary studies

: Literature and Society in Scotland 1918-1939''. Glasgow: Association for Scottish Literary Studies, 2004. 52-53. In 1281 the Synod of Lambeth, England, ordered priests to explain these truths of faith four times a year. The Provincial Council of Lavours, France, in 1368, expanded this and commanded priests to give instruction on all Sundays and feast days. This council also published a catechism to serve as a textbook for the clergy in giving instructions


long famous

works at Trévoux were long famous, and the college at Thoissey was well endowed and influential. The French, though Louis XIII of France and Cardinal Richelieu were concerned at home with Huguenot uprisings in Languedoc after the fall of La Rochelle in 1628, sent forces to relieve Casale near the border with Milanese territory, besieged by a Habsburg army from Milan. Richelieu's address to the King, December 1628. The French forces crossed the Alps in March 1629, forced Susa (Susa (TO)) in Piedmont, on 6 March, delivered the siege of Casale on 18 March and took the fortress of Pinerolo on 30 March. In April, the Treaty of Susa was signed with the Duke of Savoy, whereupon they returned to France, leaving behind a small garrison. The papal envoy in negotiations at Casale was Jules Mazarin. Life Gaussen was born at Geneva. His father, Georg Markus Gaussen, a member of the Council of Two Hundred, was descended from an old Languedoc family which had been scattered at the time of the religious persecutions in France. At the close of his university career at Geneva, Louis was in 1816 appointed pastor of the Swiss Reformed Church at Satigny near Geneva, where he formed a close relationship with J. E. Cellrier, who had preceded him in the pastorate, and also with the members of the dissenting congregation at Bourg-de-Four, which, together with the ''Église du témoignage'', had been formed under the influence of the preaching of James (James Alexander Haldane) and Robert Haldane in 1817. The Swiss revival (Réveil) was distasteful to the pastors of Geneva (''Venérable Compagnie des Pasteurs''), and on 7 May 1817 they passed an ordinance hostile to it. He fought at the Battle of Patay in 1429. That year he married Eleanor of Bourbon-La Marche, daughter and ultimately heir of James II, Count of La Marche. He served as lieutenant-general in La Marche and governor of Limousin (Limousin (province)) in 1441, and later as lieutenant-general of Languedoc and Roussillon in 1461. Geography Frontignan is located in the Languedoc coastal plain between the towns of Sète and Montpellier. under vines and is the single biggest wine-producing region (List of wine-producing regions) in the world, being responsible for more than a third of France's total wine production. K. MacNeil ''The Wine Bible'' pg 293 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345 As recently as 2001, the region produced more wine than the entire United States (American wine). K. MacNeil ''The Wine Bible'' pg 294 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345 Nicetas then went on to Languedoc. In 1167 in the presence of Mark and other representatives of Cathar churches in Languedoc, France and Catalonia, Nicetas presided over the Council of Saint-Félix at which he renewed the ''consolamenta'' and confirmed the episcopal office of six Cathar bishops: Most well known as a painter, his bold, arguably brutal depictions of the South Wales valleys are his most powerful legacy. ‘Pithead Funeral’, a response to the Aberfan disaster that affected him so deeply, stands out amongst his work together with 'Fallen Figure' (opposite). Also the series of miner’s paintings produced following the week he spent sketching underground in a Welsh (Wales) coal mine. In sharp contrast are the paintings and drawings produced as a result of the considerable time he spent in the Languedoc region of France.

Languedoc

'''Languedoc''' ( ) is a former province of France, now continued in the modern-day ''régions'' (List of regions in France) of Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées in the south of France, and whose capital city was Toulouse, now in Midi-Pyrénées. It had an area of approximately 27,376 square kilometers.

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