Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt

What is Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt known for?


794

The name Frankfurt first appears in writing in the year 793, but it seems to have already been a considerable city. In 794 a letter from the Emperor to the bishop of Toledo (Toledo, Spain) contained "''in loco celebri, qui dicitur '''Franconofurd'''''", which reads "that famous place, which is called Frankfurt." date_event1 1789 event2 Part-mediatised (German Mediatisation) to      Landgraviate


contemporary school

lands throughout the Baroque and Classical periods. Nevertheless, native forms were developing too. In Nuremberg in 1644, Sigmund Staden (Sigmund Theophil Staden) produced the "spiritual pastorale", ''Seelewig'', which foreshadows the ''Singspiel'', a genre of German-language opera in which arias alternate with spoken dialogue. ''Seelewig'' was a moral allegory inspired by the example of contemporary school dramas and is the first German opera whose music has survived. ''Oxford Illustrated History of Opera'', ed. Parker, pp.31–32; ''A Short History of Opera'', chapter on "Early German Opera", pp.121–131; ''Viking Opera Guide'' articles on Schütz and Staden. History In the Middle Ages, Bischofsheim was ruled by the Archbishop of Mainz, but fell to Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) in 1579. In 1930 it was incorporated to the city of Mainz, remaining a constituent community of that city until 1945. Since the American and French occupying powers (Allied Occupation Zones in Germany) severed the links between Mainz and the so-called ''Rechtsrheinische Stadtteile von Mainz'' (Mainz constituent communities on the Rhine's right bank) – the Rhine was the boundary between their two occupational zones – these six communities effectively ceased to be part of the city of Mainz. Whereas the three former constituent communities north of the Main were administered by Wiesbaden since then, Bischofsheim and neighbouring Ginsheim-Gustavsburg once again became independent municipalities in Groß-Gerau district. **'''Hanover (Hanover (state))''' - George III (George III of the United Kingdom), Elector of Hanover (1760–1820) **'''Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt)''' - Louis X (Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1790–1830) **'''Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel)''' - William IX (William I, Elector of Hesse), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (1785–1821) *** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) *** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) *** Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Friedrich I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (1730–1751) *** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) *** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) *** Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel), also ''King of Sweden'' (1730–1751) *** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) *** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) *** Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel), also ''King of Sweden'' (1730–1751) *** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) *** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) *** Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel), also ''King of Sweden'' (1730–1751) *** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) *** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) *** Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel), also ''King of Sweden'' (1730–1751) *** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) *** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) *** Hildesheim (Bishopric of Hildesheim) – Clemens August of Bavaria, Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim (1724–1761, also Archbishop-Elector of Cologne) ** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Hildesheim (Bishopric of Hildesheim) – Clemens August of Bavaria, Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim (1724–1761, also Archbishop-Elector of Cologne) ** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Hildesheim (Bishopric of Hildesheim) – Clemens August of Bavaria, Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim (1724–1761, also Archbishop-Elector of Cologne) ** Fürstenberg (Fürstenberg (state)) – Joseph Wilhelm Ernst (Joseph Wilhelm Ernst, Prince of Fürstenberg), Prince of Fürstenberg (1716–1762, Count 1704–1716) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Hildesheim (Bishopric of Hildesheim) – Clemens August of Bavaria, Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim (1724–1761, also Archbishop-Elector of Cologne) ** Fürstenberg (Fürstenberg (state)) – Joseph Wilhelm Ernst (Joseph Wilhelm Ernst, Prince of Fürstenberg), Prince of Fürstenberg (1716–1762, Count 1704–1716) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Hildesheim (Bishopric of Hildesheim) – Clemens August of Bavaria, Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim (1724–1761, also Archbishop-Elector of Cologne) ** Fürstenberg (Fürstenberg (state)) – Joseph Wilhelm Ernst (Joseph Wilhelm Ernst, Prince of Fürstenberg), Prince of Fürstenberg (1716–1762, Count 1704–1716) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Hildesheim (Bishopric of Hildesheim) – Clemens August of Bavaria, Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim (1724–1761, also Archbishop-Elector of Cologne) ** Fürstenberg (Fürstenberg (state)) – Joseph Wilhelm Ernst (Joseph Wilhelm Ernst, Prince of Fürstenberg), Prince of Fürstenberg (1716–1762, Count 1704–1716) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Hildesheim (Bishopric of Hildesheim) – Clemens August of Bavaria, Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim (1724–1761, also Archbishop-Elector of Cologne) * Fürstenberg (Fürstenberg (state)) – Joseph Wilhelm Ernst (Joseph Wilhelm Ernst, Prince of Fürstenberg), Prince of Fürstenberg (1716–1762, Count 1704–1716) * Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) * Hildesheim (Bishopric of Hildesheim) – Clemens August of Bavaria, Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim (1724–1761, also Archbishop-Elector of Cologne) ** Isenburg-Birstein - Wolfgang Ernest II (Wolfgang Ernst II of Isenburg-Birstein), Prince of Irsenburg-Birstein (1754–1803) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Hildesheim (Bishopric of Hildesheim) – Clemens August of Bavaria, Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim (1724–1761, also Archbishop-Elector of Cologne) ** Fürstenberg (Fürstenberg (state)) – Joseph Wilhelm Ernst (Joseph Wilhelm Ernst, Prince of Fürstenberg), Prince of Fürstenberg (1716–1762, Count 1704–1716) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Hildesheim (Bishopric of Hildesheim) – Clemens August of Bavaria, Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim (1724–1761, also Archbishop-Elector of Cologne) ** Fürstenberg (Fürstenberg (state)) – Joseph Wilhelm Ernst (Joseph Wilhelm Ernst, Prince of Fürstenberg), Prince of Fürstenberg (1716–1762, Count 1704–1716) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Holstein-Glückstadt – Friedrich V (Frederick V of Denmark), Duke of Holstein-Glückstadt(1746–1766) ** Fürstenberg (Fürstenberg (state)) – Joseph Wilhelm Ernst (Joseph Wilhelm Ernst, Prince of Fürstenberg), Prince of Fürstenberg (1716–1762, Count 1704–1716) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Holstein-Glückstadt – Friedrich V (Frederick V of Denmark), Duke of Holstein-Glückstadt(1746–1766) ** Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel – Karl I (Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg), Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1735–1780) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Holstein-Glückstadt – Friedrich V (Frederick V of Denmark), Duke of Holstein-Glückstadt(1746–1766) ** Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel – Karl I (Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg), Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1735–1780) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Holstein-Glückstadt – Friedrich V (Frederick V of Denmark), Duke of Holstein-Glückstadt(1746–1766) ** Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel – Karl I (Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg), Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1735–1780) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Holstein-Glückstadt – Friedrich V (Frederick V of Denmark), Duke of Holstein-Glückstadt(1746–1766) ** Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel – Karl I (Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg), Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1735–1780) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Palatinate (Electoral Palatinate) – Karl IV Philipp Theodor (Karl Theodor of Bavaria), Elector Palatine (1742–1799) ** Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel – Karl I (Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg), Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1735–1780) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Palatinate (Electoral Palatinate) – Karl IV Philipp Theodor (Karl Theodor of Bavaria), Elector Palatine (1742–1799) * Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) * Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) * Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) – Friedrich I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (1730–1751) ** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) ** Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel), also ''King of Sweden'' (1730–1751) ** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) **Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel), also ''King of Sweden'' (1730–1751) ** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) **Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel), also ''King of Sweden'' (1730–1751) ** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) **Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, also ''King of Sweden'' (1730–1751) ** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) **Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, also ''King of Sweden'' (1730–1751) ** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) **Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, also ''King of Sweden'' (1730–1751) ** Heitersheim – Philipp Wilhelm von Nesselrode, Prince and General Prior of the Order of St. John (Knights Hospitaller) at Heitersheim (1728–1754) ** Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) – Ludwig VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1739–1768) **Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel) (or Hesse-Cassel) – Frederick I (Frederick I of Sweden), Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, also ''King of Sweden'' **'''Hanover''' – Georg Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Elector of the Holy Roman Empire (George I of Great Britain) Prince Elector designate (1698–1708) **'''Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt)''' – Ernst Ludwig, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1678–1739) **'''Hesse-Kassel (Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel)''' – Karl, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (1670–1730) History In 755, Heppenheim had its first documentary mention. At that time, the town was the hub of a Frankish (Franks) domain. In 773, this area became one of Charlemagne’s donations to the Lorsch Abbey, and to protect it, the castle (Starkenburg) was built above it in 1065; in 1066 it successfully resisted a siege by the Adalbert of Hamburg, Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen (Archbishop of Bremen). The Imperial (Holy Roman Empire) Abbey held the rank of principality, and Heppenheim developed over time into the territory’s administrative and economic hub, although it lost its importance with the Abbey’s downfall in the 11th and 12th centuries. In 1229, Emperor Friedrich II (Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor) put the Starkenburg under the administration of the Archbishops of Electoral Mainz (Archbishopric of Mainz), doing likewise with the Lorsch Abbey along with Heppenheim in 1232. But for an interruption from 1461 to 1623 when the fief was pledged to Electoral Palatinate, Heppenheim remained an Electoral Mainz holding right up until the ''Reichsdeputationshauptschluss'' in 1803. Then it became Hessian, first part of the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt, and since 1948 it has been part of the ''Bundesland'' (States of Germany) of Hesse. **'''Dutch Republic''' on the verge to independence **'''Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt''' - Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1596–1626) **'''Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel)''' - Maurice (Maurice, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel) (1592–1627) allegiance 24px (image:Pavillon royal de la France.svg) France (Bourbons (House of Bourbon)) ) (December 15, 1719 – April 6, 1790) was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) from 1768 - 1790. He was a son of Louis VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Müntzenberg (Countess Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg). In 1709 Graupner accepted a post at the court of Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) and in 1711 became the court orchestra’s ''Hofkapellmeister'' (court chapel master). Graupner spent the rest of his career at the court in Hesse-Darmstadt, where his primary responsibilities were to provide music for the court chapel. He wrote music for nearly half a century, from 1709 to 1754, when he became blind (Blindness). He died six years later. Life in Europe He was born '''Karl Theodor Christian Friedrich Follen''' at Romrod, in Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt), Germany, to Christoph Follen (1759–1833) and Rosine Follen (1766–1799). His father was a counselor-at-law and judge in Giessen, in Hesse-Darmstadt. His mother had retired to Romrod to avoid the French revolutionary troops that had occupied Gießen. He was the brother of August Ludwig Follen and Paul Follen, and the uncle of the biologist (biology) Karl Vogt. thumb Nassau Kronenthaler, 1817 (Image:Nassau Kronenthaler 70200.jpg) The '''Kronenthaler''' was a silver coin first issued in the Austrian Netherlands (see Austrian Netherlands Kronenthaler (Austrian Netherlands kronenthaler)). It contained one ninth of a Cologne mark of silver and was thus equal to the Reichsthaler of the Leipzig convention. Most examples show the bust of the Austrian ruler on the obverse and four crowns on the reverse, hence the name which means "crown thaler". After the Austrian Netherlands was occupied by France, several German states (e.g., Bavaria, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt), Württemberg) issued Kronenthaler, as it had become a popular trade coin. Already Imperial Knights, on April 26, 1660, the family were created imperial (Holy Roman Empire) barons (''Reichsfreiherren (Freiherr)''). Matriculation to the baronial class in the Kingdom of Bavaria occurred on August 22, 1891 for Friedrich Freiherr von Fürstenberg, ''Rittmeister à la suite'' in the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt and Freeholder of Egenburg by Würzburg. Since 1247 Alsfeld has been part of Hesse and in 1254 the town joined the ''Rheinischer Städtebund''. Hermann II (Hermann II, Landgrave of Hesse) built himself a castle here in 1395 and for a time turned the town into his official residence. From 1567 Alsfeld belonged to Hesse-Marburg and from 1604 on to Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt). Until 1972 it was the seat of Alsfeld district until the district was merged with neighboring Lauterbach district (Lauterbach (district)) and the Schotten region into the present-day Vogelsberg district (Vogelsbergkreis). At that time, the decision to designate Lauterbach (Lauterbach (Hesse)) as seat of the new district led to bitterness in Alsfeld that put a damper on the relationship between the two towns for years. This went so far that because of protests in and around Alsfeld the motor vehicle registration office in Alsfeld, for instance, would not issue licence plates with the code "LAT" (for Lauterbach) and instead continued to issue plates sporting the code "ALS" for Alsfeld until 1978 when the licence plate code "VB" was agreed on for the entire district of Vogelsberg. He was born at Gießen, in Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt), Germany, to Christoph Follen (1759-1833) and Rosine Follen (1766–1799). His father was a counselor-at-law and judge. He was the brother of August Ludwig Follen and Charles Follen, and the uncle of the biologist (biology) Karl Vogt. During his studies at the University of Gießen (University of Giessen) he became friends with Friedrich Muench and in 1825 married his sister Maria. Origins The Bundesstraße 3 is the latest incarnation of a trade route that has been in use since the Middle Ages. The stretch between Frankfurt and Heidelberg belonged to the Archbishopric of Mainz until 1461. Thereafter it was a part of the Palatinate (Electoral Palatinate) until 1651. In 1661 the Archbishophric of Mainz and Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) agreed to divide the toll revenue: the Archbishophric controlled the road between Frankfurt and Heppenheim when the Frankfurt Fair took place, and Hesse-Darmstadt controlled the route at all other times.


opera

thumb left 200px Heinrich Schütz The world's first opera was ''Dafne'' by Jacopo Peri, which appeared in Florence in 1598. Three decades later Heinrich Schütz set the same libretto in a translation by the poet Martin Opitz, thus creating the first ever German-language opera. The music to Schütz's ''Dafne'' is now lost and details of the performance are sketchy, but it is known to have been written to celebrate the marriage of Landgrave Georg II of Landgraviate of Hesse

-Darmstadt Hessen-Darmstadt to Princess Sophia Eleonora of Saxony in Torgau in 1627. As in Italy, the first patrons of opera in Germany and Austria were royalty and the nobility, and they tended to favour composers and singers from south of the Alps. Antonio Cesti was particularly successful, providing the huge operatic extravaganza ''Il pomo d'oro'' for the imperial court in Vienna in 1668. Opera in Italian would continue to exercise a considerable sway over German-speaking

lands throughout the Baroque and Classical periods. Nevertheless, native forms were developing too. In Nuremberg in 1644, Sigmund Staden (Sigmund Theophil Staden) produced the "spiritual pastorale", ''Seelewig'', which foreshadows the ''Singspiel'', a genre of German-language opera in which arias alternate with spoken dialogue. ''Seelewig'' was a moral allegory inspired by the example of contemporary school dramas and is the first German opera whose music has survived.<


distinct political

of Hesse-Rotenburg Hesse-Rotenburg (extinct) Hesse-Wanfried (extinct) Hesse-Marburg (extinct) Hesse-Rheinfels (extinct) Originally the western part of the Landgraviate (Landgrave) of Thuringia, in the mid 13th century it was inherited by the younger son of Henry II, Duke of Brabant, and became a distinct political entity. From the late 16th century it was generally divided into several branches, the most important of which were those


decades long

) (December 15, 1719 &ndash; April 6, 1790) was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) from 1768 - 1790. He was a son of Louis VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Müntzenberg (Countess Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg). In 1709 Graupner accepted a post at the court of Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) and in 1711 became the court orchestra’s ''Hofkapellmeister'' (court chapel master). Graupner spent the rest of his career at the court in Hesse-Darmstadt, where his primary responsibilities were to provide music for the court chapel. He wrote music for nearly half a century, from 1709 to 1754, when he became blind (Blindness). He died six years later. Life in Europe He was born '''Karl Theodor Christian Friedrich Follen''' at Romrod, in Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt), Germany, to Christoph Follen (1759–1833) and Rosine Follen (1766–1799). His father was a counselor-at-law and judge in Giessen, in Hesse-Darmstadt. His mother had retired to Romrod to avoid the French revolutionary troops that had occupied Gießen. He was the brother of August Ludwig Follen and Paul Follen, and the uncle of the biologist (biology) Karl Vogt. thumb Nassau Kronenthaler, 1817 (Image:Nassau Kronenthaler 70200.jpg) The '''Kronenthaler''' was a silver coin first issued in the Austrian Netherlands (see Austrian Netherlands Kronenthaler (Austrian Netherlands kronenthaler)). It contained one ninth of a Cologne mark of silver and was thus equal to the Reichsthaler of the Leipzig convention. Most examples show the bust of the Austrian ruler on the obverse and four crowns on the reverse, hence the name which means "crown thaler". After the Austrian Netherlands was occupied by France, several German states (e.g., Bavaria, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt), Württemberg) issued Kronenthaler, as it had become a popular trade coin. Already Imperial Knights, on April 26, 1660, the family were created imperial (Holy Roman Empire) barons (''Reichsfreiherren (Freiherr)''). Matriculation to the baronial class in the Kingdom of Bavaria occurred on August 22, 1891 for Friedrich Freiherr von Fürstenberg, ''Rittmeister à la suite'' in the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt and Freeholder of Egenburg by Würzburg. Since 1247 Alsfeld has been part of Hesse and in 1254 the town joined the ''Rheinischer Städtebund''. Hermann II (Hermann II, Landgrave of Hesse) built himself a castle here in 1395 and for a time turned the town into his official residence. From 1567 Alsfeld belonged to Hesse-Marburg and from 1604 on to Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt). Until 1972 it was the seat of Alsfeld district until the district was merged with neighboring Lauterbach district (Lauterbach (district)) and the Schotten region into the present-day Vogelsberg district (Vogelsbergkreis). At that time, the decision to designate Lauterbach (Lauterbach (Hesse)) as seat of the new district led to bitterness in Alsfeld that put a damper on the relationship between the two towns for years. This went so far that because of protests in and around Alsfeld the motor vehicle registration office in Alsfeld, for instance, would not issue licence plates with the code "LAT" (for Lauterbach) and instead continued to issue plates sporting the code "ALS" for Alsfeld until 1978 when the licence plate code "VB" was agreed on for the entire district of Vogelsberg. He was born at Gießen, in Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt), Germany, to Christoph Follen (1759-1833) and Rosine Follen (1766–1799). His father was a counselor-at-law and judge. He was the brother of August Ludwig Follen and Charles Follen, and the uncle of the biologist (biology) Karl Vogt. During his studies at the University of Gießen (University of Giessen) he became friends with Friedrich Muench and in 1825 married his sister Maria. Origins The Bundesstraße 3 is the latest incarnation of a trade route that has been in use since the Middle Ages. The stretch between Frankfurt and Heidelberg belonged to the Archbishopric of Mainz until 1461. Thereafter it was a part of the Palatinate (Electoral Palatinate) until 1651. In 1661 the Archbishophric of Mainz and Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) agreed to divide the toll revenue: the Archbishophric controlled the road between Frankfurt and Heppenheim when the Frankfurt Fair took place, and Hesse-Darmstadt controlled the route at all other times.


important local

) (December 15, 1719 &ndash; April 6, 1790) was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) from 1768 - 1790. He was a son of Louis VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Müntzenberg (Countess Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg). In 1709 Graupner accepted a post at the court of Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) and in 1711 became the court orchestra’s ''Hofkapellmeister'' (court chapel master). Graupner spent the rest of his career at the court in Hesse-Darmstadt, where his primary responsibilities were to provide music for the court chapel. He wrote music for nearly half a century, from 1709 to 1754, when he became blind (Blindness). He died six years later. Life in Europe He was born '''Karl Theodor Christian Friedrich Follen''' at Romrod, in Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt), Germany, to Christoph Follen (1759–1833) and Rosine Follen (1766–1799). His father was a counselor-at-law and judge in Giessen, in Hesse-Darmstadt. His mother had retired to Romrod to avoid the French revolutionary troops that had occupied Gießen. He was the brother of August Ludwig Follen and Paul Follen, and the uncle of the biologist (biology) Karl Vogt. thumb Nassau Kronenthaler, 1817 (Image:Nassau Kronenthaler 70200.jpg) The '''Kronenthaler''' was a silver coin first issued in the Austrian Netherlands (see Austrian Netherlands Kronenthaler (Austrian Netherlands kronenthaler)). It contained one ninth of a Cologne mark of silver and was thus equal to the Reichsthaler of the Leipzig convention. Most examples show the bust of the Austrian ruler on the obverse and four crowns on the reverse, hence the name which means "crown thaler". After the Austrian Netherlands was occupied by France, several German states (e.g., Bavaria, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt), Württemberg) issued Kronenthaler, as it had become a popular trade coin. Already Imperial Knights, on April 26, 1660, the family were created imperial (Holy Roman Empire) barons (''Reichsfreiherren (Freiherr)''). Matriculation to the baronial class in the Kingdom of Bavaria occurred on August 22, 1891 for Friedrich Freiherr von Fürstenberg, ''Rittmeister à la suite'' in the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt and Freeholder of Egenburg by Würzburg. Since 1247 Alsfeld has been part of Hesse and in 1254 the town joined the ''Rheinischer Städtebund''. Hermann II (Hermann II, Landgrave of Hesse) built himself a castle here in 1395 and for a time turned the town into his official residence. From 1567 Alsfeld belonged to Hesse-Marburg and from 1604 on to Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt). Until 1972 it was the seat of Alsfeld district until the district was merged with neighboring Lauterbach district (Lauterbach (district)) and the Schotten region into the present-day Vogelsberg district (Vogelsbergkreis). At that time, the decision to designate Lauterbach (Lauterbach (Hesse)) as seat of the new district led to bitterness in Alsfeld that put a damper on the relationship between the two towns for years. This went so far that because of protests in and around Alsfeld the motor vehicle registration office in Alsfeld, for instance, would not issue licence plates with the code "LAT" (for Lauterbach) and instead continued to issue plates sporting the code "ALS" for Alsfeld until 1978 when the licence plate code "VB" was agreed on for the entire district of Vogelsberg. He was born at Gießen, in Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt), Germany, to Christoph Follen (1759-1833) and Rosine Follen (1766–1799). His father was a counselor-at-law and judge. He was the brother of August Ludwig Follen and Charles Follen, and the uncle of the biologist (biology) Karl Vogt. During his studies at the University of Gießen (University of Giessen) he became friends with Friedrich Muench and in 1825 married his sister Maria. Origins The Bundesstraße 3 is the latest incarnation of a trade route that has been in use since the Middle Ages. The stretch between Frankfurt and Heidelberg belonged to the Archbishopric of Mainz until 1461. Thereafter it was a part of the Palatinate (Electoral Palatinate) until 1651. In 1661 the Archbishophric of Mainz and Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) agreed to divide the toll revenue: the Archbishophric controlled the road between Frankfurt and Heppenheim when the Frankfurt Fair took place, and Hesse-Darmstadt controlled the route at all other times.


including world

became just another provincial town, known mostly for University of Marburg. It became a virtual backwater for two centuries after the Thirty Years' War, 1618–1648, when it was fought over by Hessen-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) and Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel. The Hessian territory around Marburg lost more than two thirds of its population, which was more than in any later wars (including World War I and World War II) combined. The ducal palace


long rivalry

-Rheinfels Philipp II became Landgrave of Hesse-Rheinfels. Hessian War ) (December 15, 1719 &ndash; April 6, 1790) was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) from 1768 - 1790. He was a son of Louis VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Müntzenberg (Countess Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg). In 1709 Graupner accepted a post at the court of Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) and in 1711 became the court orchestra’s ''Hofkapellmeister'' (court chapel master). Graupner spent the rest of his career at the court in Hesse-Darmstadt, where his primary responsibilities were to provide music for the court chapel. He wrote music for nearly half a century, from 1709 to 1754, when he became blind (Blindness). He died six years later. Life in Europe He was born '''Karl Theodor Christian Friedrich Follen''' at Romrod, in Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt), Germany, to Christoph Follen (1759–1833) and Rosine Follen (1766–1799). His father was a counselor-at-law and judge in Giessen, in Hesse-Darmstadt. His mother had retired to Romrod to avoid the French revolutionary troops that had occupied Gießen. He was the brother of August Ludwig Follen and Paul Follen, and the uncle of the biologist (biology) Karl Vogt. thumb Nassau Kronenthaler, 1817 (Image:Nassau Kronenthaler 70200.jpg) The '''Kronenthaler''' was a silver coin first issued in the Austrian Netherlands (see Austrian Netherlands Kronenthaler (Austrian Netherlands kronenthaler)). It contained one ninth of a Cologne mark of silver and was thus equal to the Reichsthaler of the Leipzig convention. Most examples show the bust of the Austrian ruler on the obverse and four crowns on the reverse, hence the name which means "crown thaler". After the Austrian Netherlands was occupied by France, several German states (e.g., Bavaria, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt), Württemberg) issued Kronenthaler, as it had become a popular trade coin. Already Imperial Knights, on April 26, 1660, the family were created imperial (Holy Roman Empire) barons (''Reichsfreiherren (Freiherr)''). Matriculation to the baronial class in the Kingdom of Bavaria occurred on August 22, 1891 for Friedrich Freiherr von Fürstenberg, ''Rittmeister à la suite'' in the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt and Freeholder of Egenburg by Würzburg. Since 1247 Alsfeld has been part of Hesse and in 1254 the town joined the ''Rheinischer Städtebund''. Hermann II (Hermann II, Landgrave of Hesse) built himself a castle here in 1395 and for a time turned the town into his official residence. From 1567 Alsfeld belonged to Hesse-Marburg and from 1604 on to Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt). Until 1972 it was the seat of Alsfeld district until the district was merged with neighboring Lauterbach district (Lauterbach (district)) and the Schotten region into the present-day Vogelsberg district (Vogelsbergkreis). At that time, the decision to designate Lauterbach (Lauterbach (Hesse)) as seat of the new district led to bitterness in Alsfeld that put a damper on the relationship between the two towns for years. This went so far that because of protests in and around Alsfeld the motor vehicle registration office in Alsfeld, for instance, would not issue licence plates with the code "LAT" (for Lauterbach) and instead continued to issue plates sporting the code "ALS" for Alsfeld until 1978 when the licence plate code "VB" was agreed on for the entire district of Vogelsberg. He was born at Gießen, in Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt), Germany, to Christoph Follen (1759-1833) and Rosine Follen (1766–1799). His father was a counselor-at-law and judge. He was the brother of August Ludwig Follen and Charles Follen, and the uncle of the biologist (biology) Karl Vogt. During his studies at the University of Gießen (University of Giessen) he became friends with Friedrich Muench and in 1825 married his sister Maria. Origins The Bundesstraße 3 is the latest incarnation of a trade route that has been in use since the Middle Ages. The stretch between Frankfurt and Heidelberg belonged to the Archbishopric of Mainz until 1461. Thereafter it was a part of the Palatinate (Electoral Palatinate) until 1651. In 1661 the Archbishophric of Mainz and Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) agreed to divide the toll revenue: the Archbishophric controlled the road between Frankfurt and Heppenheim when the Frankfurt Fair took place, and Hesse-Darmstadt controlled the route at all other times.


speaking world

) (December 15, 1719 &ndash; April 6, 1790) was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) from 1768 - 1790. He was a son of Louis VIII (Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt), Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Müntzenberg (Countess Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg). In 1709 Graupner accepted a post at the court of Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) and in 1711 became the court orchestra’s ''Hofkapellmeister'' (court chapel master). Graupner spent the rest of his career at the court in Hesse-Darmstadt, where his primary responsibilities were to provide music for the court chapel. He wrote music for nearly half a century, from 1709 to 1754, when he became blind (Blindness). He died six years later. Life in Europe He was born '''Karl Theodor Christian Friedrich Follen''' at Romrod, in Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt), Germany, to Christoph Follen (1759–1833) and Rosine Follen (1766–1799). His father was a counselor-at-law and judge in Giessen, in Hesse-Darmstadt. His mother had retired to Romrod to avoid the French revolutionary troops that had occupied Gießen. He was the brother of August Ludwig Follen and Paul Follen, and the uncle of the biologist (biology) Karl Vogt. thumb Nassau Kronenthaler, 1817 (Image:Nassau Kronenthaler 70200.jpg) The '''Kronenthaler''' was a silver coin first issued in the Austrian Netherlands (see Austrian Netherlands Kronenthaler (Austrian Netherlands kronenthaler)). It contained one ninth of a Cologne mark of silver and was thus equal to the Reichsthaler of the Leipzig convention. Most examples show the bust of the Austrian ruler on the obverse and four crowns on the reverse, hence the name which means "crown thaler". After the Austrian Netherlands was occupied by France, several German states (e.g., Bavaria, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt), Württemberg) issued Kronenthaler, as it had become a popular trade coin. Already Imperial Knights, on April 26, 1660, the family were created imperial (Holy Roman Empire) barons (''Reichsfreiherren (Freiherr)''). Matriculation to the baronial class in the Kingdom of Bavaria occurred on August 22, 1891 for Friedrich Freiherr von Fürstenberg, ''Rittmeister à la suite'' in the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt and Freeholder of Egenburg by Würzburg. Since 1247 Alsfeld has been part of Hesse and in 1254 the town joined the ''Rheinischer Städtebund''. Hermann II (Hermann II, Landgrave of Hesse) built himself a castle here in 1395 and for a time turned the town into his official residence. From 1567 Alsfeld belonged to Hesse-Marburg and from 1604 on to Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt). Until 1972 it was the seat of Alsfeld district until the district was merged with neighboring Lauterbach district (Lauterbach (district)) and the Schotten region into the present-day Vogelsberg district (Vogelsbergkreis). At that time, the decision to designate Lauterbach (Lauterbach (Hesse)) as seat of the new district led to bitterness in Alsfeld that put a damper on the relationship between the two towns for years. This went so far that because of protests in and around Alsfeld the motor vehicle registration office in Alsfeld, for instance, would not issue licence plates with the code "LAT" (for Lauterbach) and instead continued to issue plates sporting the code "ALS" for Alsfeld until 1978 when the licence plate code "VB" was agreed on for the entire district of Vogelsberg. He was born at Gießen, in Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt), Germany, to Christoph Follen (1759-1833) and Rosine Follen (1766–1799). His father was a counselor-at-law and judge. He was the brother of August Ludwig Follen and Charles Follen, and the uncle of the biologist (biology) Karl Vogt. During his studies at the University of Gießen (University of Giessen) he became friends with Friedrich Muench and in 1825 married his sister Maria. Origins The Bundesstraße 3 is the latest incarnation of a trade route that has been in use since the Middle Ages. The stretch between Frankfurt and Heidelberg belonged to the Archbishopric of Mainz until 1461. Thereafter it was a part of the Palatinate (Electoral Palatinate) until 1651. In 1661 the Archbishophric of Mainz and Hesse-Darmstadt (Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt) agreed to divide the toll revenue: the Archbishophric controlled the road between Frankfurt and Heppenheim when the Frankfurt Fair took place, and Hesse-Darmstadt controlled the route at all other times.


strong development

the Congress of Vienna of 1816 it was transferred to Prussia, which made it the centre of the Prussian ''Kreis (Districts of Prussia)'' or district. In this way, as the seat of government offices and schools, Brilon regained significance. The construction of traffic connections and various municipal measures brought about a strong development of crafts and trade. Hesse-Darmstadt and Prussia Ownership of the domain remained under this line until Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse Philip

Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt

The '''Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt''' ( ) was a State (Imperial State) of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by a younger branch of the House of Hesse. It was formed in 1567 following the division of the Landgraviate of Hesse between the four sons of Landgrave Philip I (Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse).

The residence of the landgraves was in Darmstadt, hence the name. As a result of the Napoleonic Wars, the landgraviate was elevated to the Grand Duchy of Hesse following the Empire's dissolution in 1806.

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