Landa de Matamoros

What is Landa de Matamoros known for?


agricultural art

accessdate April 8, 2011 language Spanish trans_title The Missions The Museo de Arte Agropecuario (Museum of Agricultural Art) is located in Landa has three exhibition halls. One room exhibits the fossil remains of a mastodon, which was found under the mission church during restoration work in 1984. The other two contain historical photographs, as well as implements related to farming, livestock, forestry, commerce and home. There is also an area with for temporary exhibits


important site

The problem is most serious in Landa de Matamoros, Pinal de Amoles and Jalpan de Serra . Aside from commercial loggers, areas are also cleared by local farmers looking for more space for animals and crops. This has led to springs and river drying up and eroding of topsoil. While strict environmental protection laws exist, enforcement is lacking. Local authorities have requested the creation of environmental police to guard the forest areas. However, much of the enforcement is done by the local community itself. A second mission is located in the community of Tancoyol called Nuestra Señora de la Luz de Tancoyol, dedicated to Our Lady of Light (Franciscan Missions in the Sierra Gorda). This facade has profuse vegetative ornamentation, with ears of corn prominent and is the most elaborate of the five missions. It is likely that this mission was constructed by Juan Ramos de Lora, who resided here from 1761 to 1767. The structure is similar to those in Jalpan and Landa (Landa de Matamoros). It has a church with a Latin cross layout and choir area, a sacristy, atrium with cross and chapels in the corners of the atrium called “capillas posas.” There is also a pilgrims’ gate, a cloister and quarters for the priest. The interior has a number of sculptures including one of “Our Lady of Light.”


important natural

, La Lagunita, Otates, Tres Lagunas, Acatitlán de Zaragoza, Tilaco, and Valle de Guadalupe. Most crops consist of corn, beans, sorghum, peas and chickpeas and coffee. Fruit trees include orange, peach, papaya, lime, avocado, grapefruit, lemon, sapote, plum, apple and mango. There is also sugar cane and coffee grown. The most important natural resource is forest area. These forests include pine, oak, oyamel, white cedar and strawberry tree (Muntingia calabura)s. Some fine woods such as red cedar and walnut can also be found. Logging occurs on about 14390 hectares, or about seventeen percent of the municipality's territory. Most are located near the communities of El Madroño, Tres Lagunas and Agua Zarca. Most forest lands are ejidos or otherwise communally owned, with the rest privately owned. There are sixty eight locations dedicated to lumber and over 500 dedicated to collecting other forest products. The declaration of the biosphere reserve has allowed for better control of illegal logging. There are some mineral deposits such as magnesium, silver and lead, but they have not been exploited due to the lack of geological studies. There is also a small petroleum deposit in Tres Lagunas. About 63,700 hectares are dedicated to livestock such as cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, horses, various domestic fowl and bees. Most occurs in Landa, Agua Zarca, Otates, La Reforma, La Vuelta and Tres Lagunas because of the availability of natural and seeded pastures. Livestock raising has faced challenges due to recent climate changes in the municipality raising the cost of feeding the animals. Over 18% of the working population is dedicated to mining, construction, industry and manufacturing. Industry is mostly limited to a number of handcrafts such as leather goods and ceramics and some food processing, especially related to corn. Some communities create handcrafts such as wool items, ceramics including jars and comal (comal (cookware))s, palm mats, knitted items, copal incense and wood items such as toys and furniture. Commerce and services provide over twenty one percent of the employment. The municipality has 195 commercial establishments mostly located in the larger communities. There are no municipal markets, but there are tianguis markets during the weeks in several locations especially the municipal seat, Tilaco, La Lagunita and Agua Zarca La Lagunita holds a large tianguis on Saturday. Most commerce is geared to local consumption and basic needs. There is some tourism, mostly associated with the two mission churches in Landa and Tilaco. There is only one two-star hotel in the community of El Lobo, with fifteen rooms and a restaurant. It is not known exactly how many people from Querétaro go to work in the United States, nor how many come at the end of the year to visit. Landa has one of the highest emigration rates in Querétaro. Most from Landa migrate to Texas, especially Houston. The dollars that return here have a large impact in Landa and other municipalities of the Sierra Gorda region. It is estimated that between 50,000 and 100,000 USD per day comes into the Sierra Gorda region, or about 18 million per year based on estimates of money changed in the area. This quantity is more than the entire municipal budge of Landa and accounts for most of the money residents live on, dwarfing the amount made through the local economy of farming and forestry. The currency itself circulates here, accepted in a number of businesses. In the community of Tres Lagunas, there are three hundred families with at least one member from each in the United States. All of its streets, including the entrance road are dirt. Many of the houses are now of brick or block, with satellite TV, paid for by remittance money, but there is no piped water. Dollars sent back by migrants in the United States is not only received directly by families, it is also used to fund public works projects through organizations such as the Federacion de Clubes de Migrantes de la Sierra Gorda, which includes six groups from Landa de Matamoros. Much of this money is matched two for one by the Mexican federal government. The first community to benefit from this problem was La Lagunita, with an initial offering of USD5,000. Most works focus on paving, water systems, drainage and electricity. The problem is most serious in Landa de Matamoros, Pinal de Amoles and Jalpan de Serra . Aside from commercial loggers, areas are also cleared by local farmers looking for more space for animals and crops. This has led to springs and river drying up and eroding of topsoil. While strict environmental protection laws exist, enforcement is lacking. Local authorities have requested the creation of environmental police to guard the forest areas. However, much of the enforcement is done by the local community itself. A second mission is located in the community of Tancoyol called Nuestra Señora de la Luz de Tancoyol, dedicated to Our Lady of Light (Franciscan Missions in the Sierra Gorda). This facade has profuse vegetative ornamentation, with ears of corn prominent and is the most elaborate of the five missions. It is likely that this mission was constructed by Juan Ramos de Lora, who resided here from 1761 to 1767. The structure is similar to those in Jalpan and Landa (Landa de Matamoros). It has a church with a Latin cross layout and choir area, a sacristy, atrium with cross and chapels in the corners of the atrium called “capillas posas.” There is also a pilgrims’ gate, a cloister and quarters for the priest. The interior has a number of sculptures including one of “Our Lady of Light.”


including work

themselves were founded in the 1740s. After the missions were handed over to regular clergy in 1770, they deteriorated over the centuries. Restoration work on all five churches began from 1979 to 1985, initially focusing on the integrity of the structures and the facades. From 1991 to 1997, restoration of the towns around the missions, including work on monuments, plazas, fountains, building facades, paving streets with stone and more were undertaken. From


events called

"encmuc" The feast of Francis of Assisi in Tilaco takes place over the week of 4 October, with activities such as events called jaripeos, horse racing, popular dances, sports and traditional dances in traditional


fierce resistance

allied with the Aztecs. Aztec records indicate that the Sierra Gorda was a tributary area, but it is likely that the Aztecs only controls parts on the periphery up to the Pánuco River. This route leads to the modern settlement of Landa de Matamoros. However, archeological evidence so far is related to the Pame. The Spanish made incursions into the area early in the colonial period, but the Chichimeca, especially the Jonaz, put up fierce resistance to their intrusions. This would keep the Spanish from fully dominating the area for two hundred years. The Pames were considered less resistant and as early as the 16th century, Augustinians from Xilitla and Franciscans from Michoacán founded missions in the Landa area. However, these would not remain permanently. The Spanish would break Chichimeca resistance in the Sierra Gorda in the 1740s, with the expeditions of José de Escandón, culminating in the Battle of Media Luna. To solidify these military gains, Franciscans founded new missions in this and other areas of northern Querétaro, the heart of the Sierra Gorda. These missions were taken over by Junípero Serra starting in 1750, who decided to have elaborate mission complexes built in five locations, two of which are in the municipality, in Landa de Matamoros and in Tilaco. In addition to evangelization, the missions worked to group the semi nomadic Pames into permanent communities centered on churches. A smallpox epidemic in 1762 caused the deaths of 5,300 and depopulated some of the mission communities. After the missions were handed over to regular clergy in 1771, the indigenous population of five communities abandoned their homes for the mountains because of abuses and inability to understand the new priests. During the Mexican War of Independence, various insurgents such as Ignacio (Ignacio López Rayón) and Rafael López Rayón, José María Liceaga, Julián (Julián Villagrán) and Francisco Villagrán (Francisco Villagrán (Mexican insurgent)) and Luis Herrera (Luis Herrera (soldier)) found refuge here. The most important person to do so was Mariano Matamoros, who was here from 1807 to 1808. During this time, he offered his services as priest at the Landa mission church. In 1825, Landa was part of the municipality of Jalpan according to the first state constitution. Until 1917, Landa was a subdelegation of the district municipality of Jalpan de Serra. In this year, it was made a full delegation, and the community of Landa was recognized as a town. In 1941, the delegation was converted into a free municipality. There was unrest here during the Cristero War, with some taking up arms. Like the rest of the Sierra Gorda, economic development has lagged behind other parts of Querétaro and Mexico, in part to the end of mining in neighboring municipalities and in part to the ruggedness of the region's terrain. From the last decades of the 20th century to the present, the economic marginalization of the area has given the municipality one of the highest rates of emigration. The problem is most serious in Landa de Matamoros, Pinal de Amoles and Jalpan de Serra . Aside from commercial loggers, areas are also cleared by local farmers looking for more space for animals and crops. This has led to springs and river drying up and eroding of topsoil. While strict environmental protection laws exist, enforcement is lacking. Local authorities have requested the creation of environmental police to guard the forest areas. However, much of the enforcement is done by the local community itself. A second mission is located in the community of Tancoyol called Nuestra Señora de la Luz de Tancoyol, dedicated to Our Lady of Light (Franciscan Missions in the Sierra Gorda). This facade has profuse vegetative ornamentation, with ears of corn prominent and is the most elaborate of the five missions. It is likely that this mission was constructed by Juan Ramos de Lora, who resided here from 1761 to 1767. The structure is similar to those in Jalpan and Landa (Landa de Matamoros). It has a church with a Latin cross layout and choir area, a sacristy, atrium with cross and chapels in the corners of the atrium called “capillas posas.” There is also a pilgrims’ gate, a cloister and quarters for the priest. The interior has a number of sculptures including one of “Our Lady of Light.”


large water

, there are large water storage facilities in Encino Solo, Landa, Tres Lagunas, Otates, Santa Inés, Malpaís and Acatitlán de Zaragoza from which trucks deliver water to home storage facilities. Many homes also have their own systems to catch rainfall and runoff during the rainy season. Most of the municipality is covered in various types of mostly deciduous forest, with leaves fully or partially fall during the dry season and the very cold weeks in December and January


choir

the late 1990s to the early 2000s, restoration of interiors were done, including to altars, choir areas, organs and paintings. Much of the work was done to encourage tourism to the area, and the work cost anywhere from one to two million pesos for each church.

. There is an image of Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception, along with a number of saints including James of the Marshes, Bernardino of Siena, John of Capistrano and Francis of Assisi. On the sides of the choir window, there are two important Franciscans, Duns Scotus and María de Ágreda, along with the coat of arms of the order. At the summit in the center, there is an image of the Archangel Michael defeating a demon. The facade has

;ref name "aguainah" The Tilaco mission contains a choir area (choir (architecture)), baptistery, sacristy, cloister, chapels and gardens. The mission was built on a mostly leveled incline. Its bell tower is separate from the body of the church, but connected through the baptistery. Structurally, the tower functions as a buttress. It is the smallest and simplest of the five missions. ref name


important annual/

El Lobo is located 28 km from the municipal seat and has a population of 664. Most residents are dedicated to livestock and forestry. It is a municipal delegation with seven sub delegations. It is the Centro Estratégico Communitario Microrregion06. La Lagunita is located on the San Juan del Río-Xilitla highway, eight km from the municipal seat. It is primarily dedicated to commerce with a population of 505. It is head of the Centro Estratégico Communitario Microrregion02 with eighteen communities with a total population of 2575. Tres Lagunas is located 37 km from the municipal seat at the far northeast of the municipality. It has a population of 657 with seasonal agriculture and livestock as primary economic activities. It is the seat of Centro Estratégico Communitario Microrregion05 with twelve communities and a population of 2489. Other communities include Las Pilas, El Madroño and Río Verdito.Las Pilas is located 2 km from the municipal seat where there are important sources of water stored for various communities. El Madroño is characterized by its gray-brown and red soils. Underneath there is a base of limestone containing numerous 100 million year old marine fossils from when this area was under the sea. It is located 25 km from the municipal seat. Río Verdito is a community located next to a river of the same name, which has a waterfall. It is 46 km from the municipal seat. Demographics and culture There are no longer any representative indigenous groups in the municipality, with only 36 speaking any kind of indigenous language as of 2005. Over 96% of the population is Catholic. From 1950 to 2005, the municipality's population grew from 9,226 to 19,493 people, representing a growth rate of 0.8%. Birthrates are high and mortality rates are low, however, since the 2000s, the municipality has experienced significant migration out. Without this migration, the growth rate would have been about 1.5%. From 2000 to 2005, the population has decreased


sculptures including

and choir area, a sacristy, atrium with cross and chapels in the corners of the atrium called “capillas posas.” There is also a pilgrims’ gate, a cloister and quarters for the priest. The interior has a number of sculptures including one of “Our Lady of Light.” The facade is marked by a rhomboid window surrounded by a representation of the cord Franciscans use to tie their habits. The basic theme of the facade is mercy, represented by interventions by the Virgin Mary and various saints. The iconography of this portal is the most elaborate of the five missions. The facade consists of three bodies, a pediment and four estípite columns. The lower body has sculptures of Saints Peter (Saint Peter) and Paul (Saint Paul) and who Franciscan coats of arms. The second body has sculptures of Joachim and Saint Anne, with the Virgin Mary in her arms, and a niche in the center. There are also images from the Passion (Passion of Christ) such as nails and a lance. This niche contained an image of Our Lady of Light, but it is empty now. Between the second and third bodies, there is a large window and above it, a representation of the stigmata of Francis of Assisi. The pediment contains a large cross in relief of two styles related to the Franciscan and Dominican orders. The main cross at the top represents redemption with the crosses of Calatrava and Jerusalem on either side. Indigenous elements are found in the church’s interior, with an image of a jaguar and a person with Olmec features. The bell tower is narrow and the baptistery is at the base of this tower. On the lower part appears a small window which illuminates the baptistery. The cupola of the tower is in a pyramid shape with a Baroque iron cross on top. Indigenous influence is noted in the interior columns of the church, which have images of a jaguar and a person with Olmec features. The '''Sierra Gorda''' is an ecological region centered on the northern third of the state of Querétaro and extending into the neighboring states of Guanajuato, Hidalgo (Hidalgo (state)) and San Luis Potosí. The problem is most serious in Landa de Matamoros, Pinal de Amoles and Jalpan de Serra . Aside from commercial loggers, areas are also cleared by local farmers looking for more space for animals and crops. This has led to springs and river drying up and eroding of topsoil. While strict environmental protection laws exist, enforcement is lacking. Local authorities have requested the creation of environmental police to guard the forest areas. However, much of the enforcement is done by the local community itself. A second mission is located in the community of Tancoyol called Nuestra Señora de la Luz de Tancoyol, dedicated to Our Lady of Light (Franciscan Missions in the Sierra Gorda). This facade has profuse vegetative ornamentation, with ears of corn prominent and is the most elaborate of the five missions. It is likely that this mission was constructed by Juan Ramos de Lora, who resided here from 1761 to 1767. The structure is similar to those in Jalpan and Landa (Landa de Matamoros). It has a church with a Latin cross layout and choir area, a sacristy, atrium with cross and chapels in the corners of the atrium called “capillas posas.” There is also a pilgrims’ gate, a cloister and quarters for the priest. The interior has a number of sculptures including one of “Our Lady of Light.”

Landa de Matamoros

'''Landa de Matamoros''' is a town and municipality (municipalities of Mexico) located in the northwest of the state of Querétaro in central Mexico. It is part of the Sierra Gorda region, which consists of rugged mountains, canyons and wide diversity of flora and fauna, with the municipality's flora representing about 25% of all the plant diversity in Mexico. In the pre-Hispanic period, the area was heavily influenced by Huastecas (Huasteca people) and local cultures, later dominated by the Chichimecas, especially the Pames. Complete Spanish domination came late, in the mid 18th century, but two of the five Franciscan mission complexes (Franciscan Missions in the Sierra Gorda) built to solidify this domination were built in the municipality. Today, Landa de Matamoros remains rural and impoverished with a high rate of emigration out of the area, especially to the United States. Remittances sent by relatives from there now form most of the municipality's economy.

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