(then the Minister of War in the Soviet Government, and the leader of the Red Army) responded by sending the army to Kronstadt, along with the Cheka. The uprising was thus suppressed. World War II In the late 1930s, Kronstadt lived the life of the fortified city and was the base of the Baltic Fleet. During that time Kronstadt was an important training center of the Soviet Navy. The Kronstadt Ship Repair Plant (Navy Plant) overhauled and repaired surface ships and submarines of the Baltic Fleet. All forts and batteries of the city were under reconstruction. At 23:37 on June 21, 1941, the operational readiness of Fleet Number 1 was announced by Baltic Fleet Commander Vice Admiral V. Tributs (Vladimir Tributs) according to the order of the People's Commissar of the Navy. Several hours later the first German aircraft began mining the fairway near Kronstadt. The duty officer (First Lieutenant S. Kushnerev) ordered antiaircraft batteries to open fire on the enemy planes; several aircraft were shot down or damaged. Twenty-seven German planes took part at the first attack, and three of them were destroyed by the anti-aircraft guns of the 1st Air Defence Regiment of the Baltic Fleet. This regiment was situated on the southern forts. During World War II, Kronstadt was bombed several times by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe. In August 1941 the Luftwaffe began bombing Kronstadt regularly. The most notable bombing was Stuka ace Hans-Ulrich Rudel's sinking of the Soviet battleship ''Marat'' (Soviet battleship Marat). To prevent an enemy landing, 13 artillery batteries were established in Kronstadt and nine more batteries beyond the city, (but on the island Kotlin). The main lookout was located in the Naval Cathedral. Visual range reached wikipedia:Kronstadt
for the detection and recording of electrical oscillations." Zh. Russ. Fiz.-Khim. Obshchestva (Physics, pt 1) 1896, 28, pp 1-14 "An Application of the Coherer." The Electrician, 1897. Popov conducted experiments along the lines of Hertz's research. In 1894-95 he built his first radio receiver, an improved version of coherer-based design by Oliver Lodge. In 1895, he built a coherer. Popov Journal Russian Physico-Chemical
of Tartu, the most progressive town in Estonia, in 1864. Nationalism, including publication in indigenous languages, was a very touchy subject in the Russian Empire but the rule of Czar Alexander II (Alexander II of Russia) (1855-1881) was relatively liberal and Jannsen managed to persuade the imperial censorship to allow him to publish the first national Estonian language newspaper in 1864. Both the Pärnu local and the national newspaper were called ''Postimees'' (''The Courier
at the gymnasium of Tsarskoe Selo, where the Symbolist (Russian Symbolism) poet Innokenty Annensky was his teacher. Later, Gumilev admitted that it was Annensky's influence that turned his mind to writing poetry. World War I All four of the Ganguts were assigned to the First Battleship Brigade of the Baltic Fleet in December 1914 – January 1915 when they reached Helsingfors (Helsinki). Their turrets and fire-control systems, however, were still being adjusted and fine-tuned through
Church . He was a striking, unconventional personality, deeply pious and immensely energetic. He was one of the most internationally famous and beloved Orthodox Christian leaders of his time. In Russian America In 1850, Furuhjelm was detached to the new post in the Russian-American Company and sailed from Kronstadt to Novoarkhangel'sk (Sitka) (''New Archangel'', as the Russian community in Sitka was called) on board of the ship ''Nikolai I''. He arrived to Sitka
he also served as a deputy engineer and then lead engineer of the Gangut class battleships Sevastopol (Sevastopol (1911 ship)) and Petropavlovsk (Battleship Petropavlovsk (1914)). Promoted in 1913 to the rank of Captain, until the end of World War I Czernicki served as the lead hull (hull (watercraft)) designer in the naval shipyard in Reval (modern Tallinn, Estonia). In 1917 he was promoted to Navy Lieutenant Colonel and the following year he resigned his post. Early
biography Viktor Kyrpychov graduated from the Polotsk military school (1862) and St.Michael artillery school in Saint Petersburg (1863). In 1863-1870 he was in the faculty of Kronstadt military academy where he taught material science and mechanics. In 1873 he was a postdoc student of Gustav Kirchhoff in Germany. After that, until his move to Ukraine in 1885, he was a professor at Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology Saint Petersburg Technological Institute
to Kronstadt in 1918, caused by the possible threat to those bases from the final German offensives against Russia during World War I. A leading navy commander during the Siege of Leningrad, Tributs led the Soviet evacuation of Tallinn, organized military operations in defense of the ports of Kronstadt and Oranienbaum (Lomonosov, Russia) during 1941-1943, and arranged counterattacks by naval aircraft of the Baltic Fleet defending Leningrad from aerial bombing attacks. His active
involvement in the defense of Leningrad helped to save the city from still more destruction, but failed to save the suburban palaces of the Tsars, such as the Peterhof Palace, from destruction by the Nazis. Revolutionary Leader (1917) During the February Revolution of 1917, Skobelev and other Menshevik Duma deputies became leaders of the Petrograd Soviet when it was formed on February 27, Skobelev at first serving as chairman. On March 7, Skobelev became one of the 5 original members of the Contact Committee of the Petrograd Soviet which coordinated policy decisions with the newly formed Russian Provisional Government. On March 12, he was elected deputy chairman of the Petrograd Soviet's Executive Committee with Chkheidze as chairman. When the Mensheviks agreed to join the Provisional Government on May 5, Skobelev became the new government's Minister (political minister) of Labor (labour (economics)). On May 23-24, Skobelev and Irakli Tsereteli hammered out a compromise with rebellious Kronstadt sailors who, led by Bolsheviks Fedor Raskolnikov and Semion Roshal, had formed a self-styled autonomous ''Kronstadt Republic''. The compromise avoided a showdown with the Provisional Government wikipedia:Kronstadt
for his part in these events. Andrew Browne Cunningham, later Britain's leading World War II admiral, commanded Cowan's destroyers in this campaign. Cowan's forceful diplomacy ensured a successful mission, for which he was promoted to Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) in 1919 and created a Baronet, "of the Baltic", in the 1921 New Year Honours. #Kroměříž - g
Russia Saint Petersburg, Russia Regardless, the negotiations for the peace treaty dragged on for months due to Soviet reluctance to sign. However, the Soviet leadership had to deal with increased internal unrest. Between February 23 and March 17, the Kronstadt rebellion occurred in Kronstadt, which was suppressed; peasants were also rising up (Antonovschina) against the Soviet authorities, who were collecting grain in order to feed the Red Army and this was causing food shortages. As a result of this situation, Lenin (Vladimir Lenin) ordered the Soviet plenipotentiaries to secure the peace treaty with Poland. The Peace of Riga was signed on March 18, 1921, partitioning the disputed territories in Belarus and Ukraine between Poland and Russia and ending the conflict. * wikipedia:Kronstadt
It is also St. Petersburg's main seaport. In March 1921, it was the site of the Kronstadt rebellion.
Traditionally, the seat of the Russian admiralty and the base of the Russian Baltic Fleet were located in Kronstadt guarding the approaches to Saint Petersburg. The historic centre of the city and its fortifications are part of the World Heritage Site ''Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments'' (Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments).
Kronstadt has been a place of pilgrimage for Orthodox Christians for many years due to the holy memory of Saint John of Kronstadt (John of Kronstadt). Bus and water tours to Kronstadt are taken daily from Saint Petersburg
Kronstadt was the birthplace of Pyotr Kapitsa, co-recipient of the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physics.