Kirkuk

What is Kirkuk known for?


iraq

image_skyline imagesize 250px image_caption View of Kirkuk pushpin_map Iraq pushpin_label_position pushpin_map_caption

Kirkuk's location in Iraq pushpin_mapsize subdivision_type Country subdivision_name subdivision_type1 Governorate subdivision_name1 Kirkuk (Kirkuk Governorate) subdivision_type3 subdivision_name3 subdivision_type4 subdivision_name4 government_type established_title established_date elevation_footnotes elevation_m 350 population_as_of

type:city_region:IQ '''Kirkuk''' (also spelled '''Karkuk''' or '''Kerkuk''', '' ref


oil field

major element of al-Anfal, was a tactic used by Hussein's regime to drive pro-insurgent populations out of their homes in villages and cities like Kirkuk, which are in the valuable oil field areas, and relocate them in the southern parts of Iraq. Middle East Watch. Genocide in Iraq, the Anfal Campgain Against the Kurds, Human Rights Watch, 1993, p. 36 The campaign used heavy population redistribution (population transfer), most notably in Kirkuk, the results of which now plague negotiations between Iraq's Shi'a United Iraqi Alliance and the Kurdish Kurdistani Alliance. Hussein's Ba'athist regime built several public housing facilities in Kirkuk as part of his "Arabization," shifting poor Arabs from Iraq's southern regions to Kirkuk with the lure of inexpensive housing. Arabization "Arabization," another major element of al-Anfal, was a tactic used by Hussein's regime to drive pro-insurgent populations out of their homes in villages and cities like Kirkuk, which are in the valuable oil field areas, and relocate them in the southern parts of Iraq. Middle East Watch. Genocide in Iraq, the Anfal Campgain Against the Kurds, Human Rights Watch, 1993, p. 36 The campaign used heavy population redistribution (population transfer), most notably in Kirkuk, the results of which now plague negotiations between Iraq's Shi'a United Iraqi Alliance and the Kurdish Kurdistani Alliance. Hussein's Ba'athist regime built several public housing facilities in Kirkuk as part of his "Arabization," shifting poor Arabs from Iraq's southern regions to Kirkuk with the lure of inexpensive housing. Arabization "Arabization," another major element of al-Anfal, was a tactic used by Hussein's regime to drive pro-insurgent populations out of their homes in villages and cities like Kirkuk, which are in the valuable oil field areas, and relocate them in the southern parts of Iraq. Middle East Watch. Genocide in Iraq, the Anfal Campgain Against the Kurds, Human Rights Watch, 1993, p. 36 The campaign used heavy population redistribution (population transfer), most notably in Kirkuk, the results of which now plague negotiations between Iraq's Shi'a United Iraqi Alliance and the Kurdish Kurdistani Alliance. Hussein's Ba'athist regime built several public housing facilities in Kirkuk as part of his "Arabization," shifting poor Arabs from Iraq's southern regions to Kirkuk with the lure of inexpensive housing. Iraq's Kurds now strongly resent Arabs still residing in Ba'ath-era Kirkuk housing, and view them as a barrier to Kirkuk's recognition as a Kurdish city (and regional seat) in an increasingly sovereign (sovereignty) Kurdish Autonomous Region. Iraq's Kurds now strongly resent Arabs still residing in Ba'ath-era Kirkuk housing, and view them as a barrier to Kirkuk's recognition as a Kurdish city (and regional seat) in an increasingly sovereign (sovereignty) Kurdish Autonomous Region. Gorani was once an important literary language in the southeastern parts of the Kurdistan geographical region but has since been replaced by Sorani. Meri, Josef W. Medieval Islamic Civilization: A–K, index. p444 In the nineteenth century, Gorani as a language of communication was slowly replaced by Sorani in several cities, both in Iran and Iraq. Today, Sorani is the primary language spoken in cities including Kirkuk, Meriwan, and Halabja, which are still considered part of the greater Goran region. The invasion was preceded by an air strike on the Presidential Palace in Baghdad on 19 March 2003. The following day coalition forces launched an incursion into Basra Province from their massing point close to the Iraqi-Kuwaiti border. While the special forces launched an amphibious assault from the Persian Gulf to secure Basra and the surrounding petroleum fields, the main invasion army moved into southern Iraq, occupying the region and engaging in the Battle of Nasiriyah on 23 March. Massive air strikes across the country and against Iraqi command and control threw the defending army into chaos and prevented an effective resistance. On 26 March the 173rd Airborne Brigade was airdropped (Operation Northern Delay) near the northern city of Kirkuk where they joined forces with Kurdish (Kurdish people) rebels and fought several actions against the Iraqi army to secure the northern part of the country. Over 500 counter-insurgency operations have been undertaken by the US-led Coalition or the Iraqi government. These include Operation Option North and Operation Bayonet Lightning in Kirkuk, Operation Desert Thrust, Operation Abilene and Operation All American Tiger throughout Iraq, Operation Iron Hammer (Operation Iron Hammer (Iraq 2003)) in Baghdad and Operation Ivy Blizzard in Samarra - all in 2003; Operation Market Sweep, Operation Vigilant Resolve and Operation Phantom Fury in Fallujah in 2004; Operation Matador (Battle of Al Qaim) in Anbar (Al Anbar Governorate), Operation Squeeze Play and Operation Lightning (List of coalition military operations of the Iraq War) in Baghdad, Operation New Market near Haditha, Operation Spear in Karabillah and the Battle of Tal Afar - all in 2005; Operation Swarmer in Samarra and Operation Together Forward in Baghdad in 2006; and Operation Law and Order in Baghdad, Operation Arrowhead Ripper in Baqouba and Operation Phantom Strike throughout Iraq - all in 2007. APOC took a 50% share in a new Turkish Petroleum Company organized in 1912 by Calouste Gulbenkian to explore and develop oil resources in the Ottoman Empire. After a hiatus caused by World War I it reformed and struck an immense gusher (oil gusher) at Kirkuk, Iraq in 1927, renaming itself the Iraq Petroleum Company. * In Kirkuk, Iraq, a suicide car bomb attack on the Iraqi National Guard headquarters in Kirkuk kills 23, and prominent Shia cleric Sheikh Kadhim al-Hany is ambushed and killed. (BBC) * Darfur Conflict (Darfur conflict): The United Nations Security Council passes a resolution threatening Sudan with sanction (International sanctions)s if it does not act to control the Arab militias accused of genocide in Darfur. The resolution passes 11–0, with the People's Republic of China, Russia, Pakistan, and Algeria abstaining. (MSNBC) * In Kirkuk, Iraq, a suicide car bomb attack on the Iraqi National Guard headquarters in Kirkuk kills 23, and prominent Shia cleric Sheikh Kadhim al-Hany is ambushed and killed. (BBC) * Darfur Conflict (Darfur conflict): The United Nations Security Council passes a resolution threatening Sudan with sanction (International sanctions)s if it does not act to control the Arab militias accused of genocide in Darfur. The resolution passes 11–0, with the People's Republic of China, Russia, Pakistan, and Algeria abstaining. (MSNBC) * Tensions (French Polynesia political crisis 2004) remain high in French Polynesia as the Leadership remains in doubt. The Legislative Assembly failed to sit on Monday 25 October. Gaston Flosse, elected President on 22 October, attempted to enter the Presidential palace on the weekend but was met by closed gates. (Oceania Flash) * Conflict in Iraq: A roadside bomb kills a U.S. soldier and wounds five others in western Baghdad. Hospital officials say five civilians are killed from U.S. snipers in the western city of Ramadi. In Kirkuk, a roadside bomb kills an Iraqi civilian. An Estonian soldier is killed and five wounded in a bomb blast in Baghdad. A mortar (Mortar (weapon)) lands on an Iraqi National Guard checkpoint north of Baghdad, killing an Iraqi civilian. In Mosul, a car bomb kills a tribal leader and two civilians. (Reuters) (BBC) * Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: - Kirkuk Olympic Stadium (Kirkuk) 30,000 Kirkuk FC - The 4th Infantry Division (U.S. 4th Infantry Division) conducted 43 raids in an area ranging from Kirkuk in the north to Taji in the south and initially detained 288 individuals. Sixty-five of the detained were held. The unit seized three AK-47s, one mortar site and one Dragunov (Dragunov sniper rifle) night site. The division also placed a contract for playground equipment and a retaining wall for a school in their area, assisted a general hospital with $1,000 drug and supply purchase and purchased an ambulance. Cole, who began to call the Iraqi conflict a "civil war" as early as 2004, Wikipedia:Kirkuk Dmoz:Regional Middle_East Iraq Localities Kirkuk commons:Kirkuk


quot landscapes

-European tribal people of mountainous Pontic (Pontus) Anatolia, known from Hittite (Hittites) sources. "Although attested historically, the Kaska are virtually unknown archaeologically," Roger Matthews has observed, "Landscapes of Terror and Control: Imperial Impacts in Paphlagonia" ''Near Eastern Archaeology'' '''67'''.4 (December 2004:200-211) esp. pp202f. They lived in the mountainous region between the core Hittite region in eastern


great oil

possible. Here, too, are the great oil fields near Mosul and Kirkuk. The northeast is the homeland of most Iraqi Kurds. In 846 CE, one of the leaders of the Kurds in Mosul revolted against the Caliph Al Mo'tasam who sent the commander Aitakh to combat against him. Aitakh won this war and killed many of the Kurds. The Kurds revolted again in 903 CE, during the period of Almoqtadar. Eventually Arabs conquered the Kurdish regions and gradually converted the majority of Kurds to Islam


academic education

publisher Meforum.org accessdate 2013-03-26 After WWI, the Jewish population increased, especially after Kirkuk became a petroleum center; in 1947 there were 2,350 counted in the census. Jews were generally engaged in commerce and handicraft. Social progress was slow, and it was only in the 1940s that some Jewish students acquired secondary academic education. By 1951 almost all of the Jews had left for Israel.


military series

launched air strikes against the Iraqis. By this time, the army had grown significantly. It had four infantry divisions Playfair, I.S.O.; and others (2006). The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume II The Germans come to the help of their Ally (1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series, Official Campaign History, Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-84734-427-5, p.182 with some 60,000 men. Lyman, ''Iraq 1941'', p. 25 ref>


family called

http: www.iraqispecialtribunal.org en press releases 0020ae.htm *Aead Futaih Khaleefa for the 1990 events and crimes in Kirkuk; Up to the 20th century, the Yârsânî faith was strictly for Kurds who were born into it, called ''checkedea'' ("a drop of"), as opposed to individuals who married into a Yârsânî family, called ''chasbedea'' ("attached"). Adherents today are mainly found among the Kurdish tribes of the Guran, Qalkhani, Bajalani and Sanjabi


educational career

different cities, including Istanbul, Sinop (Sinop, Turkey), Siirt, Kirkuk, and Antalya. After quitting veterinary college, he resumed his educational career at the Faculty of Literature at Istanbul University, which he completed in 1923. As a literature teacher, he taught at high schools in Erzurum (1923–1924), Konya, Ankara, the Educational Institute of Gazi and the Fine Arts Academy. At the Fine Arts Academy, besides teaching literature, Tanpınar taught in branches of aesthetics in arts, history of art and mythology (1932–1939). From 1942 to 1946, he entered the Turkish National Assembly as parliamentar of Kahramanmaraş. In 1953, he made an extensive journey to Europe, traveling many countries within six months such as France, Belgium, Holland, England, Spain and Italy. Tanpınar died of a heart attack on the 24 January 1962 in Istanbul. His grave is in the Aşiyan Graveyard, Istanbul. Anderson chairs the Labour Friends of Iraq group, a body dedicated to supporting ordinary Iraqis as they attempt to rebuild their lives. Labour Friends of Iraq - Who we are In a 2008 interview with SOMA Digest Anderson urged the implementation of article 140 of the Iraqi constitution (Article 140 of the Iraqi Constitution) regarding the normalization process of Kirkuk and other formerly Arabised towns. SOMA Digest Interview He also called for solving the Kurdish issue (Kurds in Turkey) in Turkey in a democratic way. In 1930, a passenger service by road was introduced to bridge the missing section of line between Nusaybin and Kirkuk. At different times the service used Rolls-Royce (Rolls-Royce Limited) cars and Thornycroft buses. Dowlatshah carried the last, and initially very successful, attack on the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) Iraq in 1821. Persia was resentful of the inability of the Ottoman government to protect the Shia population of Iraq against the Saudi-Wahhabi attacks that had begun in 1801. Many of the Shias killed in the raids were Iranians, some of whom closely related to the ruling Qajar dynasty of Persia. His forces quickly occupied Shahrazur and Kirkuk, and laid siege to Baghdad. The party suffered something of a crisis in the summer of 1959, with a minor crackdown by Qasim coinciding with the disturbances of July 1959 in Kirkuk, for which the Communists were widely blamed. A party plenum resulted in a victory for the right wing: it approved a highly self-critical report, published in the party newspaper ''Ittihad ash-Sha'ab''. Al-Radi remained the nominal party leader, but his position as secretary was changed to that of first secretary, with three assistant secretaries appointed who were all close to Abdallah. *Patriarchal Archdiocese of Baghdad and Basra (Baghdad, Iraq) - Overseen by H.H. Mar Addai II Catholicos Patriarch *Archdiocese of Kirkuk (Kirkuk, Iraq) - Overseen by Archbishop Mar Narsai Toma *Archdiocese of Nineveh (Mosul, Iraq) - Overseen by Archbishop Mar Toma Gewargis In 1933 he was Director General of Irrigation, and from 1934 to 1935 he was Minister of Public Works. During his Ministership the opening of the famous oil pipeline from the oilfields at Kirkuk to the Mediterranean over Wikipedia:Kirkuk Dmoz:Regional Middle_East Iraq Localities Kirkuk commons:Kirkuk


political legal

in the province and despite all the political legal security complexities of this process in the country generally and in Kirkuk in particular, Kirkuk witnessed the birth of its first elected Provincial Council. The Independent Electoral Commission of Iraq IECI approved and announced the outcomes of this process, which filled the 41 seats of Kirkuk Provincial Council as follows: * 26 seats 367 List Kirkuk Brotherhood List KBL * 8 seats 175 List Iraqi Turkmen Front ITF * 5 seats 299 List Iraqi


military projects

and military projects. As a result, approximately three-fourths of the Assyrians who had sided with the British during World War I found themselves living in now Kurdish dominated areas of Iraq where their ancestors had existed for many thousands of years. Thousands of Assyrian men had seen service in the ''Iraqi Levies'' (Assyrian Levies), a force under British officers separate from the regular Iraqi army. Excellent, disciplined and loyal soldiers, they were used by the British to help put down Arab and Kurdish insurrections against the British, and to help patrol the borders of British Mesopotamia. Pro-British, they had been apprehensive of Iraqi independence. Most of those thus resettled by the British have gone into exile, although by the end of the twentieth century, almost all of those who remain were born in Iraq. Assyrians living in northern Iraq today are those whose ancestry lies in the north originally, an area roughly corresponding with ''Ancient Assyria''. Many of these, however, in places like Berwari, have been displaced by Kurds since World War I. This process has continued throughout the twentieth century: as Kurds have expanded in population, Assyrians have come under attack as in 1933 (Simele Massacre), and as a result have fled from Iraq. (Stafford, ''Tragedy of the Assyrians'', 1935) thumb 200px The back of an Assyrian Church on January 6, 2008, in the city of Mosul. (File:Mosul Assyrian church.jpg) On January 6, 2008 (Epiphany (Epiphany (holiday)) day,) five Assyrian Churches, one Armenian Church, and a monastery in Mosul and Baghdad were coordinately attacked with multiple car bombs. عاجل سلسلة تفجيرات تطال كنائس في بغداد والموصل Churches, monastery bombed in Iraq: Police Iraqi vice-president Tariq al-Hashimi expressed his "closeness to Christians", whom he called "brothers" in the face of this "attack that changed their joy to sadness and anxiety". AKI - Adnkronos international Iraq: Vice-president condemns church attacks Two days later, on January 8, two more Churches were bombed in the city of Kirkuk; the Chaldean Cathedral of Kirkuk and the ACOE Maar Afram Church, wounding three bystandards. AFP: Car bombings target churches in north Iraq Since the start of the Iraq war, there have been at least 46 Churches and Monasteries bombed. Church Bombings in Iraq Since 2004 thumb left 1979 film by the US Department of Defense about important historical airlifts (File:Airlift.ogv) In April 1923 aircraft of the RAF (Royal Air Force)'s Iraq Command (RAF Iraq Command) flew 280 Sikh (Sikhism) troops from Kingarban to Kirkuk in the first British air trooping operation. This operation was only conducted over a short range and it was not until 1929 that the RAF conducted a long-range non-combat air evacuation of British diplomatic staff from Afghanistan to India during the Kabul Airlift. In 1944 he became the head of the local branch of Komeley Jiyanewey Kurd (J.K.) in Sulaimaniya. Subsequently, this branch evolved to serve the entirety of Iraqi Kurdistan. When the J.K. changed its name on the 16th of July 1945, to the Kurdistan Democratic Party (K.D.P.), Ibrahim Ahmad became its chairman in Iraqi Kurdistan. This branch of the K.D.P. published a magazine titled ''Dengî Rastî'' with Ibrahim Ahmad as editor. After 1947, he became an active member of the Kurdistan Democratic Party, and rose to the role of Secretary General of the party in 1953. In 1949, he was sentenced by a special Iraqi court, established by the royalist regime, to two years of prison in Baghdad, and two years of local arrest in Kirkuk. From 1949 to 1956, he served as the editor of the K.D.P's newspaper, ''Rizgarî''. The party's newspaper was renamed to ''Xebat'' in 1956 with Ibrahim Ahmed as the editor. In 1964, a political division occurred among the ranks of K.D.P., with Ahmad on one side and Mustafa Barzani on the other. In March 2003, 2nd Battalion, 14th Infantry Regiment, deployed from Fort Drum in preparation for the invasion of Iraq. As part of Task Force Viking, the battalion was attached to 10th Special Forces Group in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Wikipedia:Kirkuk Dmoz:Regional Middle_East Iraq Localities Kirkuk commons:Kirkuk

Kirkuk

'''Kirkuk''' (also spelled '''Karkuk''' or '''Kerkuk''', '' It is the capital of Kirkuk Governorate.

Kirkuk lies in a wide zone with an enormously diverse population, which has moreover experienced dramatic demographic changes in the course of the twentieth century. The city has been multilingual for centuries, and the development of distinct ethnic groups was a process that took place over the course of Kirkuk's urbanization in the twentieth century. Bet-Shlimon, Arbella. 2012. Group Identities, Oil, and the Local Political Domain in Kirkuk: A Historical Perspective. Journal of Urban History 38, no. 5. Kurds, Turkmen, Assyrians and Arabs lay conflicting claims to this zone, and all have their historical accounts and memories to buttress their claims.

The city sits on the site of the ancient Hurrian southern capital of Arrapha, The Cambridge Ancient History – Page 17 by John Boardman which sits near the Khasa River on the ruins of a 5,000-year-old settlement (Kirkuk Citadel). It became known as Arrapha under the domination of the Hurrians—pre-Aryan peoples. The city reached great importance again under the later, but short-lived Assyrians (ancient Assyrians) in the 10th and 11th centuries BC. Because of the strategic geographical location of the city, Kirkuk was the battle ground for three empires—the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Babylonia, and Media (Medes)—which controlled the city at various times. last Talabany first Nouri year 1999 url http: www.fortunecity.com business laur 791 nouri_kirkuk.htm title Iraq's Policy of Ethnic Cleansing: Onslaught to change national demographic characteristics of the Kirkuk Region accessdate 2006-06-05

Kurds ''Claims in conflict: reversing ethnic cleansing in northern Iraq'', Human Rights Watch (Organization), Aug. 2004, Vol.16, 54. The city currently consists mainly of people who self-identify as Arab people Arabs , Assyrians (Assyrian people), Iraqi Turkmens and Kurds (Kurdish people).

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