What is Kirkuk known for?


billion barrels (1.6 km³) of proven remaining oil reserves as of 1998. After about seven decades of operation, Kirkuk still produces up to one million barrels a day, almost half of all Iraqi oil exports. Some analysts believe that poor reservoir (Oil reservoir)-management practices during the Saddam Hussein years may have seriously, and even permanently, damaged Kirkuk's oil field. One example showed an estimated


people Assyrians . This controversial approach was also supported in the past by many foreign researchers, including Cecil J. Edmonds in his book, "Kurds, Turks and Arabs. Politics, Travel and Research in North-eastern Iraq, 1919-1925", published by London: Oxford Press, 1957. thumb right Dried up Khasa River. (File:Xase river dried up.jpg) The '''Khasa River''' ( ) is a winterbourne (Winterbourne (stream)) river which runs through

including works

a rich glossary of Kurdish terms pertaining to physics and mathematics. In the course of his sojourn in Damascus, he managed to write a booklet in Arabic on "The Kurdish Freedom Movement and its Aims" in 1957. He published another book in the same year, titled "Kurdish in Latin Script", in Baghdad. He has published many books on Kurdish language and he also translated some literary works, including works of Gogol and Shakespeare into Kurdish. He was employed

title projects

Dam and Powerhouse Project url https: en index.php?option com_content&view article&id 55&catid 55 publisher SEPASAD Engineering Co. accessdate 2 January 2012

significant political


famous oil

(Baghdad, Iraq) - Overseen by H.H. Mar Addai II Catholicos Patriarch *Archdiocese of Kirkuk (Kirkuk, Iraq) - Overseen by Archbishop Mar Narsai Toma *Archdiocese of Nineveh (Mosul, Iraq) - Overseen by Archbishop Mar Toma Gewargis In 1933 he was Director General of Irrigation, and from 1934 to 1935 he was Minister of Public Works. During his Ministership the opening of the famous oil pipeline from the oilfields at Kirkuk to the Mediterranean over

national legal

: news national legal-battle-to-ban-latham-show-fails 2005 09 15 1126750082275.html (The Age) (ABC News). *'''December 18''': During a press conference, Iranian Deputy Foreign Minister Abbas Maleki states that Iran supports the free flow of oil through the Strait of Hormuz, but reserves the option of closing off the shipping route if it is threatened. Iran recently has admitted to deploying anti-aircraft (anti-aircraft missile) and anti-ship missiles on Abu Musa, an island strategically located near the Strait of Hormuz's shipping lanes. *'''December 30''': The United Nations announces that a total of 21 contracts have been approved for the limited Iraqi oil sales under U.N. Resolution 986. The approved contracts will allow for Wikipedia:Kirkuk Dmoz:Regional Middle_East Iraq Localities Kirkuk commons:Kirkuk

oil rich

, and, in March 1974, unilaterally decreed an autonomy statute. The new statute was a far cry from the 1970 Manifesto, and its definition of the Kurdish autonomous area explicitly excluded the oil-rich areas of Kirkuk, Khanaqin and Shingal Sinjar. In tandem with the 1970–1974 autonomy (Autonomous entity) process, the Iraqi regime carried out a comprehensive administrative reform, in which the country's sixteen provinces, or governorates, were renamed and in some cases had their boundaries altered. The old province of Kirkuk was split in half. The area around the city itself was named At-Ta'mim ( Wikipedia:Kirkuk Dmoz:Regional Middle_East Iraq Localities Kirkuk commons:Kirkuk


image_skyline imagesize 250px image_caption View of Kirkuk pushpin_map Iraq pushpin_label_position pushpin_map_caption

Kirkuk's location in Iraq pushpin_mapsize subdivision_type Country subdivision_name subdivision_type1 Governorate subdivision_name1 Kirkuk (Kirkuk Governorate) subdivision_type3 subdivision_name3 subdivision_type4 subdivision_name4 government_type established_title established_date elevation_footnotes elevation_m 350 population_as_of

type:city_region:IQ '''Kirkuk''' (also spelled '''Karkuk''' or '''Kerkuk''', '' ref

academic education

publisher accessdate 2013-03-26 After WWI, the Jewish population increased, especially after Kirkuk became a petroleum center; in 1947 there were 2,350 counted in the census. Jews were generally engaged in commerce and handicraft. Social progress was slow, and it was only in the 1940s that some Jewish students acquired secondary academic education. By 1951 almost all of the Jews had left for Israel.


'''Kirkuk''' (also spelled '''Karkuk''' or '''Kerkuk''', '' It is the capital of Kirkuk Governorate.

Kirkuk lies in a wide zone with an enormously diverse population, which has moreover experienced dramatic demographic changes in the course of the twentieth century. The city has been multilingual for centuries, and the development of distinct ethnic groups was a process that took place over the course of Kirkuk's urbanization in the twentieth century. Bet-Shlimon, Arbella. 2012. Group Identities, Oil, and the Local Political Domain in Kirkuk: A Historical Perspective. Journal of Urban History 38, no. 5. Kurds, Turkmen, Assyrians and Arabs lay conflicting claims to this zone, and all have their historical accounts and memories to buttress their claims.

The city sits on the site of the ancient Hurrian southern capital of Arrapha, The Cambridge Ancient History – Page 17 by John Boardman which sits near the Khasa River on the ruins of a 5,000-year-old settlement (Kirkuk Citadel). It became known as Arrapha under the domination of the Hurrians—pre-Aryan peoples. The city reached great importance again under the later, but short-lived Assyrians (ancient Assyrians) in the 10th and 11th centuries BC. Because of the strategic geographical location of the city, Kirkuk was the battle ground for three empires—the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Babylonia, and Media (Medes)—which controlled the city at various times. last Talabany first Nouri year 1999 url http: business laur 791 nouri_kirkuk.htm title Iraq's Policy of Ethnic Cleansing: Onslaught to change national demographic characteristics of the Kirkuk Region accessdate 2006-06-05

Kurds ''Claims in conflict: reversing ethnic cleansing in northern Iraq'', Human Rights Watch (Organization), Aug. 2004, Vol.16, 54. The city currently consists mainly of people who self-identify as Arab people Arabs , Assyrians (Assyrian people), Iraqi Turkmens and Kurds (Kurdish people).

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