Kingdom of Serbia

What is Kingdom of Serbia known for?


years serving

capital it was between 972 and 992. From 1282 the town was part of the Serbian realm (Serbian Empire) and its capital city since 1346. In 1392 the city was conquered by the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) Turks (Turkish people) who called the town ''Üsküp''. The town stayed under Ottoman control over 500 years, serving as the capital of pashasanjak of Üsküb and later the Vilayet of Kosovo. At that time the city was famous for its oriental architecture. In 1912 the city was conquered by the Kingdom of Serbia during the Balkan Wars and after the First World War the city became part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Kingdom of Yugoslavia) (Kingdom of Yugoslavia). In the Second World War the city was conquered by the Bulgarian Army (Bulgarian Army#World War II), which was part of Axis powers. In 1944 it became the capital city of Democratic Macedonia (Socialist Republic of Macedonia) (later Socialist Republic of Macedonia), which was a federal state, part of Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (later Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). The city developed rapidly after World War II, but this trend was interrupted in 1963 when it was hit by a disastrous earthquake (1963 Skopje earthquake). In 1991 it became the capital city of independent Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia). thumb left Serbian soldiers change the city name from Üsküb to Skoplje in 1912. (File:Skoplje 1912.jpg) The Ottoman army could not stand against the united front of Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro), Greece (Kingdom of Greece), Serbia (Kingdom of Serbia) and Bulgaria (Kingdom of Bulgaria) during the First Balkan War. When reinforcements to the Serbian royal army (Serbian Army) arrived some weeks later during the Battle of Kumanovo (50 km northeast of Skopje) it proved decisive in firmly driving out the Ottomans from all of Macedonia. The Romanian government signed a treaty with the Allies on August 17, 1916 and declared war on the Central Powers on August 27. The Romanian Army was quite large, with over 650,000 men in 23 divisions (Division (military)). However, it suffered from poor training and equipment, especially compared to its German counterparts. Meanwhile, the German Chief of Staff (Chief of staff (military)), General Erich von Falkenhayn correctly reasoned that Romania would side with the Allies and made plans to deal with Romania. Thanks to the earlier conquest of the Kingdom of Serbia and the ineffective Allied operations on the Kingdom of Greece border, and having a territorial interest in Dobrogea, the Bulgarian Army and the Ottoman Army were willing to help fight the Romanians.


architectural role

, and by its independence in 1878 some 50,000, which is considered little but was a great improvement. The city was entirely westernized and rebuilt with nearby Vienna and Budapest being its architectural role models (during the three Austrian occupations in the past the Baroque buildings were demolished by Muslims). It also became a cultural and educational hub for the neighboring nations that were under foreign domination: Bosnia, Bulgaria, Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia) etc


poor training

replaced by Turkey and several other countries in the Middle East. thumb right Map of territorial changes in Europe after World War I (File:Map Europe 1923-en.svg) The Romanian government signed a treaty with the Allies on August 17, 1916 and declared war on the Central Powers on August 27. The Romanian Army was quite large, with over 650,000 men in 23 divisions (Division (military)). However, it suffered from poor training and equipment, especially compared to its German


year fighting

of the prominent heroes of the Battle of Mojkovac, where Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro) helped the army (Serbian army) of Serbia (Kingdom of Serbia), its close ally, to retreat in face of the Austro-Hungarian (Austria-Hungary) attacks. After spending two years in the Austro-Hungarian prisoner camp, he returned to Montenegro to become the leader of the Christmas Uprising on 7 January 1919 and ''Saint Petar's Day Uprising'' in July of same year, fighting against the decision of the Podgorica Assembly to unite the Kingdom of Montenegro with the Kingdom of Serbia under the House of Karađorđević. Between 1919 and 1922, he was a leader of Montenegrin ''komite'', fighters for the federalisation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In 1922, he emigrated to Argentina and later to Belgium in 1929. Born to father Todor "Zrno" Popović and mother Ćetna Krivokapić, he fought in the Balkan Wars and the First World War in the Montenegrin army forces until being captured by Austro-Hungarian (Austria-Hungary) army in 1916. He was also one of the prominent heroes of the Battle of Mojkovac, where Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro) helped the army (Serbian army) of Serbia (Kingdom of Serbia), its close ally, to retreat in face of the Austro-Hungarian (Austria-Hungary) attacks. After spending two years in the Austro-Hungarian prisoner camp, he returned to Montenegro to become the leader of the Christmas Uprising on 7 January 1919 and ''Saint Petar's Day Uprising'' in July of same year, fighting against the decision of the Podgorica Assembly to unite the Kingdom of Montenegro with the Kingdom of Serbia under the House of Karađorđević. Between 1919 and 1922, he was a leader of Montenegrin ''komite'', fighters for the federalisation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In 1922, he emigrated to Argentina and later to Belgium in 1929. The Greens voted against the unification of the Kingdom of Montenegro with the Kingdom of Serbia Podgorica Assembly, while the majority Whites (''Bjelaši'') supported it. Meanwhile, only several months after his arrival to Montenegro, Krsto Popović returned to Italy, where he served in the army of Montenegrin government in exile, advancing to level of commander, and later to level of brigadier. thumb 201px Ethnic exchanges & expulsions during Balkan wars (Image:Muslim_refugees_in_the_initial_phase_of_the_First_Balkan_War.png) Ottomans (190,000–200,000) Greeks (150,000–160,000) Bulgarians (200,000) The three new Balkan states formed at the end of the 19th century and Montenegro (Kingdom of Montenegro), sought additional territories from the Albania, Macedonia (Macedonia (region)), and Thrace regions, behind their nationalistic arguments. The incomplete emergence of these nation-states on the fringes of the Ottoman Empire during the nineteenth century set the stage for the Balkan Wars. On October 10, 1912 the collective note of the powers was handed in at Constantinople. CUP responded to demands of European powers on reforms in Macedonia on October 14. Archives Diplomatiques, third series, vol. 126, p. 127. But before further action could be taken war broke out. While Powers were asking Empire to reform Macedonia, under the encouragement of Russia, a series of agreements were concluded: between Serbia (Kingdom of Serbia) and Bulgaria (Tsardom of Bulgaria) in March 1912, between Greece and Bulgaria in May 1912, and Montenegro subsequently concluded agreements between Serbia and Bulgaria respectively in October 1912. The Serbian-Bulgarian agreement specifically called for the partition of Macedonia which resulted in the First Balkan War. In 1913 a nationalist uprising broke out in Albania, and on October 8, the Balkan League, consisting of Serbia, Montenegro, Greece and Bulgaria, mounted a joint attack on the Ottoman Empire, starting the First Balkan War. The strong march of the Bulgarian forces in Thrace pushed the Ottoman armies to the gates of Istanbul. The Second Balkan War soon followed. Albania declared independence on November 28, Empire agreed to a ceasefire on December 2, and its territory losses were finalized in 1913 in the treaties of London (Treaty of London, 1913) and Bucharest (Treaty of Bucharest, 1913). Albania became independent, and the Empire lost almost all of its European territory (Kosovo, Sanjak of Novi Pazar (Sandzak), Macedonia and western Thrace) to the four allies. - rowspan "2" valign "top" 1878 March 3 ''Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)'': The Treaty of San Stefano recognizes Romanian (Kingdom of Romania) and Serbian (Kingdom of Serbia) independence, as well as the establishment of an autonomous Bulgarian principality under nominal Ottoman protection. Austria-Hungary occupies Bosnia (Bosnia Province, Ottoman Empire) by default. - General Petar Živković was a minister and prime minister in several Kingdom of Serbia's and Kingdom of Yugoslavia's governments. He graduated from the Belgrade high school, and attended the natural science and mathematics section of the University of Belgrade (University_of_Belgrade#History). In 1879 he traveled to Munich where he studied music in the class of Josef Rheinberger. After a brief break, he continued to study in Rome in the class of Parisotti, in 1884. Returning to Serbia (Kingdom of Serbia) in 1884 he briefly became the conductor of the ''Kornelije Stanković'' choir of Belgrade. '''Nadežda Petrović''' (Serbian Cyrillic: Надежда Петровић) (Čačak, Principality of Serbia, 1873 — Valjevo, Kingdom of Serbia, 1915) is considered the most important Serbian (Serbs) female painter from the late 19th and early 20th century. She was also known as Serbia's most famous Fauvist (Fauvism). The '''Battle of Kalimanci''' ( The Romanian government signed a treaty with the Allies on August 17, 1916 and declared war on the Central Powers on August 27. The Romanian Army was quite large, with over 650,000 men in 23 divisions (Division (military)). However, it suffered from poor training and equipment, especially compared to its German counterparts. Meanwhile, the German Chief of Staff (Chief of staff (military)), General Erich von Falkenhayn correctly reasoned that Romania would side with the Allies and made plans to deal with Romania. Thanks to the earlier conquest of the Kingdom of Serbia and the ineffective Allied operations on the Kingdom of Greece border, and having a territorial interest in Dobrogea, the Bulgarian Army and the Ottoman Army were willing to help fight the Romanians.


finishing high

achieved education in the Kingdom of Serbia in Niš. After finishing high school he went to mechanical workshop. In 1913 he joined the Serbian Army in the Balkan wars and fought during the First World War. In 1916 he was captured by Austro-Hungarian armed forces, but he managed to flee to the Russian Empire and finish graduation in Odessa. He fought on the Romanian front, where he was wounded. In October 1917, when the revolution broke out, he joined the Red Guards (Russia


quot contribution

showing atrocities against Serbian people. Thanks to this modernisation, children begin to be educated in Sarajevo, and later some of them continue their studies in Vienna. They bring home ideas from the rest of the world and, along with the newspapers that are now available in Višegrad, nationalistic ideas emerge, especially among Serbs. Another "contribution" to these changes is the crisis of the year 1908, when troubles in Turkey give Austria an excellent opportunity to formally annex Bosnia and Herzegovina. During this Annexation Crisis, it becomes evident that Austria sees the Kingdom of Serbia and its royal dynasty, the Karađorđevićs (House of Karađorđević), as a serious obstacle to their further conquest of the Balkans. The Balkan wars of 1912 and 1913, when Turkey was almost completely pushed out of the Balkans, do not help to foster better relations between Serbs and Austrians, as they undermine the significance of the middle span of the bridge, with its friendly inter-ethnic relationships and camaraderie. Many young Serbian men pass over it at night and smuggle themselves across the border to Serbia. The reader never learns if the most famous of them, Gavrilo Princip, passes across this bridge, although historically it would have been a possibility. The Romanian government signed a treaty with the Allies on August 17, 1916 and declared war on the Central Powers on August 27. The Romanian Army was quite large, with over 650,000 men in 23 divisions (Division (military)). However, it suffered from poor training and equipment, especially compared to its German counterparts. Meanwhile, the German Chief of Staff (Chief of staff (military)), General Erich von Falkenhayn correctly reasoned that Romania would side with the Allies and made plans to deal with Romania. Thanks to the earlier conquest of the Kingdom of Serbia and the ineffective Allied operations on the Kingdom of Greece border, and having a territorial interest in Dobrogea, the Bulgarian Army and the Ottoman Army were willing to help fight the Romanians.


public view'

referred to as the ''Annexation crisis'') erupted into public view when on October 5, 1908, Bulgaria declared its independence and on October 6, 1908, Austria-Hungary announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was populated mainly by south Slavic nationals (Serbs, Croats and Bosniaks). Russia (Russian Empire), the Ottoman Empire, Britain, Italy, Serbia, Montenegro, Germany and France took an interest in these events. In April 1909, the Treaty of Berlin (Treaty of Berlin (1878)) was amended to accept the new status quo bringing the crisis to an end. The crisis permanently damaged relations between Austria-Hungary on the one hand and Russia and Serbia on the other. The annexation and reactions to the annexation were contributing causes of World War I. Balkan Wars and ensuing changes The Romanian government signed a treaty with the Allies on August 17, 1916 and declared war on the Central Powers on August 27. The Romanian Army was quite large, with over 650,000 men in 23 divisions (Division (military)). However, it suffered from poor training and equipment, especially compared to its German counterparts. Meanwhile, the German Chief of Staff (Chief of staff (military)), General Erich von Falkenhayn correctly reasoned that Romania would side with the Allies and made plans to deal with Romania. Thanks to the earlier conquest of the Kingdom of Serbia and the ineffective Allied operations on the Kingdom of Greece border, and having a territorial interest in Dobrogea, the Bulgarian Army and the Ottoman Army were willing to help fight the Romanians.


collaboration biography

occupation and collaboration. Biography Miroslav Krleža was born in Zagreb, modern-day Croatia. He enrolled in a preparatory military school in Pécs, modern-day Hungary. At that time, Pécs and Zagreb were within the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Subsequently, he attended the Ludoviceum military academy at Budapest. He defected to Serbia (Kingdom of Serbia) in 1912 as a volunteer for the Serbian army, but was dismissed as a suspected spy. Upon his return to Croatia, he


rivalry developing

the conflict was waged through educational and religious propaganda, with a fierce rivalry developing between supporters of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, who generally identified as Greek, and supporters of the Bulgarian Exarchate, which had been established by the Ottomans in 1870. In 1894, an organization known as the as the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) was founded by Bulgarian anti-Ottoman


liberal political

and Yugoslavia. During the last twenty years of his life, his relationship with the conservative Catholic clergy worsened, as did the quality of his literary work. He continued to enjoy full support from the liberal (Liberalism in Slovenia) political establishment in Carniola, led by Ivan Tavčar and Ivan Hribar. His friendship with the Swedish (Swedish people) slavist and historian Alfred Anton Jensen opened him the doors to international recognition: his poems were published in Sweden, Russia (Russian Empire), Galicia (Galicia (Central Europe)), Croatia, Serbia (Kingdom of Serbia), and in the Czech Lands. However, he started losing his influence over younger Slovenian authors. He rejected the poetry of Dragotin Kette and Josip Murn and entered in a dispute with the poet Oton Župančič, from which he came as a clear loser. The young writer Ivan Cankar, whom Aškerc admired, also published several critically sarcastic essays on Aškerc's late poetry, in which he targeted Aškerc as being the symptom of the decay of old the Slovenian provincial national-liberal élite. The concept of a Greater Croatia was developed further The Romanian government signed a treaty with the Allies on August 17, 1916 and declared war on the Central Powers on August 27. The Romanian Army was quite large, with over 650,000 men in 23 divisions (Division (military)). However, it suffered from poor training and equipment, especially compared to its German counterparts. Meanwhile, the German Chief of Staff (Chief of staff (military)), General Erich von Falkenhayn correctly reasoned that Romania would side with the Allies and made plans to deal with Romania. Thanks to the earlier conquest of the Kingdom of Serbia and the ineffective Allied operations on the Kingdom of Greece border, and having a territorial interest in Dobrogea, the Bulgarian Army and the Ottoman Army were willing to help fight the Romanians.

Kingdom of Serbia

The '''Kingdom of Serbia''' ( ) was created when Prince Milan Obrenović (Milan I of Serbia), ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was crowned king in 1882. The Principality of Serbia was ruled by the Obrenović dynasty from 1817 onwards (at times replaced by the Karađorđević dynasty). The Principality, suzerain (suzerainty) to the Porte (Sublime_Porte), had expelled all Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) troops by 1867, de facto securing its independence. The Congress of Berlin (Treaty of Berlin (1878)) in 1878 recognized the formal independence of the Principality of Serbia.

In 1918, Serbia joined with the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later known as Yugoslavia) under the rule of the Karađorđević dynasty.

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