Kingdom of Prussia

What is Kingdom of Prussia known for?


agricultural character

name "Buchholz, pp.420ff" Buchholz (1999), pp.420ff The industrial revolution had an impact primarily on the Stettin area and the infrastructure, while most of the province retained a rural and agricultural character. Buchholz (1999), pp.412,413,464ff Since 1850, the net migration rate was negative, Pomeranians (Pomeranians (German people)) emigrated primarily to Berlin, the West


quot covering

to 1940'', Taylor & Francis, 1997, p. 13, 22. ISBN 9780824077822. *1884: Alexander Mozhaysky of Kotka, Grand Duchy of Finland, Russian Empire makes the second known "powered, assisted take off of a heavier-than-air craft carrying an operator". His steam-powered (Steam engine) monoplane took off at Krasnoye Selo, near Saint Petersburg, making a hop and "covering between 65 and 100 feet". The monoplane had a failed landing, with one


discovering gold

Celebes , Java (Java (island)), the Philippines, Siam, Burma between 1860 and 1862. No important work resulted from these travels, for much of Richthofen's records and collections was lost. China was at the time inaccessible owing to the Taiping rebellion, but Richthofen was impressed with the desirability of exploring it. From 1862 to 1868, he worked as a geologist in the United States, discovering goldfield (gold mining)s in California. He then followed up his


historical criticism

permission to enter the University of Halle, which had already abandoned pietism and adopted the rationalist (rationalism) spirit of Friedrich August Wolf and Johann Salomo Semler. As a theology student Schleiermacher pursued an independent course of reading and neglected the study of the Old Testament and of Oriental languages. However, he did attend the lectures of Semler, where he became acquainted with the techniques of historical criticism of the New Testament, and of Johann Augustus Eberhard, from whom he acquired a love of the philosophy (philosophies) of Plato and Aristotle. At the same time he studied the writings of Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, and began to apply ideas from the Greek philosophers to a reconstruction of Kant's system. After the 1702 death of William III of Orange (William III of England), Krefeld passed to the Kingdom of Prussia. The Battle of Krefeld occurred nearby in 1758 during the Seven Years' War. Krefeld and Uerdingen were included within the Prussian Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg in 1815 (after 1822 the Rhine Province. In 1872 Krefeld became an independent city within Rhenish Prussia. In 1918 it became the base of the Belgian Army during the occupation of the Rhineland. In 1929 Krefeld and Uerdingen merged to form '''Krefeld-Uerdingen'''; in 1940 the name was shortened to simply ''Krefeld''. The town became part of the new state of North Rhine-Westphalia after World War II. The first was son James Mayer de Rothschild (1792–1868), known as "James", who established de Rothschild Frères in Paris. Following the Napoleonic Wars, he played a major role in financing the construction of railroads and the mining business that helped make France an industrial power. James' sons Gustave de Rothschild (Gustave Samuel James de Rothschild) and Alphonse James de Rothschild continued the banking tradition and was the guarantor of the 5 billion in reparations demanded by the occupying Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) army in the 1870s Franco-Prussian War. ), located in the Tiergarten in Berlin, is a prominent memorial statue dedicated to Prince Otto von Bismarck, Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Prussia) of the Kingdom of Prussia and the first Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany (German Reich)) of the German Empire. It was sculpted by Reinhold Begas. History The town is first mentioned in 1399. During the 14th and 15th century, it prospered along the trade route between Danzig and Russia (Russian Empire). By 1790, there was a gristing mill, sawmill, brewery, and inn. Under the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, the settlement was annexed by Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia). It returned to Congress Poland following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. On September 2, 1846, the town was first connected to the emerging Polish railways as part of the mainline between Warsaw and Kraków. Following the development of Łódź as an industrial center, Koluszki served as the junction for its rail. By 1900, about half of the town worked for the railway in some capacity and the town developed around the railway and bus stations. The town suffered during both world wars. Under the Nazi occupation (Nazi occupation of Poland) during the Second World War, Koluszki was annexed to Germany (Nazi Germany) and was the site of a Jewish ghetto. The town was restored to Poland by the Red Army on January 18, 1945. Its town charter was established in 1949. Klein dealt with small matters of zoological nomenclature and set up his own system of classification of animals, which was based on the number, shape, and position of the limbs. For his work in the field of natural science, Klein had been awarded the membership of several scientific societies, including the Royal Society in London and the Danzig Research Society. He was also a correspondent of the Lutheran pastor Friedrich Christian Lesser. He died 27 February 1759 in Königsberg, Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) (now Kaliningrad, Russia). The settlement in the historical region of Upper Lusatia was first mentioned in a 1262 deed. Initially a possession of the Bohemian crown (Kingdom of Bohemia), Lusatia by the 1635 Peace of Prague (Peace of Prague (1635)) fell to the Saxon Electorate (Electorate of Saxony). As Saxony had sided with Napoleon (Napoleon I of France) it had to cede the northeastern part of Upper Lusatia to Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) according to the Final Act of the 1815 Vienna Congress (Congress of Vienna). After the new border had been drawn, ''Reichenau'' was the only locality east of the Neisse river (Lusatian Neisse) that belonged to the Kingdom of Saxony. With the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line at the end of World War II, it was therefore the only municipality in Poland which until 1945 was part of the Free State of Saxony (Saxony). At first called ''Rychwald'', the town was renamed in 1947. thumb left Tower of the Upper Gate (File:Bad Ziegenhals-turm.JPG) After the First Silesian War (Silesian Wars) and the 1742 Treaty of Breslau the Duchy of Nysa was partitioned and Ziegenhals became a Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) bordertown, while the adjacent area around Zlaté Hory remained with Austrian Silesia. In the 19th century it became a spa town (''Bad''). After World War II and the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line in 1945, the area fell to the Republic of Poland (People's Republic of Poland). First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany.


famous victory

, pressed the attack. The day ended with a virtually destroyed Prussian army, a virtually defenseless Kingdom of Prussia, and a complete victory by the Russo-Austrian force. Afterwards, Henry reorganized the routed Prussian forces. Frederick came to rely on his brother as commander of the Prussian forces in the east, Frederick's strategic flank. Henry later won his most famous victory at Freiberg (Battle of Freiberg) in 1762. In 1252 the town of became a part of the Margraviate


early talent

(Gvardeysk) , Province of Prussia, Kingdom of Prussia. Showing an early talent for drawing, he attended the Academy of Fine Arts Munich in 1880, which rivaled Paris as the avant-garde art center in Europe at the time. There he was influenced by Courbet (Gustave Courbet) and the Barbizon school, through their interpretation by the Munich artists Wilhelm Leibl and Wilhelm Trübner. Corinth then traveled to Paris where he studied under William-Adolphe Bouguereau


political stance

Napoleon III, and was remarked by the visitor for his "clear" and intellectually honest political stance. Carp's future colleague, Moldavian Iacob Negruzzi, also briefly met him as a student, and first noticed in him the potential statesman. Vianu, p.7 thumb U.S. Army Europe soldiers on winter maneuvers in Germany (Operation WARSTEED 87), 1987. (File:Warsteed 1987.png) The modern use of military exercises grew out


famous military

), located in the Tiergarten in Berlin, is a prominent memorial statue dedicated to Prince Otto von Bismarck, Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Prussia) of the Kingdom of Prussia and the first Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany (German Reich)) of the German Empire. It was sculpted by Reinhold Begas. History The town is first mentioned in 1399. During the 14th and 15th century, it prospered along the trade route between Danzig and Russia (Russian Empire). By 1790, there was a gristing mill, sawmill, brewery, and inn. Under the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, the settlement was annexed by Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia). It returned to Congress Poland following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. On September 2, 1846, the town was first connected to the emerging Polish railways as part of the mainline between Warsaw and Kraków. Following the development of Łódź as an industrial center, Koluszki served as the junction for its rail. By 1900, about half of the town worked for the railway in some capacity and the town developed around the railway and bus stations. The town suffered during both world wars. Under the Nazi occupation (Nazi occupation of Poland) during the Second World War, Koluszki was annexed to Germany (Nazi Germany) and was the site of a Jewish ghetto. The town was restored to Poland by the Red Army on January 18, 1945. Its town charter was established in 1949. Klein dealt with small matters of zoological nomenclature and set up his own system of classification of animals, which was based on the number, shape, and position of the limbs. For his work in the field of natural science, Klein had been awarded the membership of several scientific societies, including the Royal Society in London and the Danzig Research Society. He was also a correspondent of the Lutheran pastor Friedrich Christian Lesser. He died 27 February 1759 in Königsberg, Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) (now Kaliningrad, Russia). The settlement in the historical region of Upper Lusatia was first mentioned in a 1262 deed. Initially a possession of the Bohemian crown (Kingdom of Bohemia), Lusatia by the 1635 Peace of Prague (Peace of Prague (1635)) fell to the Saxon Electorate (Electorate of Saxony). As Saxony had sided with Napoleon (Napoleon I of France) it had to cede the northeastern part of Upper Lusatia to Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) according to the Final Act of the 1815 Vienna Congress (Congress of Vienna). After the new border had been drawn, ''Reichenau'' was the only locality east of the Neisse river (Lusatian Neisse) that belonged to the Kingdom of Saxony. With the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line at the end of World War II, it was therefore the only municipality in Poland which until 1945 was part of the Free State of Saxony (Saxony). At first called ''Rychwald'', the town was renamed in 1947. thumb left Tower of the Upper Gate (File:Bad Ziegenhals-turm.JPG) After the First Silesian War (Silesian Wars) and the 1742 Treaty of Breslau the Duchy of Nysa was partitioned and Ziegenhals became a Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) bordertown, while the adjacent area around Zlaté Hory remained with Austrian Silesia. In the 19th century it became a spa town (''Bad''). After World War II and the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line in 1945, the area fell to the Republic of Poland (People's Republic of Poland). First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany.


political sense

forces. *1864 – Second War of Schleswig: The Danish (Denmark) navy defeats the Austrian (Austrian Empire) and Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) fleets in the Battle of Heligoland (Battle of Heligoland (1864)). *1873 – ''Der Krach (Panic of 1873)'': Vienna stock market crash heralds the Long Depression. Main line In a historical and political sense, the Main line is referred to as the northern border of Southern Germany, with its predominantly

, but contended that despite his lack of political sense was nonetheless successful because of his strong moral character. Schnitzler was born in Berlin the son of German (German Empire) vice consul Julius Eduard von Schnitzler, scion of a Cologne banking dynasty, who had been ennobled (Ennoblement) by the state of Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) in 1913. Karl-Eduard attended a boarding school at Bad Godesberg and joined the ''Sozialistische


historical view

Euler and Königsberg's bridges: a historical view journal Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society doi 10.1090 S0273-0979-06-01130-X volume 43 page 567 issue 4 The city of Königsberg, Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) was set on the Pregel River, and included two large islands which were connected to each other and the mainland by seven bridges. The problem is to decide whether it is possible to follow a path that crosses each bridge exactly once

Kingdom of Prussia

conventional_long_name Kingdom of Prussia native_name ''Königreich Preußen'' common_name Prussia continent Europe region Central Europe country Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium and the Czech Republic were formally parts of Prussia. status State (States of the German Confederation) of the German Confederation (partly, 1815–1866) State (States of the North German Confederation) of the North German Confederation (1867–1871) State (States of the German Empire) of the German Empire (1871–1918) year_start 1701 year_end 1918 image_flag Flag of Prussia 1892-1918.svg flag_type Flag image_coat Wappen Deutsches Reich - Königreich Preussen (Grosses).png symbol Coat of arms of Prussia symbol_type Royal coat of arms national_motto national_anthem image_map German Empire - Prussia (1871).svg image_map_caption The Kingdom of Prussia (dark red) at its greatest extent, after the de facto incorporation of Saxe-Lauenburg in 1866. capital Berlin latd 52 latm 31 latNS N longd 13 longm 24 longEW E common_languages '''Official:''' German (German language) header '''Recognised:''' content religion government_type title_leader King (List of monarchs of Prussia#Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918)) leader1 Frederick I (Frederick I of Prussia) year_leader1 1701–1713 leader2 William II (William II, German Emperor) year_leader2 1888–1918 title_deputy deputy1 Adolf Heinrich (Adolf Heinrich von Arnim-Boitzenburg) year_deputy1 1848 deputy2 Maximilian William (Prince Maximilian of Baden) year_deputy2 1918 legislature ''Landtag (Landtag of Prussia)'' house1 ''Herrenhaus (House of Lords of Prussia)'' house2 ''Abgeordnetenhaus (Abgeordnetenhaus (Prussia))'' era event_start Frederick I (Frederick I of Prussia) date_start 18 January event1 Jena-Auerstedt (Battle of Jena-Auerstedt) date_event1 14 October 1806 event2 Congress of Vienna date_event2 9 June 1815 event3 date_event3 5 December 1848 event4 Germany unified (Unification of Germany) date_event4 18 January 1871 event_end date_end 28 November event_post Treaty of Versailles date_post 28 June 1919 stat_year1 1816 stat_pop1 10349031 stat_year2 1871 stat_pop2 24689000 stat_year3 1910 stat_pop3 34472509 stat_area3 348779 currency p1 Holy Roman Empire flag_p1 Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806).svg p2 Brandenburg-Prussia flag_p2 Flag of Brandenburg (1660–1750).svg p3 Royal Prussia flag_p3 Flag of Prussia (1466-1772) Lob.svg p4 Free City of Danzig (Napoleonic) flag_p4 Gdansk flag.svg p5 Swedish Pomerania flag_p5 Naval Ensign of Sweden.svg border_p5 no p6 Electorate of Hesse flag_p6 Flag of Hesse.svg p7 Free City of Frankfurt flag_p7 Flagge der Freien Stadt Frankfurt.png p8 Duchy of Nassau flag_p8 Flagge Herzogtum Nassau (1806-1866).svg p9 Kingdom of Hanover flag_p9 Flag of Hanover 1837-1866.svg p10 Duchy of Holstein flag_p10 Flag of Denmark.svg p11 Duchy of Schleswig flag_p11 Flag of Denmark.svg p12 Saxe-Lauenburg flag_p12 Flag of Lauenburg.svg s1 Free State of Prussia flag_s1 Flag of Prussia (1918–1933).svg today footnotes

The '''Kingdom of Prussia''' ( ) was a German kingdom (Monarchy) that existed between 1701 and 1918 and included parts of present-day Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium and the Czech Republic. Marriott, J. A. R., and Charles Grant Robertson. The Evolution of Prussia, the Making of an Empire,. Rev. ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1946. It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871, and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia (Prussia (region)), it was based in Brandenburg (Margraviate of Brandenburg), where its capital was Berlin.

Prussia was a great power from the time it became a kingdom, through its predecessor, Brandenburg-Prussia, which became a military power under Frederick William (Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg), known as "The Great Elector". Fueter, Eduard (1922). World history, 1815–1920. United States of America: Harcourt, Brace and Company. pp. 25–28, 36–44. ISBN 1-58477-077-5. Danilovic, Vesna. "When the Stakes Are High—Deterrence and Conflict among Major Powers", University of Michigan Press (2002), p 27, p225-p228 Aping the Great Powers: Frederick the Great and the Defence of Prussia's International Position 1763–86, Pp. 286-307. The Rise of Prussia

Prussia continued its reign of power under the guidance of Frederick II (Frederick II of Prussia) (Frederick the Great), the third son of Frederick William I of Prussia. Horn, D. B. "The Youth of Frederick the Great 1712-30." In Frederick the Great and the Rise of Prussia, 9-10. 3rd ed. London: English Universities Press, 1964. Frederick the Great was credited for starting the Seven Years' War, holding his own against Austria, Russia, France and Sweden and establishing Prussia’s role in the German states, as well as establishing the country as a European great power. Horn, D. B. "The Seven Years' War." In Frederick the Great and the Rise of Prussia, 81-101. 3rd ed. London: English Universities Press, 1964. After the might of Prussia was revealed it became a major power for the German states. Throughout the next hundred years they went on to win many battles for the German states. Atkinson, C. T. A History of Germany, 1715-1815,. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1969. It was because of their power that they continuously tried to unify all the German states under their rule. After the Napoleonic wars the issue of unifying Germany into one country caused revolution throughout the German states each wanting their own constitution. Prussia tried once unsuccessfully to unify German states and end the fighting. The first was called the North German Confederation lasted from 1867-1871 and included many but not all of the German states. It was seen as more of an alliance of military strength in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War but many of its laws were later used in the German empire. The German Empire lasted from 1871-1918 and was the successful unification of all the German states under Prussian power. This was due to the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871. The war united all the German states against a common enemy, and with the victory came an overwhelming wave of patriotism which changed the opinions of those against unification. In 1871, Germany unified into a single country with Prussia the dominant power. Prussia is considered the legal predecessor (Succession of states) of the unified German Reich (1871–1945) and as such a direct ancestor of the current German state (Germany). The formal abolition of Prussia, carried out on 25 February 1947 by the ''fiat'' of the Allied Control Council referred to an alleged tradition of the kingdom as a bearer of militarism and reaction (Reactionism), and made way for the current setup of the German states. However, the '''Free State of Prussia''' ( ), which has become one of the largest cultural organisations in the world. Langels, Otto: "Constitutional Reality: 50 years of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation", in German, Deutschlandradio, 25 July 2007

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