Kingdom of Northumbria

What is Kingdom of Northumbria known for?


style combining

an important role in the formation of Insular art, a unique style combining Anglo-Saxon, Celtic (Celtic Christianity), Pictish, Byzantine and other elements, producing works such as the Lindisfarne Gospels, St Cuthbert Gospel, the Ruthwell Cross and Bewcastle Cross, and later the Book of Kells, which was probably created at Iona. After the Synod of Whitby in 664 Roman church practices officially replaced the Celtic ones but the influence of the Celtic style


wild place

Reformation Reformation . Rural, thinly populated, and sharing a border with an often hostile Scotland, the region became a wild place where reivers raided across the border and outlaws took refuge from justice. However, after the union of the crowns of Scotland and England under King James VI and I (James I of England) peace was largely established. After the Restoration (English Restoration), many inhabitants of the Northumbrian region supported the Jacobite (Jacobitism) cause


speaking world

by Gaelic (Gaels) culture, and by the Gaelic regal lordship of ''Alba'', known in Latin as either ''Albania'' or ''Scotia'', and in English (English language) as "Scotland". From its base in the east, this kingdom acquired control of the lands lying to the south and ultimately the west and much of the north. It had a flourishing culture, comprising part of the larger Gaelic-speaking world and an economy dominated by agriculture and by short-distance, local trade.


914

;small (after 876) South: Danish kingdom (876–914) South: Norwegian kingdom (after 914) life_span 653–954 image_flag flag flag_type image_coat image_map Kingdom of Northumbria in AD 802.jpg image_map_size 250px image_map_caption image_map2

image_map2_size image_map2_caption continent Europe region British Isles country England government_type Monarchy year_start 653 year_end 954 event_end Annexed by Wessex event1 South is annexed by the Danelaw date_event1 876 event2 South is conquered by Norse warriors date_event2 914 event3


bold black

. By Mark Harrison, Osprey Publishing 1993, ISBN 1-85532-349-4; p. 17 Modern Border Tartans are almost invariably a bold black and white check, but historically the light squares were the yellowish colour of untreated wool, with the dark squares any of a range of dark greys, blues, greens or browns; hence the alternative name of "Border Drab". At a distance the checks blend together making the fabric ideal camouflage for stalking game.


664

, at the Battle of Winwaed. This battle marked a major turning point in Northumbrian fortunes: Penda died in the battle, and Oswiu gained supremacy over Mercia, making himself the most powerful king in England. Religious consolidation In the year 664 the Synod of Whitby was held to discuss the controversy regarding the timing of the Easter festival. Dispute had arisen between the practices of the Celtic church influencing Northumbria and those of the Roman church predominate throughout

an important role in the formation of Insular art, a unique style combining Anglo-Saxon, Celtic (Celtic Christianity), Pictish, Byzantine and other elements, producing works such as the Lindisfarne Gospels, St Cuthbert Gospel, the Ruthwell Cross and Bewcastle Cross, and later the Book of Kells, which was probably created at Iona. After the Synod of Whitby in 664 Roman church practices officially replaced the Celtic ones but the influence of the Celtic style


874

by Bagsecg. This reinforced the Great Heathen Army, enabling it in 874 to conquer Mercia. Evidence of their stay in Derbyshire are a mass grave for 250 people at Repton and several dozen barrows recording cremations (Heath Wood barrow cemetery) at nearby Ingleby (Ingleby, Derbyshire).


close cultural

publisher Northeastengland.talktalk.net accessdate 25 September 2010 The same year, a considerable number of them settled in the conquered territories, followed by another group in 877. Halfdan moved north to attack the Picts, while Guthrum emerged as the war leader in the south, and in 876 they were joined by further forces and won the Battle of Wareham (Wareham, Dorset). However, Alfred the Great fought back and eventually won victory over the army at the Battle of Ethandun in 878, achieving the Treaty of Wedmore. At the close of the ninth century various competing kingdoms occupied the territory of modern Scotland, with Scandinavian (Scandinavia) influence dominant in the northern and western islands, Brythonic (Britons (historical)) culture in the south west, the Kingdom of Northumbria in the south-east and the Picto-Gaelic Kingdom of Alba in the east, north of the River Forth. By the tenth and eleventh centuries, northern Great Britain was increasingly dominated by Gaelic (Gaels) culture, and by the Gaelic regal lordship of ''Alba'', known in Latin as either ''Albania'' or ''Scotia'', and in English (English language) as "Scotland". From its base in the east, this kingdom acquired control of the lands lying to the south and ultimately the west and much of the north. It had a flourishing culture, comprising part of the larger Gaelic-speaking world and an economy dominated by agriculture and by short-distance, local trade.


books created

and motifs, together with the requirement for books, created Hiberno-Saxon style, or Insular art, which is also seen in illuminated manuscripts and some carved stone and ivory, probably mostly drawing from decorative metalwork motifs, and with further influences from the British Celts of the west and the Franks. The Kingdom of Northumbria in the far north of England was the crucible of Insular style in Britain, at centres such as Lindisfarne, founded c. 635 as an offshoot


802

;small (after 876) South: Danish kingdom (876–914) South: Norwegian kingdom (after 914) life_span 653–954 image_flag flag flag_type image_coat image_map Kingdom of Northumbria in AD 802.jpg image_map_size 250px image_map_caption image_map2

Kingdom of Northumbria

The '''Kingdom of Northumbria''' ( , "kingdom of the Northumbrians") was a medieval Anglian (Angles) kingdom, in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland (Lothian), becoming subsequently an earldom in a unified English kingdom (Kingdom of England). The name reflects the approximate southern limit to the kingdom's territory, the Humber estuary (Humber).

Northumbria was formed by Æthelfrith (Æthelfrith of Northumbria) in central Great Britain in Anglo-Saxon times. At the beginning of the 7th century the two kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira were unified. (In the 12th century writings of Henry of Huntingdon the kingdom was defined as one of the Heptarchy of Anglo-Saxon (Anglo-Saxons) kingdoms). At its greatest the kingdom extended at least from just south of the Humber, to the River Mersey and to the Forth (Firth of Forth) (roughly, Sheffield to Runcorn to Edinburgh) — and there is some evidence that it may have been much greater (see map).

The later (and smaller) earldom came about when the southern part of Northumbria (ex-Deira) was lost to the Danelaw. The northern part (ex-Bernicia) at first retained its status as a kingdom but when it became subordinate to the Danish kingdom it had its powers curtailed to that of an earldom, and retained that status when England was reunited by the Wessex-led reconquest of the Danelaw. The earldom was bounded by the River Tees in the south and the River Tweed in the north (broadly similar to the modern North East England).

Much of this land was "debated" between England and Scotland, but the Earldom of Northumbria was eventually recognised as part of England by the Anglo-Scottish Treaty of York in 1237. On the northern border, Berwick-upon-Tweed, which is north of the Tweed but had changed hands many times, was defined as subject to the laws of England by the Wales and Berwick Act 1746. The land once part of Northumbria at its peak is now divided by modern administrative boundaries:

* North East England * Yorkshire and the Humber * North West England includes Cumbria, though Cumbria was more of a Northumbrian colony with its own client kings for most of its history in the Early Medieval era (Early Middle Ages) * Scottish Borders, West Lothian, Edinburgh, Midlothian and East Lothian

Northumbria is also used in the names of some regional institutions: particularly the police force (Northumbria Police, which covers Northumberland and Tyne and Wear), and a university (Northumbria University) based in Newcastle upon Tyne. The local Environment Agency office, located in Newcastle Business Park, also uses the term Northumbria to describe its patch. Otherwise, the term is not used in everyday conversation, and is not the official name for the UK and EU region of North East England (North East England).

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