Kingdom of Northumbria

What is Kingdom of Northumbria known for?


business activities

the resulting Anglo-Saxon style had reached maturity. The '''Bishop of Lindisfarne''' was the ordinary of several early medieval episcopal sees (and dioceses) in Northumbria (Kingdom of Northumbria) and pre-Conquest (Norman Conquest) England (Kingdom of England). The first such see was founded at Lindisfarne in 635 by Saint Aidan (Aidan of Lindisfarne). Whickham is a middle class living town, with many social, cultural and business activities. This has always been


664

, at the Battle of Winwaed. This battle marked a major turning point in Northumbrian fortunes: Penda died in the battle, and Oswiu gained supremacy over Mercia, making himself the most powerful king in England. Religious consolidation In the year 664 the Synod of Whitby was held to discuss the controversy regarding the timing of the Easter festival. Dispute had arisen between the practices of the Celtic church influencing Northumbria and those of the Roman church predominate throughout

an important role in the formation of Insular art, a unique style combining Anglo-Saxon, Celtic (Celtic Christianity), Pictish, Byzantine and other elements, producing works such as the Lindisfarne Gospels, St Cuthbert Gospel, the Ruthwell Cross and Bewcastle Cross, and later the Book of Kells, which was probably created at Iona. After the Synod of Whitby in 664 Roman church practices officially replaced the Celtic ones but the influence of the Celtic style


based art

of the Irish monastery (Celtic Christianity) on Iona (Iona Abbey), and Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Abbey (674) which looked to the continent. At about the same time as the Insular Lindisfarne Gospels was being made in the early 8th century, the Vespasian Psalter from Canterbury in the far south, which the missionaries from Rome had made their headquarters, shows a wholly different, classically based art. These two styles mixed and developed together and by the following century


close cultural

publisher Northeastengland.talktalk.net accessdate 25 September 2010 The same year, a considerable number of them settled in the conquered territories, followed by another group in 877. Halfdan moved north to attack the Picts, while Guthrum emerged as the war leader in the south, and in 876 they were joined by further forces and won the Battle of Wareham (Wareham, Dorset). However, Alfred the Great fought back and eventually won victory over the army at the Battle of Ethandun in 878, achieving the Treaty of Wedmore. At the close of the ninth century various competing kingdoms occupied the territory of modern Scotland, with Scandinavian (Scandinavia) influence dominant in the northern and western islands, Brythonic (Britons (historical)) culture in the south west, the Kingdom of Northumbria in the south-east and the Picto-Gaelic Kingdom of Alba in the east, north of the River Forth. By the tenth and eleventh centuries, northern Great Britain was increasingly dominated by Gaelic (Gaels) culture, and by the Gaelic regal lordship of ''Alba'', known in Latin as either ''Albania'' or ''Scotia'', and in English (English language) as "Scotland". From its base in the east, this kingdom acquired control of the lands lying to the south and ultimately the west and much of the north. It had a flourishing culture, comprising part of the larger Gaelic-speaking world and an economy dominated by agriculture and by short-distance, local trade.


growing religious

southern England and Western Europe. Eventually, Northumbria was persuaded to move to the Roman practice and the Celtic Bishop Colman of Lindisfarne returned to Iona. The episcopal seat of Northumbria was transferred from Lindisfarne to York, which indicates the growing religious, political and economic importance of connections to southern Great Britain. Decline of the Kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria lost control of Mercia in the late 650s, after a successful revolt under Penda's son Wulfhere (Wulfhere of Mercia), but it retained its dominant position until it suffered a disastrous defeat at the hands of the Picts at the Battle of Dun Nechtain in 685; Northumbria's king, Ecgfrith (Ecgfrith of Northumbria) (son of Oswiu), was killed, and its power in the north was gravely weakened. The peaceful reign of Aldfrith (Aldfrith of Northumbria), Ecgfrith's half-brother and successor, did something to limit the damage done, but it is from this point that Northumbria's power began to decline, and chronic instability followed Aldfrith's death in 704. The same year, a considerable number of them settled in the conquered territories, followed by another group in 877. Halfdan moved north to attack the Picts, while Guthrum emerged as the war leader in the south, and in 876 they were joined by further forces and won the Battle of Wareham (Wareham, Dorset). However, Alfred the Great fought back and eventually won victory over the army at the Battle of Ethandun in 878, achieving the Treaty of Wedmore. At the close of the ninth century various competing kingdoms occupied the territory of modern Scotland, with Scandinavian (Scandinavia) influence dominant in the northern and western islands, Brythonic (Britons (historical)) culture in the south west, the Kingdom of Northumbria in the south-east and the Picto-Gaelic Kingdom of Alba in the east, north of the River Forth. By the tenth and eleventh centuries, northern Great Britain was increasingly dominated by Gaelic (Gaels) culture, and by the Gaelic regal lordship of ''Alba'', known in Latin as either ''Albania'' or ''Scotia'', and in English (English language) as "Scotland". From its base in the east, this kingdom acquired control of the lands lying to the south and ultimately the west and much of the north. It had a flourishing culture, comprising part of the larger Gaelic-speaking world and an economy dominated by agriculture and by short-distance, local trade.


704

that Northumbria's power began to decline, and chronic instability followed Aldfrith's death in 704. thumb Coin of Eric Bloodaxe at the British Museum (File:Eric Bloodaxe Norse king of York 952 954.jpg). The legend reads ''ERIC REX'' ("King Eric") In 867 Northumbria became the northern kingdom of the Danelaw, after its conquest by the brothers Halfdan Ragnarsson and Ivar the Boneless who installed an Englishman, Ecgberht I of Northumbria


624

later became the Scottish capital, Edinburgh. This arrangement was later finalised in 1237 by the Treaty of York. The Battle of Chester would not end the ability of the Welsh to seriously threaten England (although England as a united realm would not exist for another 350 years). For among the most powerful of the early kings of Gwynedd was Cadwallon ap Cadfan (c.624 - 634) the grandson of Iago ap Beli. He became engaged in an initially disastrous campaign against Kingdom


christianity

616 in battle at the River Idle by Raedwald of East Anglia, who installed Edwin (Edwin of Northumbria), the son of Aella (Aella of Deira), a former king of Deira, as king. Edwin, who accepted Christianity in 627, soon grew to become the most powerful king in England: he was recognised as Bretwalda and conquered the Isle of Man and Gwynedd (Kingdom of Gwynedd) in northern Wales. He was, however, himself defeated by an alliance of the exiled king of Gwynedd, Cadwallon

of Forth and also gradually extended his reach westward, encroaching on the remaining Cumbric speaking kingdoms of Rheged and Strathclyde (Kingdom of Strathclyde). Thus, Northumbria became not only part of modern England's far north, but also covered much of what is now the south-east of Scotland. King Oswald re-introduced Christianity to the Kingdom by appointing St. Aidan (Aidan of Lindisfarne), an Irish monk from the Scottish island of Iona to convert his people. This led

to the introduction of the practices of Celtic Christianity. A monastery was established on Lindisfarne. War with Mercia continued, however. In 642, Oswald was killed by the Mercians under Penda at the Battle of Maserfield. In 655, Penda launched a massive invasion of Northumbria, aided by the sub-king of Deira, Aethelwald (Aethelwald of Deira), but suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of an inferior force under Oswiu (Oswiu of Northumbria), Oswald's successor


books created

and motifs, together with the requirement for books, created Hiberno-Saxon style, or Insular art, which is also seen in illuminated manuscripts and some carved stone and ivory, probably mostly drawing from decorative metalwork motifs, and with further influences from the British Celts of the west and the Franks. The Kingdom of Northumbria in the far north of England was the crucible of Insular style in Britain, at centres such as Lindisfarne, founded c. 635 as an offshoot


802

;small (after 876) South: Danish kingdom (876–914) South: Norwegian kingdom (after 914) life_span 653–954 image_flag flag flag_type image_coat image_map Kingdom of Northumbria in AD 802.jpg image_map_size 250px image_map_caption image_map2

Kingdom of Northumbria

The '''Kingdom of Northumbria''' ( , "kingdom of the Northumbrians") was a medieval Anglian (Angles) kingdom, in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland (Lothian), becoming subsequently an earldom in a unified English kingdom (Kingdom of England). The name reflects the approximate southern limit to the kingdom's territory, the Humber estuary (Humber).

Northumbria was formed by Æthelfrith (Æthelfrith of Northumbria) in central Great Britain in Anglo-Saxon times. At the beginning of the 7th century the two kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira were unified. (In the 12th century writings of Henry of Huntingdon the kingdom was defined as one of the Heptarchy of Anglo-Saxon (Anglo-Saxons) kingdoms). At its greatest the kingdom extended at least from just south of the Humber, to the River Mersey and to the Forth (Firth of Forth) (roughly, Sheffield to Runcorn to Edinburgh) — and there is some evidence that it may have been much greater (see map).

The later (and smaller) earldom came about when the southern part of Northumbria (ex-Deira) was lost to the Danelaw. The northern part (ex-Bernicia) at first retained its status as a kingdom but when it became subordinate to the Danish kingdom it had its powers curtailed to that of an earldom, and retained that status when England was reunited by the Wessex-led reconquest of the Danelaw. The earldom was bounded by the River Tees in the south and the River Tweed in the north (broadly similar to the modern North East England).

Much of this land was "debated" between England and Scotland, but the Earldom of Northumbria was eventually recognised as part of England by the Anglo-Scottish Treaty of York in 1237. On the northern border, Berwick-upon-Tweed, which is north of the Tweed but had changed hands many times, was defined as subject to the laws of England by the Wales and Berwick Act 1746. The land once part of Northumbria at its peak is now divided by modern administrative boundaries:

* North East England * Yorkshire and the Humber * North West England includes Cumbria, though Cumbria was more of a Northumbrian colony with its own client kings for most of its history in the Early Medieval era (Early Middle Ages) * Scottish Borders, West Lothian, Edinburgh, Midlothian and East Lothian

Northumbria is also used in the names of some regional institutions: particularly the police force (Northumbria Police, which covers Northumberland and Tyne and Wear), and a university (Northumbria University) based in Newcastle upon Tyne. The local Environment Agency office, located in Newcastle Business Park, also uses the term Northumbria to describe its patch. Otherwise, the term is not used in everyday conversation, and is not the official name for the UK and EU region of North East England (North East England).

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