Kingdom of Libya

What is Kingdom of Libya known for?


black band

Standard of Idris I (Idris of Libya) (1951–1969) The flag of the Kingdom of Libya was adopted when Libya gained full independence in 1951. It consisted of a white star and crescent on a triband red-black-green design, with the central black band being twice the width of the outer bands. The design was based on the banner of the Senussi dynasty from Cyrenaica, which consisted of a black field and star and crescent design, and was later used as the flag of the region


major political

- after independence in 1951-1952 (Kingdom of Libya) 3 muhafazat (muhafazah) (governorate (Governorates of Libya)) - - in Kingdom of Libya after 1963 and in Libyan Jamahiriya (History of modern Libya) after 1969 coup d'état (Muammar_al-Gaddafi#Military_coup_d'état) 10 baladiyat (district) - Independence After independence in 1951 the three provinces continued as the subdivision system in the Kingdom of Libya, with boundaries slightly shifting, until 1963. The provinces were then replaced by the ''Muhafazah'' governorates system (Governorates of Libya) (''muhafazah'') system in the kingdom and subsequent Libyan Arab Republic, until superseded by the 1983 ''Baladiyat'' districts system (Districts of Libya).


quot political

2000 of the arena of football (association football) club Alahly Benghazi S.C., following anti-government protests. McDonnell, Patrick J. (21 May 2011). "Political Football, Benghazi Style – Soccer Club, Fans Found You Don't Mess with Gadhafi". ''Winnipeg Free Press''. Retrieved 13 September 2011. Lubin, Gus (18


modern history/

reorganisation Following a change in the constitution abolishing the federal makeup of the country in 1963 the three provinces were reorganised into ten governorates (Governorates of Libya) (''muhafazah'' in Arabic) which were ruled by an appointed governor. Modern history in politics (in Arabic). Libya's future. Retrieved 15 October 2011. "

Libya: a Modern History volume publisher Taylor & Francis year 1981 isbn 978-0-7099-2727-4 Ba'athism was a major political force in Libya following the establishment of the United Arab Republic. Many intellectuals were attracted to ba'athist ideology during the later years of the Kingdom of Libya. However, with help from nasserist propaganda, several ba'athists

changed affiliation and became nasserists instead. The growth of these pan-Arab ideologies concerned the government, which led to several nasserists


modern history

reorganisation Following a change in the constitution abolishing the federal makeup of the country in 1963 the three provinces were reorganised into ten governorates (Governorates of Libya) (''muhafazah'' in Arabic) which were ruled by an appointed governor. Modern history in politics (in Arabic). Libya's future. Retrieved 15 October 2011. "

Libya: a Modern History volume publisher Taylor & Francis year 1981 isbn 978-0-7099-2727-4 Ba'athism was a major political force in Libya following the establishment of the United Arab Republic. Many intellectuals were attracted to ba'athist ideology during the later years of the Kingdom of Libya. However, with help from nasserist propaganda, several ba'athists

changed affiliation and became nasserists instead. The growth of these pan-Arab ideologies concerned the government, which led to several nasserists


conservative opposition

embassies and oil company offices were damaged in rioting. Members of the small Jewish community were also attacked, prompting the emigration of almost all remaining Libyan Jews. The government restored order, but thereafter attempts to modernize the small and ineffective Libyan armed forces and to reform the grossly inefficient Libyan bureaucracy foundered upon conservative opposition to the nature and pace of the proposed reforms. - after independence in 1951-1952 (Kingdom of Libya) 3 muhafazat (muhafazah) (governorate (Governorates of Libya)) - - in Kingdom of Libya after 1963 and in Libyan Jamahiriya (History of modern Libya) after 1969 coup d'état (Muammar_al-Gaddafi#Military_coup_d'état) 10 baladiyat (district) - Independence After independence in 1951 the three provinces continued as the subdivision system in the Kingdom of Libya, with boundaries slightly shifting, until 1963. The provinces were then replaced by the ''Muhafazah'' governorates system (Governorates of Libya) (''muhafazah'') system in the kingdom and subsequent Libyan Arab Republic, until superseded by the 1983 ''Baladiyat'' districts system (Districts of Libya).


low life

. Arthur Goldschmidt, ''Biographical Dictionary of Modern Egypt'', Lynne Rienner Publishers: 2000, p. 181 The Kingdom of Libya, from 1951 to 1969, was heavily influenced and educated by the British and American oil companies. The King was very westernized and Libya also had a constitution (Constitution of Libya (1951)). The kingdom, however, was marked by a feudal (Feudalism) regime, where Libya had a low literacy rate of 10%, a low life expectancy of 57 years, and 40% of the population lived in shanties (Shanty town), tents, or caves. Illiteracy and homelessness were chronic problems during this era, when iron shacks dotted many urban centres around the country. - align center 1969 align center September 1 bgcolor #DDFFDD The '''Libyan Arab Republic''' supersedes the Kingdom of Libya. Tripoli remains the capital. - - align center April 25 bgcolor #DDFFDD The '''Kingdom of Libya''' supersedes the United Kingdom of Libya. Tripoli remains the capital. - In 1931 the product Arcanol was introduced, starting the upward trend for Jotun. The company opened a research laboratory in 1950, and expanded with factories in the Kingdom of Libya in 1962 and Thailand in 1967. In 1967 Odd Gleditsch, Jr. became CEO. Gleditsch Sr. continued as a board member until 1971. In 1972, through a merger, Jotun Kemiske Fabrik changed its name to Jotun. - after independence in 1951-1952 (Kingdom of Libya) 3 muhafazat (muhafazah) (governorate (Governorates of Libya)) - - in Kingdom of Libya after 1963 and in Libyan Jamahiriya (History of modern Libya) after 1969 coup d'état (Muammar_al-Gaddafi#Military_coup_d'état) 10 baladiyat (district) - Independence After independence in 1951 the three provinces continued as the subdivision system in the Kingdom of Libya, with boundaries slightly shifting, until 1963. The provinces were then replaced by the ''Muhafazah'' governorates system (Governorates of Libya) (''muhafazah'') system in the kingdom and subsequent Libyan Arab Republic, until superseded by the 1983 ''Baladiyat'' districts system (Districts of Libya).


amazing story

July 2011). "An Amazing Story Of Resistance From Inside Libya's Soccer League". Business Insider. Retrieved 18 July 2011. The former Libyan flag (Flag of Libya) used in the Kingdom of Libya has been used by many protesters (2011 Libyan civil war) as an opposition (Libyan opposition) flag.


political development

governments and legislatures. Tripoli and Benghazi served alternately as the national capital. Political development Several factors, rooted in Libya's history, affected the political development of the newly independent country. They reflected the differing political orientations of the provinces and the ambiguities inherent in Libya's monarchy. First, after the first Libyan general election, 1952, which were held on 19 February, political parties were abolished. The National Congress Party, which had campaigned against a federal form of government, was defeated throughout the country. The party was outlawed, and Bashir es Sadawi was deported. Second, provincial ties continued to be more important than national ones, and the federal and provincial governments were constantly in dispute over their respective spheres of authority. A third problem derived from the lack of a direct heir to the throne. To remedy this situation, Idris in 1953 designated his sixty-year-old brother to succeed him. When the original heir apparent died, the king appointed his nephew, Prince Hasan ar Rida (Hasan as-Senussi), his successor. Foreign policy In its foreign policy, the Kingdom of Libya was recognized as belonging to the conservative traditionalist bloc in the League of Arab States (Arab League), of which it became a member in 1953. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress (1987), "Independent Libya", ''U.S. Library of Congress''. Retrieved July 14, 2006. The government (Politics of Libya) was in close alliance with the United States and United Kingdom; both countries maintained military base rights in Libya. The U.S. supported the United Nations resolution providing for Libyan independence in 1951 and raised the status of its office at Tripoli from a consulate general to a legation. Libya opened a legation at Washington, D.C. in 1954. Both countries subsequently raised their missions to the embassy level and exchanged ambassadors. In 1953, Libya concluded a twenty-year treaty of friendship and alliance with the United Kingdom under which the latter received military bases in exchange for financial and military assistance. The next year, Libya and the United States signed an agreement under which the United States also obtained military base rights, subject to renewal in 1970, in return for economic aid to Libya. The most important of the United States installations in Libya was Wheelus Air Base, near Tripoli, considered a strategically valuable installation in the 1950s and early 1960s. Reservations set aside in the desert were used by British and American military aircraft based in Europe as practice firing ranges. Libya forged close ties with France, Italy, Greece, Turkey, and established full diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union in 1955, but declined a Soviet offer of economic aid. thumb Al Manar Royal Palace in central Benghazi, the University of Libya (File:Piazza 28 Ottobre,Bengasi.jpg)'s first campus, founded by royal decree in 1955. As part of a broad assistance package, the UN Technical Assistance Board agreed to sponsor a technical aid program that emphasized the development of agriculture and education. The University of Libya was founded in 1955 by royal decree in Benghazi. Foreign powers, notably Britain and the United States, provided development aid. Steady economic improvement occurred, but the pace was slow, and Libya remained a poor and underdeveloped country heavily dependent on foreign aid. Development of the nation This situation changed suddenly and dramatically in June 1959 when research prospectors from Esso (later renamed Exxon) confirmed the location of major petroleum deposits at Zaltan in Cyrenaica. Further discoveries followed, and commercial development was quickly initiated by concession holders who returned 50 percent of their profits to the Libyan government in taxes. In the petroleum market, Libya's advantages lay not only in the quantity but also in the high quality of its crude product. Libya's proximity and direct linkage to Europe by sea were further marketing advantages. The discovery and exploitation of petroleum turned the vast, sparsely populated, impoverished country into an independently wealthy nation with potential for extensive development and thus constituted a major turning point in Libyan history. Libya's petroleum law (Petroleum Law of 1955), initially passed in 1955, was amended in 1961 and again in 1965 to increase the Libyan government's share of the revenues from oil. - after independence in 1951-1952 (Kingdom of Libya) 3 muhafazat (muhafazah) (governorate (Governorates of Libya)) - - in Kingdom of Libya after 1963 and in Libyan Jamahiriya (History of modern Libya) after 1969 coup d'état (Muammar_al-Gaddafi#Military_coup_d'état) 10 baladiyat (district) - Independence After independence in 1951 the three provinces continued as the subdivision system in the Kingdom of Libya, with boundaries slightly shifting, until 1963. The provinces were then replaced by the ''Muhafazah'' governorates system (Governorates of Libya) (''muhafazah'') system in the kingdom and subsequent Libyan Arab Republic, until superseded by the 1983 ''Baladiyat'' districts system (Districts of Libya).


black green

Standard of Idris I (Idris of Libya) (1951–1969) The flag of the Kingdom of Libya was adopted when Libya gained full independence in 1951. It consisted of a white star and crescent on a triband red-black-green design, with the central black band being twice the width of the outer bands. The design was based on the banner of the Senussi dynasty from Cyrenaica, which consisted of a black field and star and crescent design, and was later used as the flag of the region. The red represented the blood of the Libyan people who died under the Italian fascist rule, while the green represents the era of independence, freedom and a new start for the Libyan people. The crescent and star represent the main religion of Libya which is Islam. - after independence in 1951-1952 (Kingdom of Libya) 3 muhafazat (muhafazah) (governorate (Governorates of Libya)) - - in Kingdom of Libya after 1963 and in Libyan Jamahiriya (History of modern Libya) after 1969 coup d'état (Muammar_al-Gaddafi#Military_coup_d'état) 10 baladiyat (district) - Independence After independence in 1951 the three provinces continued as the subdivision system in the Kingdom of Libya, with boundaries slightly shifting, until 1963. The provinces were then replaced by the ''Muhafazah'' governorates system (Governorates of Libya) (''muhafazah'') system in the kingdom and subsequent Libyan Arab Republic, until superseded by the 1983 ''Baladiyat'' districts system (Districts of Libya).

Kingdom of Libya

The '''Kingdom of Libya''' ( ), originally called the '''United Kingdom of Libya''', came into existence upon independence on 24 December 1951 and lasted until a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi on 1 September 1969 overthrew King Idris of Libya and established the Libyan Arab Republic (History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi#Libyan Arab Republic .281969.E2.80.931977.29).

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