Kingdom of Galicia

What is Kingdom of Galicia known for?

local written

; Here lies Sueiro Gomes de Souto Maior, who died ... ": SUEIRO GOMES DE SOUTO MAIOR Q FALECEU Latinate Galician charters from the 8th century onward show that the local written Latin was heavily influenced by local spoken romance, yet is not until the 12th century that we find evidences for the identification of the local language as a language different from Latin itself. As an example, in a passage of the Historia Compostellana it is stated, as a notable event, that bishop


language thumb right One of the oldest legal charters written in Galician, the constitutional charter of the Bo Burgo (Good Burg) of Castro Caldelas (File:ForoBoBurgo.jpg). Year 1228. left thumb Miniatures from a manuscript of the Cantigas de Santa Maria (File:Cantiga bagpipes 1.jpg) left thumb Sepulchre of the knight Sueiro Gomes de Soutomaior (File:Sueiro Gomes de Souto Maior.JPG). The inscription, in Galician, reads "


of Habsburg saw a deep economic and social crisis, and was disastrous for its cultural development; portrait by Alonso Sanchez Coello In 1556, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor abdicated the throne and divided his realm between his brother Ferdinand I of Habsburg, and his son Philip II (Philip II of Spain). In practice this resulted in the disappearance of the European empire of the Habsburgs (House of Habsburg) and the idea of a universal Catholic monarchy. Ferdinand was declared

historic rock

of Italy (1861-1946) Kingdom of Italy and Switzerland * the historic Rock of the Three Kingdoms between the former kingdoms of Galicia (Kingdom of Galicia), León (Kingdom of León) and Portugal (Kingdom of Portugal) (nowadays part of the border between Kingdom of Spain and the Portuguese Republic). Treaty on boundaries between Spain and Portugal from the mouth of the Minho River to the junction

historic title

, the Mártires de Carral, but never regained the status of a kingdom. Symbols of the kingdom thumb left upright Romanesque miniature representing Alfonso IX of León Alfonso IX (File:TumboA Alfonso.jpg), King of León. In the upper part appears his historic title ''Rex Legionensium et Gallecie'', while the lower part shows the purple lion, symbol of the Leonese monarchy The purple lion The custom of painting symbols such as the heraldic (heraldry) shields of war was forged

historical artistic

and tables", in Old Spanish) was commissioned by Alfonso X of Castile (Kingdom of Castile), Galicia (Kingdom of Galicia) and León (Kingdom of León) and completed in his scriptorium in Toledo (Toledo, Spain) in 1283, Sonja Musser Golladay, "Los Libros de Acedrex Dados E Tablas: Historical, Artistic and Metaphysical Dimensions

simple collection

; the ''juez de plantíos y dehesas'' ("judge of forests and plantings") the Castilian Council (Council of Castile) reclaimed the economical rights in the Galician forest holdings for the construction warships dedicated to the war. While the Galicia inhabitants came to be arrested for the simple collection of firewood to heat their houses as he denounced the Galicia Council (''Junta del Reyno de Galicia''). Restoration of voting at the Council of Castile (1623) File:Conde de

cultural religious

thumb 14th century 'Retablo de Belvis' (File:Retablo de Belvis.jpg) thumb left The castle of Pambre, Palas de Rei (File:Castelo de Pambre 2.JPG), which resisted the ''Irmandiños'' troops thumb left Castle of Soutomaior (File:Castelo de Soutomaior, San Salvador de Soutomaior.jpg) During the entire 15th century, a time of social and economical crisis all along Europe, the violence grew in a series of wars and insurrection that perturbed all of the Kingdom of Galicia; these insurrections were replies to the violence exerted by the bishops and the noblemen on the churchmen, artisans and peasants. The insurgents usually were organized in ''irmandades (Hermandad)'' (meaning 'brotherhoods'), groups of men who in exceptional circumstances, and allegedly with the King's approval, armed themselves to act as a policemen in defence of peace and justice. A brotherhood was established in Compostela in 1418, taking advantage of the temporal absence of the archbishop, and violently taking hold of the city in 1422, overruling the City Council. Another one, called ''Fusquenlla'' or 'The Mad Brotherhood', rose up in the north of the kingdom against the House of Andrade. The armies of the brotherhood, directed by the lesser nobleman Roi Xordo, were finally defeated by the Andrade's armies by the gates of Compostela in 1431. Later, in 1453, the troops of the bishop of Ourense and that of the Council of the city fought fiercely for the possession of the local castles, even using ''tronos'' (cannons, literally 'thunders'), and forcing the bishop into the exile. López Carreira 1999, 299–302. In 1458 a brotherhood was established bringing together some important noblemen (the House of Moscoso and Sueiro Gomes de Soutomaior among others) and the cities and towns of Compostela, Noia, and Muros (Muros, A Coruña), against the archbishop of Santiago, who was first caught as a prisoner, being kept and paraded in a cage for two years, later being banished for ten years after their supporters had paid an onerous rescue. Similar revolts were producing all along the kingdom, in Betanzos, Viveiro, Lugo and Allariz. All of these Galician brotherhoods acted autonomously, sometimes even against King's will and direct orders. Barros Guimeráns 1988, 39–45. In 1465 the Crown of Castile was again in crisis, with King Henry IV (Henry IV of Castile) under siege by Castilian noblemen who were supporting an aristocratic candidate to the throne. Henry reacted sending letters all around the realm, calling for the establishment of brotherhoods to defend the ''status quo''. From 1465 to 1467 local brotherhoods were


(reigns of Philip IV and Charles II) was witnessed of dramatical wars between the Habsburg´s territories against Holland, England, France and especially Portugal, which had a remarkable social and economic impact in Galicia. Thus, while the conflicts against the Ottomans had a great impact in the kingdom with the devastating attack in the Rias Baixas in 1617, the unpopular war against Portugal (1640–1668) and the war waged by the Habsburg monarchs against the Netherlands for decades, accounted

great political

;González López (1978) pp. 419–420. This attempted secession lasted five years amid great political and military instability due to opposition from many sectors of society, as well as the party of Sancho's widow Maria de Molina, supported by the Castilian nobility, and the high Galician clergy. Faced with this resistance, King Dom Denis of Portugal proposed to Queen Maria de Molina that John (John of Castile, Lord of Valencia de Campos) should held for him and for his heirs

Kingdom of Galicia

thumb right Arms of the Kingdom of Galicia, illustrated in ''L´armorial Le Blancq'', Bibliothèque nationale de France (File:Escudo reino de galicia.jpg), 1560 The '''Kingdom of Galicia''' (

Compostela (Santiago de Compostela) became capital of Galicia in the 11th century, while the independence of Portugal (1128) determined its southern boundary. The accession of Castilian King Ferdinand III (Ferdinand III of Castile) to the Leonese kingdom in 1230 brought Galicia under the control of the Crown of Castile, the kingdom of Galicia becoming an administrative division within the larger realm.

Galicia resisted central control, supporting a series of alternative claimants, including John of León, Galicia and Seville (1296), Ferdinand I of Portugal (1369) and John of Gaunt (1386), and was not brought firmly into submission until the Catholic Monarchs imposed the Santa Hermandad in Galicia. The kingdom of Galicia was then administered within the Crown of Castile (1490–1715) and later the Crown of Spain (1715–1833) by an ''Audiencia Real'' directed by a Governor which holds also the office of Captain General. The representative assembly of the Kingdom was then the Junta or Cortes of the Kingdom of Galicia (Junta of the Kingdom of Galicia), which briefly declared itself sovereign when Galicia alone remained free of Napoleonic occupation (Peninsular War) (1808–1809). The kingdom and its ''Junta'' were dissolved by Maria Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Regent of Spain, in 1834.

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