Kingdom of Dyfed

What is Kingdom of Dyfed known for?


causing social

in Wales, with St. David's covering all of West Wales and part of Mid Wales. Davies, John, ''A History of Wales'', Penguin, 1994, ''Celtic Church'', 72-79 ''Welsh Church'' pg 118 Dyfed was subject to extensive raids during the Viking Age between the 8th and 11th centuries, causing social and political instability, and with the Vikings establishing settlements in southern Dyfed. By the latter part


centuries causing

in Wales, with St. David's covering all of West Wales and part of Mid Wales. Davies, John, ''A History of Wales'', Penguin, 1994, ''Celtic Church'', 72-79 ''Welsh Church'' pg 118 Dyfed was subject to extensive raids during the Viking Age between the 8th and 11th centuries, causing social and political instability, and with the Vikings establishing settlements in southern Dyfed. By the latter part of the 9th century, the rulers of Dyfed had grown cautious of the influence of the sons of Rhodri the Great, and sought out an alliance and the patronage of Alfred the Great of England. The precise nature of the relationship between King Alfred and the rulers in Wales remains unclear, whether a transitory alliance or a formal mediatization of the Welsh rulers to the king of England. Historical attempts have been made to cast the relationship as one as a confederation of Christian unity on the isle of Britain, under the leadership of Alfred, against the heathen Danes. However there evolved a significant degree of coercion in the relationship, according to Davies. "The recognition by Welsh rulers that the king of England had claims upon them would be a central fact in the subsequent political history of Wales," according to Davies. In about 904, Dyfed's ruler, Llywarch ap Hyfaidd, died, leaving his daughter Elen (Elen ferch Lywarch) as his heiress. Elen was married to Hywel (Hywel ap Cadell), ruler of neighbnoring Seisyllwg and grandson of Rhodri the Great through his second son Cadell (Cadell ap Rhodri). Through (Jure uxoris) his marriage to Elen, Hywel incorporated Dyfed into an enlarged realm to be known as ''Deheubarth'', meaning the "south part", and later went on to conquer Powys and Gwynedd. However, both Powys and Gwynedd returned to their native dynasties on Hywel's death in 950. Hwyel's grandson Maredudd ab Owain recreated the kingdom of his grandfather, but his rule was beset with increasing Viking raids during the latter part of the 10th century. It is during this period that Viking settlements increased, particularly in the area in the cantref of Penfro, with other Viking settlements and trading station at Haverfordwest, Fishguard and Caldey Island in Dyfed. Viking raids upon the Welsh were "relentless", according to Davies, and Maredudd was compelled to raise taxes to pay the ransoms for Welsh hostages in 993, and in 999 a Viking raiding party attacked St. David's and killed Morganau, the bishop. Dyfed remained an integral province within Deheubarth until the Norman invasions of Wales between 1068-1100. In the Dyfed region, the cantrefi of Penfro, Rhos, Cemais and Pebidiog became occupied by Norman overlords. The Normans influenced the election of the Bishops of St. David's, in Pebidiog, from 1115 onwards. The Princes of Deheubarth, and later Llywelyn the Great as the Prince of a virtual Principality of Wales from 1216, fought to recover the region until the Edwardian Conquest of Wales in 1284 settled the matter. The 1284 Statute of Rhuddlan established the English county of ''Pembrokeshire'' and ''Carmarthenshire'' out of the region formally known as ''Dyfed''. Rulers *Anwn ( c. 357) *Ednyfed ( c. 373) *Gloitgwyn *Clotri ( c. 405) *Triffyn Farfog ( c. 385) *Aergol Lawhir ( c. 437) *Gwrthefyr (c. 475 - 540) *Arthwyr ( c. 585) *Cloten (Cloten of Dyfed and Brycheiniog) ( c. 630) *Rhein (Rhain of Dyfed and Brycheiniog) ( c. 690) *Tewdos ( c. 710) *Owain (c. 771 - 811) *Hyfaidd (c. 815 - 893) *Llywarch ap Hyfaidd (c. 893-904) *Rhodri (c. 845 - 905) *Hywel Dda (c. 905-909) References and notes Additional reading * ''The Irish settlements in Wales'', Myles Dillon, ''Celtica'' 12, 1977, p. 1-11. See also *Déisi *Dyfed, a Welsh administrative county from 1974 to 1996 , ''A History of Wales'', Vol. I If the man mentioned in both inscriptions was the same as Gildas' Vortiporius, we would expect the Latin and Irish forms to have been spelled *Vorteporigis and *Vortecorigas, respectively; the difference in spelling has led some to suggest that they are not the same person, though it is possible that they were related. Sims-Williams, Patrick (2003), The Celtic Inscriptions of Britain: Phonology and Chronology, c. 400 – 1200, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, pp. 342, 346 – 347, ISBN 1-4051-0903-3


916

) **'''Kingdom of Gwynedd''' - Anarawd ap Rhodri (878–916) *'''Wales''' - **'''Kingdom of Dyfed''' - Llywarch ap Hyfaidd (893–904) **'''Kingdom of Gwynedd''' - Anarawd ap Rhodri (878–916) *'''Wales''' - **'''Kingdom of Dyfed''' - Llywarch ap Hyfaidd (893–904) **'''Kingdom of Gwynedd''' - Anarawd ap Rhodri (878–916) *'''Wales''' - **'''Kingdom of Dyfed''' - Llywarch ap Hyfaidd (893–904) **''' Kingdom

of Gwynedd ''' - Anarawd ap Rhodri (878–916) *'''Wales''' - **'''Kingdom of Dyfed''' - Llywarch ap Hyfaidd (893–904) **'''Kingdom of Gwynedd''' - Anarawd ap Rhodri (878–916) *'''Wales''' - **'''Kingdom of Dyfed''' - Llywarch ap Hyfaidd (893–904) **'''Kingdom of Gwynedd''' - Anarawd ap Rhodri (878–916) *'''Wales''' - **'''Kingdom of Dyfed''' - Llywarch ap Hyfaidd (893–904) **''' Kingdom

of Gwynedd ''' - Anarawd ap Rhodri (878–916) *'''Wales''' - **'''Kingdom of Dyfed''' - Llywarch ap Hyfaidd (893–904) **'''Kingdom of Gwynedd''' - Anarawd ap Rhodri (878–916) *'''Wales''' - **'''Kingdom of Dyfed''' - Llywarch ap Hyfaidd (893–904) **'''Kingdom of Gwynedd''' - Anarawd ap Rhodri (878–916) *'''Wales''' - **'''Kingdom of Dyfed''' - Llywarch ap Hyfaidd (893–904) **''' Kingdom of Gwynedd


908

and ongoing relationship with Gwynedd and its kings. '''Asser''' (d. 908 909) was a Welsh (Welsh people) monk from St David's, Dyfed (Kingdom of Dyfed), who became Bishop of Sherborne (Bishop of Sherborne (historic)) in the 890s. About 885 he was asked by Alfred the Great to leave St David's and join the circle of learned men whom Alfred was recruiting for his court. After spending a year at Caerwent because of illness, Asser accepted. In the post Roman period, the Irish


good quot

is Wales. left thumb ''Cantref (Image:Deheubarth.PNG)i'' of Deheubarth circa 1160 Deheubarth was founded circa 920 by Hywel Dda ("Hywel the Good") out of the territories of Seisyllwg and Dyfed (Kingdom of Dyfed), both of which had come into his possession. Later on, the Kingdom of Brycheiniog would also be added to its territory. The chief seat of the rulers of Deheubarth and its traditional capital was at Dinefwr (Dinefwr Castle) (although Carmarthen and Cardigan also served as the kingdom's capital for certain periods). Most mythological stories contained in the ''Mabinogion'' collection are collectively titled ''The Four Branches of the Mabinogi (Four Branches of the Mabinogi)'', which concentrate largely on the exploits of various British deities who have been Christianised into kings and heroes. The only character to appear in every branch is Pryderi fab Pwyll (Pryderi), the king of Dyfed (Kingdom of Dyfed), who is born in the first Branch, is killed in the fourth, and is probably a reflex of the Celtic god Maponos. Gruffydd, W. J. ''Rhiannon: An Inquiry into the Origins of the First and Third Branches of the Mabinogi''. The only other reccurring characters are Pryderi's mother Rhiannon, associated with the Romano-Gaulish horse goddess Epona and the British queen goddess Rigantona, and the peaceful British prince Manawydan, who later becomes her second husband. Manawyadan and his siblings Bendigeidfran, Branwen and Efnysien are the key players of the second branch, while the fourth branch concerns itself with the exploits of the family of Dôn (Don (goddess)), which includes the wizard Gwydion, his nephew Lleu (Lleu Llaw Gyffes) and his sister Arianrhod. ** His son '''Caradog (Caradog ap Bran)''', who is left to defend Britain in his father's absence. He is killed when his uncle Caswallawn seizes his father's crown. * '''Manawydan''', Bendigeidfran's younger brother, who fights alongside him in Ireland. He is one of only seven men to survive the final battle, and returns to live in Dyfed (Kingdom of Dyfed) with fellow survivor Pryderi. He refuses to make his claim on the British throne which has been usurped by his cousin Caswallawn. He marries Rhiannon in the Third Branch, and rescues Dyfed from the enchantment of the malignant wizard Llwyd (Llwyd ap Cil Coed). He is widely considered to be cognate with the Irish sea god Manannán mac Lir. * '''Branwen''', The family's only daughter. Her abuse at the hands of her husband Matholwch is the catalyst for a catastrophic war between Britain and Ireland which eventually leads to the deaths of three of her brothers, her son and her husband. She dies of a broken heart after witnessing the battle. thumb 170px right Map showing the location of Dyfed in southwestern-most Wales. (Image:Wales.post-Roman.jpg) '''Vortiporius''' was a king of Dyfed (Kingdom of Dyfed) in the early to mid-6th century. He ruled over an area approximately corresponding to the modern Pembrokeshire. As a mythical king in Geoffrey of Monmouth's treatment of the Matter of Britain, he was the successor of Aurelius Conanus and was succeeded by Malgo. Records of this era are scanty, and virtually nothing is known of him or his kingdom. The only contemporary information about the person comes from Gildas, in a highly allegorical condemnation from his ''De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae'' ( , ''A History of Wales'', Vol. I If the man mentioned in both inscriptions was the same as Gildas' Vortiporius, we would expect the Latin and Irish forms to have been spelled *Vorteporigis and *Vortecorigas, respectively; the difference in spelling has led some to suggest that they are not the same person, though it is possible that they were related. Sims-Williams, Patrick (2003), The Celtic Inscriptions of Britain: Phonology and Chronology, c. 400 – 1200, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, pp. 342, 346 – 347, ISBN 1-4051-0903-3


showing

of Deheubarth.svg image_flag Flag of Deheubarth.png image_flag Flag of dyfed.svg flag_type Banner of Dyfed image_map LDDyfedCantrefi.png image_map_caption Map showing Dyfed, after the late 7th century, showing its seven cantrefi. capital latd 53 latm 14 latNS N longd 4 longm 1 longEW W common_languages Welsh footnotes Image:Wales.post-Roman.jpg thumb 250px right Post-Roman Welsh petty kingdoms. Dyfed is the promontory on the southwestern coast

Lir . * '''Branwen''', The family's only daughter. Her abuse at the hands of her husband Matholwch is the catalyst for a catastrophic war between Britain and Ireland which eventually leads to the deaths of three of her brothers, her son and her husband. She dies of a broken heart after witnessing the battle. thumb 170px right Map showing the location of Dyfed in southwestern-most Wales. (Image:Wales.post-Roman.jpg) '''Vortiporius''' was a king of Kingdom of Dyfed Dyfed


950

to be known as ''Deheubarth'', meaning the "south part", and later went on to conquer Powys and Gwynedd. However, both Powys and Gwynedd returned to their native dynasties on Hywel's death in 950. Hwyel's grandson Maredudd ab Owain recreated the kingdom of his grandfather, but his rule was beset with increasing Viking raids during the latter part of the 10th century. It is during this period that Viking

part of the 10th century Norse trading posts and settlements emerged within Dyfed, with Fishguard established sometime between 950 and 1000 AD. During Wilfrid's lifetime the British Isles consisted of a number of small kingdoms. Traditionally the English people were thought to have been divided into seven kingdoms, but modern historiography has shown that this is a simplification of a much more confused situation. Keynes "

;ndash;916) **'''Deheubarth''' - Hywel Dda, Prince of Deheubarth (List_of_rulers_of_Wales#Deheubarth) (909–950) **'''Kingdom of Dyfed''' - Hywel Dda (905–909) **'''Kingdom of Gwynedd''' - Anarawd ap Rhodri (878–916) '''Seisyllwg''' was a petty kingdom of medieval Wales. Davies, p. 85 It is unclear when it emerged as a distinct


power giving

), King of Gwynedd (Kingdom of Gwynedd), receives the most sweeping condemnation and is described almost as a high king over the other kings (the power-giving dragon of the Apocalypse). The Isle of Anglesey was the base of power of the kings of Gwynedd, so describing Maelgwn as the 'dragon of the island' is appropriate. His pre-eminence over other kings is confirmed indirectly in other sources. For example, Maelgwn was a generous contributor to the cause of Christianity throughout Wales, implying a responsibility beyond the boundaries of his own kingdom. He made donations to support Saint Brynach in Dyfed (Kingdom of Dyfed), Saint Cadoc in Gwynllwg, Saint Cybi in Anglesey (Isle of Anglesey), Saint Padarn (Padarn) in Ceredigion, and Saint Tydecho in Powys (Kingdom of Powys). He is also associated with the foundation of Bangor (Bangor, Gwynedd). , ''A History of Wales'', Vol. I If the man mentioned in both inscriptions was the same as Gildas' Vortiporius, we would expect the Latin and Irish forms to have been spelled *Vorteporigis and *Vortecorigas, respectively; the difference in spelling has led some to suggest that they are not the same person, though it is possible that they were related. Sims-Williams, Patrick (2003), The Celtic Inscriptions of Britain: Phonology and Chronology, c. 400 – 1200, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, pp. 342, 346 – 347, ISBN 1-4051-0903-3


exploits

also served as the kingdom's capital for certain periods). Most mythological stories contained in the ''Mabinogion'' collection are collectively titled ''The Four Branches of the Mabinogi (Four Branches of the Mabinogi)'', which concentrate largely on the exploits of various British deities who have been Christianised into kings and heroes. The only character to appear in every branch is Pryderi fab Pwyll (Pryderi), the king of Dyfed (Kingdom of Dyfed), who is born in the first Branch

Bendigeidfran, Branwen and Efnysien are the key players of the second branch, while the fourth branch concerns itself with the exploits of the family of Dôn (Don (goddess)), which includes the wizard Gwydion, his nephew Lleu (Lleu Llaw Gyffes) and his sister Arianrhod. ** His son '''Caradog (Caradog ap Bran)''', who is left to defend Britain in his father's absence. He is killed when his uncle Caswallawn seizes his father's crown. * '''Manawydan''', Bendigeidfran's


part quot

to be known as ''Deheubarth'', meaning the "south part", and later went on to conquer Powys and Gwynedd. However, both Powys and Gwynedd returned to their native dynasties on Hywel's death in 950. Hwyel's grandson Maredudd ab Owain recreated the kingdom of his grandfather, but his rule was beset with increasing Viking raids during the latter part of the 10th century. It is during this period that Viking

Kingdom of Dyfed

thumb 250px right Post-Roman Welsh petty kingdoms. Dyfed is the promontory on the southwestern coast. The modern Anglo-Welsh border is also shown. (Image:Wales.post-Roman.jpg) The '''Kingdom of Dyfed''' is one of several Welsh (Wales) petty kingdoms that emerged in 5th-century post-Roman Britain (sub-Roman Britain) in south-west Wales (West Wales), based on the former Irish (Gaelic Ireland) tribal lands of the Déisi from c 350 until it was subsumed into ''Deheubarth'' in 920. Davies, John, ''A History of Wales'', Penguin, 1994, ''foundations of'' pgs 17,19, 43, ''Migration of the Desi into Demetia'', page 52 ''Demetia'' 17, 30, 34, ''ruling house of'' 52, 72, 85, 87, ''and the Vikings'' pages 85, ''relations with Alfred of Wessex'', page 85, ''and the Vikings Northmen'' page 98, ''and the Normans'' 106, 112, 114 In Latin, the country of the Déisi was ''Demetae'', eventually to evolve (Etymology) into Welsh (Welsh language) as'' Dyfed''. Following the Norman invasions of Wales between 1067–1100, the region was conquered by the Normans and by 1138 incorporated into a new shire called ''Pembrokeshire'' after the Norman castle built in the Penfro cantref (Penfro (cantref)), and under the rule of the Marcher Earl of Pembroke.

In the latter days of the Roman Empire through to the early post-Roman period, the Déisi Muman peoples, a name which originates in Irish as ''déis'' meaning "vassal", migrated (The Expulsion of the Déisi) to the region between 350 and 400 AD. Their migration may have been with the support of Magnus Maximus, who contracted with them to become vassals and seafaring defenders of Britain from Wales to Cornwall, following standard Roman policies. Gaelic became, or remained, the predominant language of the region, as evidenced by twenty stones dated to this periode with Irish ogam inscriptions. One inscribed stone in Castelldwyran near Neath memoralizes one leader known as Voteporix (Vortiporius) in Latin and in ogam, with his title given as ''Protictoris'', who claimed descent from a Magnus Maximus, suggesting that "one of his ancestors was a member of the retinue of an emperor and that the title had become hereditary," according to Professor John Davies. Davies suggests that Voteporix may be descended from the same Maximus that had encouraged the Déisi to settle in the region in the late 4th century.

Dyfed may have originally occupied the area that bordered the rivers Teifi (River Teifi), Gwili (Afon Gwili) and Tywi (River Tywi), and included contemporary Pembrokeshire, the western part of contemporary Carmarthenshire, and with the town of Carmarthen. Dyfed eventually comprised at least seven cantrefi: Cemais (Cemais (Dyfed cantref)), Deugleddyf (Dungleddy (hundred)), Emlyn, Cantref Gwarthaf (Cantref Gwarthaf (Dyfed)), Pebidiog (Dewisland (hundred)), Penfro (Penfro (cantref)) and Rhos (Roose (hundred)), with an approximate area of about 2284 km 2 . During times of strength, the kingdom expanded to additionally cover the Ystrad Tywi (''Valley of the river Tywi''), including Cydweli and Gwyr (Gower (Lordship)), and even bordered Brycheiniog. Dyfed lost the Ystrad Tywi region to Ceredigion (Kingdom of Ceredigion), another petty kingdom, in the late 7th century.

During the 'Age of the Saints (Celtic Christianity)', Dyfed may have had as many as seven bishops: one for each cantref. Williams, A. H., ''An Introduction to the History of Wales'': Volume I: ''Prehistoric Times to 1063'', UoWP, 1941, p 120 Davies, John, The Celts, pg 126-155 However, by the High Middle Ages the bishopric of St. David's emerged as one of only three episcopal (Episcopal Area) diocese in Wales, with St. David's covering all of West Wales and part of Mid Wales. Davies, John, ''A History of Wales'', Penguin, 1994, ''Celtic Church'', 72-79 ''Welsh Church'' pg 118

Dyfed was subject to extensive raids during the Viking Age between the 8th and 11th centuries, causing social and political instability, and with the Vikings establishing settlements in southern Dyfed. By the latter part of the 9th century, the rulers of Dyfed had grown cautious of the influence of the sons of Rhodri the Great, and sought out an alliance and the patronage of Alfred the Great of England. The precise nature of the relationship between King Alfred and the rulers in Wales remains unclear, whether a transitory alliance or a formal mediatization of the Welsh rulers to the king of England. Historical attempts have been made to cast the relationship as one as a confederation of Christian unity on the isle of Britain, under the leadership of Alfred, against the heathen Danes. However there evolved a significant degree of coercion in the relationship, according to Davies. "The recognition by Welsh rulers that the king of England had claims upon them would be a central fact in the subsequent political history of Wales," according to Davies.

In about 904, Dyfed's ruler, Llywarch ap Hyfaidd, died, leaving his daughter Elen (Elen ferch Lywarch) as his heiress. Elen was married to Hywel (Hywel ap Cadell), ruler of neighbnoring Seisyllwg and grandson of Rhodri the Great through his second son Cadell (Cadell ap Rhodri). Through (Jure uxoris) his marriage to Elen, Hywel incorporated Dyfed into an enlarged realm to be known as ''Deheubarth'', meaning the "south part", and later went on to conquer Powys and Gwynedd. However, both Powys and Gwynedd returned to their native dynasties on Hywel's death in 950. Hwyel's grandson Maredudd ab Owain recreated the kingdom of his grandfather, but his rule was beset with increasing Viking raids during the latter part of the 10th century. It is during this period that Viking settlements increased, particularly in the area in the cantref of Penfro, with other Viking settlements and trading station at Haverfordwest, Fishguard and Caldey Island in Dyfed. Viking raids upon the Welsh were "relentless", according to Davies, and Maredudd was compelled to raise taxes to pay the ransoms for Welsh hostages in 993, and in 999 a Viking raiding party attacked St. David's and killed Morganau, the bishop.

Dyfed remained an integral province within Deheubarth until the Norman invasions of Wales between 1068-1100. In the Dyfed region, the cantrefi of Penfro, Rhos, Cemais and Pebidiog became occupied by Norman overlords. The Normans influenced the election of the Bishops of St. David's, in Pebidiog, from 1115 onwards. The Princes of Deheubarth, and later Llywelyn the Great as the Prince of a virtual Principality of Wales from 1216, fought to recover the region until the Edwardian Conquest of Wales in 1284 settled the matter. The 1284 Statute of Rhuddlan established the English county of ''Pembrokeshire'' and ''Carmarthenshire'' out of the region formally known as ''Dyfed''.

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