Kazakh Khanate

What is Kazakh Khanate known for?


excellence quot

the eighteenth century genocide par excellence." - **'''Ryūkyū Kingdom''' – Shō Boku, King of Ryūkyū (1752–1795) * '''Kazakh Khanate''' - Ablai Khan, Khan of the Kazakhs (1771–1781) *'''Korea''' (Joseon Dynasty) – Yeongjo (King Yeongjo of Joseon), King of Joseon (Rulers of Korea) (1724–1776


quot victory" and "x"="x

in Asia and the North Pacific By G. Patrick MarchX&ei OdnvUPCbDIT4sgb-6ICADQ&ved 0CC4Q6AEwAA#v onepage&q Russian%20control.%20Their%20frequent%20raids%20into&f false Central Asia, and Western Siberia (Bashkortostan) during the Kazakh Khanate.

+raids+Bashkir+women&hl en&sa X&ei Ds3vUP_kDsyFtQa-uIC4BA&ved 0CDEQ6AEwAA#v onepage&q Kazakh%20raids%20Bashkir%20women&f false The Kazakhs By Martha Brill Olcott X&ei TNLvUKbeNIiHswaZ_YDIDg&ved 0CDgQ6AEwAQ Studies in History, Volume 4 Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making Of A Colonial Empire

, 1500-1800 By Michael KhodarkovskyX&ei Ds3vUP_kDsyFtQa-uIC4BA&ved 0CDEQ6AEwAA#v onepage&q Kazakh%20raids%20Bashkir%20women&f false The Khanate was later weakened by a series of Kalmyk (Kalmyk people) Oirat invasions, devastating raids and warfare, and gradually lost control and autonomy to the Russian Empire. From the sixteenth through the early


leading voice

forces until his death in 1847. In 1841, on all-Kazakh Kurultai Kenesary was elected as Khan (Khan (title))(supreme leader) by all Kazakh representatives. The ceremony of coronation took as per all Kazakh traditions. As a freedom fighter and popular as a leading voice against the increasingly aggressive and forceful policies of the Russian Empire, Kenesary was ruthless in his actions and unpredictable as a military strategist. By 1846, however, his resistance movement had lost momentum as some of his rich associates had defected to the Russian Empire, having been promised great riches. Betrayed, Kenesary Khan grew increasingly suspicious of the remaining members of the Resistance, possibly further alienating them. In 1847, the Khan of the Kazakhs met his death in Kyrgyz lands during his assault on northern Kyrgyz tribes. He was executed by Ormon Khan, the sarybagysh tribe leader who was subsequently rewarded by the Russians with a larger estate and an official administrative role, but was still widely regarded as a traitor by most nomadic tribes. Kenesary Khan's head was cut off and sent to the Russians. During the last decade, Kenesary Khan has become increasingly regarded as a hero in Kazakh literature and media. Kenesary Khan can be seen on the shore of the river Esil in the capital of Kazakhstan, Astana. Kazakh Khanate and Russia (Russian Empire) Following expansion of Russian Empire to Ural (Ural (region)) and colonization of Siberia in XVI-XVII centuries, multiple Russian settlements and military posts appeared on the borders of Kazakh Khanate. Some tensions and conflicts between Russian settlers and Kazakh nomads were recorded. The raids by Kazakhs were sited as big irritating factor by imperial policy makers. Despite legal serfdom in Russia until mid-19th century, enslavement cases of Russian settlers by Kazakh raiders were sited as a big concern and cited as one of the factors in further expansion of Russian Empire into Central Asia. List of Kazakh raids on Russian settlements During the 18th century, raids by Kazakhs on Russia's territory of Orenburg were common; the Kazakhs captured many Russians and sold them as slaves in the Central Asian market. The Volga Germans were also victims of Kazakh raids; they were ethnic Germans living along the River Volga in the region of southeastern European Russia around Saratov. thumb 300 px Approximate areas occupied by the three Kazakh jüzes in the early 20th century. Green represents the Little jüz (Image:Жуз.svg), orange represents the Middle jüz and red represents the Great jüz. In 1717, 3,000 Russian slaves, men, women, and children, were sold in Khiva by Kazakh and Kyrgyz tribesmen. The History of the Central Asian Republics By Peter Roudik In 1722, they stole cattle, robbed from Russian villages and people trapped in captivity and sold in the slave markets of Central Asia (in 1722 in Bukhara were over 5,000 Russian prisoners). In the middle of the 17th century, 500 Russians were annually sold to Khiva by Kazakhs. In 1730, the Kazakhs' frequent raids into Russian lands were a constant irritant and resulted in the enslavement of many of the Tsar's subjects, who were sold on the Kazakh steppe. Eastern Destiny: Russia in Asia and the North Pacific By G. Patrick March 1736, urged on by Kirilov, the Kazakhs of the Lesser and Middle Hordes launched raids into Bashkir lands, killing or capturing many Bashkirs in the Siberian and Nogay districts. Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making Of A Colonial Empire, 1500-1800 By Michael Khodarkovsky 1743, an order was given by the senate in response to the failure to defend against the Kazakh attack on a Russian settlement, which resulted in 14 Russians killed, 24 wounded. In addition 96 Cossacks were captured by Kazakhs. Formation of a Borderland Culture: Myths and Realities of Cossack-Kazakh By Yuriy Anatolyevich Malikov 1755 Nepliev tried to enlist Kazakh support by ending the reprisal raids and promising that the Kazakhs could keep the Bashkir women and children, The Kazakhs By Martha Brill Olcott and organized the massacre of 10,000 Bashkirs by the Kazakhs during the Bashkir rising. Studies in History, Volume 4 In the period between 1764 and 1803, according to data collected by the Orenburg Commission, twenty Russian caravans were attacked and plundered. Kazakh raiders attacked even big caravans which were accompanied by numerous guards. Formation of a Borderland Culture: Myths and Realities of Cossack-Kazakh spring 1774, the Russians demanded the Khan return 256 Russians captured by a recent Kazakh raid. Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making Of A Colonial Empire, 1500-1800 By Michael Khodarkovsky summer 1774, when Russian troops in the Kazan region were suppressing the rebellion (Pugachev's Rebellion) led by the Cossack leader Pugachev, the Kazakhs launched more than 240 raids and captured many Russians and herds along the border of Orenburg. Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making Of A Colonial Empire, 1500-1800 By Michael Khodarkovsky P. Kaiser wrote, " Kazakhs Kazakh -Kirghiz tribesmen kidnapped 1573 German settlers in Russia. In 1774 alone and only half were successfully ransomed. The rest were killed or enslaved. " Political struggles and the shift in overland trade in favor of maritime routes soon led to the town's decline, before it finally passed on to the Russian Empire in 1864. In 1680 the Black Kyrgyz raided Moghulistan and occupied Yarkend (Yarkent County). The inhabitants of Yarkend appealed to Galdan Khan for help. The Zunghars conquered Kashgar and Yarkend; and Galdan had its ruler chosen by its inhabitants. Valikhanov, Ch. Ch. - The Russians in Central Asia, p.169 Then he invaded the north of Tengeri Mountain in modern Kazakhstan the next year; he defeated Tauke Khan's (Tauke Khan) Kazakhs (Kazakh Khanate) but failed to take Sayram (Sayram (city)). He conquered Turfan and Hami (Hami City) the next year. Baabar, Christopher Kaplonski, D. Suhjargalmaa - Twentieth century Mongolia, p.80 In 1683 Galdan's armies under Tsewen Rabtan reached Tashkent and the Syr Darya and crushed two armies of the Kazakhs. After that Galdan subjugated the Black Khirgizs and ravaged the Fergana valley. From 1685 Galdan's forces aggressively pushed the Kazakhs. While his general Rabtan took Taraz, and his main force forced the Kazakhs to migrate westwards. Michael Khodarkovsky - Where Two Worlds Met: The Russian State and the Kalmyk Nomads, 1600-1771, p.211


frequent

that existed in 1456–1847, located roughly on the territory of present-day Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan). At its height the khanate ruled from eastern Cumania (modern-day West Kazakhstan) to most of Uzbekistan, Karakalpakstan and the Syr Darya river with military confrontation as far as Astrakhan and Khorasan Province, which is now in Iran. Slaves were also captured by frequent Kazakh raids on territory belonging to Russia, Eastern Destiny: Russia

in Asia and the North Pacific By G. Patrick Marchfrequent+raids+into&hl en&sa X&ei OdnvUPCbDIT4sgb-6ICADQ&ved 0CC4Q6AEwAA#v onepage&q Russian%20control.%20Their%20frequent%20raids%20into&f false Central Asia, and Western Siberia (Bashkortostan) during the Kazakh Khanate.

&ei -2fzUJacFsTMtAbssYBg&ved 0CC4Q6AEwAA The History of the Central Asian Republics By Peter Roudik In 1722, they stole cattle, robbed from Russian villages and people trapped in captivity and sold in the slave markets of Central Asia (in 1722 in Bukhara were over 5,000 Russian prisoners). In the middle of the 17th century, 500 Russians were annually sold to Khiva by Kazakhs. In 1730, the Kazakhs' frequent raids into Russian lands were a constant irritant and resulted


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in Asia and the North Pacific By G. Patrick MarchX&ei OdnvUPCbDIT4sgb-6ICADQ&ved 0CC4Q6AEwAA#v onepage&q Russian%20control.%20Their%20frequent%20raids%20into&f false Central Asia, and Western Siberia (Bashkortostan) during the Kazakh Khanate.

+raids+Bashkir+women&hl en&sa X&ei Ds3vUP_kDsyFtQa-uIC4BA&ved 0CDEQ6AEwAA#v onepage&q Kazakh%20raids%20Bashkir%20women&f false The Kazakhs By Martha Brill Olcott X&ei TNLvUKbeNIiHswaZ_YDIDg&ved 0CDgQ6AEwAQ Studies in History, Volume 4 Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making Of A Colonial Empire

, 1500-1800 By Michael KhodarkovskyX&ei Ds3vUP_kDsyFtQa-uIC4BA&ved 0CDEQ6AEwAA#v onepage&q Kazakh%20raids%20Bashkir%20women&f false The Khanate was later weakened by a series of Kalmyk (Kalmyk people) Oirat invasions, devastating raids and warfare, and gradually lost control and autonomy to the Russian Empire. From the sixteenth through the early


century construction

name geopolitical including the 19th-century construction of defensive walls around the unfinished mausoleum, which became an important landmark and pilgrimage center of the town. In the succeeding centuries, Turkestan and its historic monuments became connected with the idea of the Kazakh state system.


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in Asia and the North Pacific By G. Patrick MarchX&ei OdnvUPCbDIT4sgb-6ICADQ&ved 0CC4Q6AEwAA#v onepage&q Russian%20control.%20Their%20frequent%20raids%20into&f false Central Asia, and Western Siberia (Bashkortostan) during the Kazakh Khanate.

+raids+Bashkir+women&hl en&sa X&ei Ds3vUP_kDsyFtQa-uIC4BA&ved 0CDEQ6AEwAA#v onepage&q Kazakh%20raids%20Bashkir%20women&f false The Kazakhs By Martha Brill Olcott X&ei TNLvUKbeNIiHswaZ_YDIDg&ved 0CDgQ6AEwAQ Studies in History, Volume 4 Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making Of A Colonial Empire

, 1500-1800 By Michael KhodarkovskyX&ei Ds3vUP_kDsyFtQa-uIC4BA&ved 0CDEQ6AEwAA#v onepage&q Kazakh%20raids%20Bashkir%20women&f false The Khanate was later weakened by a series of Kalmyk (Kalmyk people) Oirat invasions, devastating raids and warfare, and gradually lost control and autonomy to the Russian Empire. From the sixteenth through the early


century green

by the three Kazakh jüzes in the early 20th century. Green represents the Little jüz, orange represents the Middle jüz and red represents the Great jüz. In 1717, 3,000 Russian slaves, men, women, and children, were sold in Khiva by Kazakh and Kyrgyz tribesmen. The History of the Central Asian Republics By Peter Roudik In 1722, they stole cattle, robbed from Russian villages and people trapped in captivity and sold in the slave markets of Central Asia (in 1722 in Bukhara were over 5,000 Russian prisoners). In the middle of the 17th century, 500 Russians were annually sold to Khiva by Kazakhs. In 1730, the Kazakhs' frequent raids into Russian lands were a constant irritant and resulted in the enslavement of many of the Tsar's subjects, who were sold on the Kazakh steppe. Eastern Destiny: Russia in Asia and the North Pacific By G. Patrick March 1736, urged on by Kirilov, the Kazakhs of the Lesser and Middle Hordes launched raids into Bashkir lands, killing or capturing many Bashkirs in the Siberian and Nogay districts. Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making Of A Colonial Empire, 1500-1800 By Michael Khodarkovsky 1743, an order was given by the senate in response to the failure to defend against the Kazakh attack on a Russian settlement, which resulted in 14 Russians killed, 24 wounded. In addition 96 Cossacks were captured by Kazakhs. Formation of a Borderland Culture: Myths and Realities of Cossack-Kazakh By Yuriy Anatolyevich Malikov 1755 Nepliev tried to enlist Kazakh support by ending the reprisal raids and promising that the Kazakhs could keep the Bashkir women and children, The Kazakhs By Martha Brill Olcott and organized the massacre of 10,000 Bashkirs by the Kazakhs during the Bashkir rising. Studies in History, Volume 4 In the period between 1764 and 1803, according to data collected by the Orenburg Commission, twenty Russian caravans were attacked and plundered. Kazakh raiders attacked even big caravans which were accompanied by numerous guards. Formation of a Borderland Culture: Myths and Realities of Cossack-Kazakh spring 1774, the Russians demanded the Khan return 256 Russians captured by a recent Kazakh raid. Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making Of A Colonial Empire, 1500-1800 By Michael Khodarkovsky summer 1774, when Russian troops in the Kazan region were suppressing the rebellion (Pugachev's Rebellion) led by the Cossack leader Pugachev, the Kazakhs launched more than 240 raids and captured many Russians and herds along the border of Orenburg. Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making Of A Colonial Empire, 1500-1800 By Michael Khodarkovsky P. Kaiser wrote, " Kazakhs Kazakh -Kirghiz tribesmen kidnapped 1573 German settlers in Russia. In 1774 alone and only half were successfully ransomed. The rest were killed or enslaved. " Political struggles and the shift in overland trade in favor of maritime routes soon led to the town's decline, before it finally passed on to the Russian Empire in 1864. In 1680 the Black Kyrgyz raided Moghulistan and occupied Yarkend (Yarkent County). The inhabitants of Yarkend appealed to Galdan Khan for help. The Zunghars conquered Kashgar and Yarkend; and Galdan had its ruler chosen by its inhabitants. Valikhanov, Ch. Ch. - The Russians in Central Asia, p.169 Then he invaded the north of Tengeri Mountain in modern Kazakhstan the next year; he defeated Tauke Khan's (Tauke Khan) Kazakhs (Kazakh Khanate) but failed to take Sayram (Sayram (city)). He conquered Turfan and Hami (Hami City) the next year. Baabar, Christopher Kaplonski, D. Suhjargalmaa - Twentieth century Mongolia, p.80 In 1683 Galdan's armies under Tsewen Rabtan reached Tashkent and the Syr Darya and crushed two armies of the Kazakhs. After that Galdan subjugated the Black Khirgizs and ravaged the Fergana valley. From 1685 Galdan's forces aggressively pushed the Kazakhs. While his general Rabtan took Taraz, and his main force forced the Kazakhs to migrate westwards. Michael Khodarkovsky - Where Two Worlds Met: The Russian State and the Kalmyk Nomads, 1600-1771, p.211


centuries multiple

-XVII centuries, multiple Russian settlements and military posts appeared on the borders of Kazakh Khanate. Some tensions and conflicts between Russian settlers and Kazakh nomads were recorded. The raids by Kazakhs were sited as big irritating factor by imperial policy makers. Despite legal serfdom in Russia until mid-19th century, enslavement cases of Russian settlers by Kazakh raiders were sited as a big concern and cited as one of the factors in further expansion of Russian Empire


quot bright

Haidar Dughlat later wrote in his ''Tarikh-i-Rashidi'', "Kasym Khan now brought the Dasht-i-Kipchak under his absolute control, in a manner that no one, with the exception of Jochi, had ever done before. His army exceeded a thousand thousand". Kasym Khan instituted the first Kazakh code of laws in 1520, called "Қасым ханның қасқа жолы" (transliterated, "Qasım xannıñ qazqa jolı" — "Bright Road of Kasym Khan"). Kasym Khan also ratified his alliance with the Timurid (Timurid dynasty) leader Babur, particularly after the fall of the Shaybanids, and was thus praised by the Mughals (Mughal Empire) and the populace of Samarqand. Mumash Khan (1518–1523) Manṣūr Khān led an expedition against the Kazakhs in 1522 in response to their raids from Sayram (Sayram (city)) into the Farghana (Fergana Valley). Tārīkh-i Rashīdī, tr. Elias and Ross, 79, 358 Thereafter, Sayram remained out of the hands of the Uzbeks and came under the control of the Khazakhs. Tahir Khan (1523–1529) Buidash Khan (1529–1533) Togym Khan (1533–1538) Khak-Nazar Khan (1537–1580) Under Khak-Nazar Khan, also known as Haq-Nazar Khan http: www.britannica.com EBchecked topic 254780 Haqq-Nazar or Ak Nazar Khan, A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia: The Tarikh-i-Rashidi the Kazakh Khanate faced competition from several directions: the Nogai Horde in the west, the Khanate of Sibir in the north, Moghulistan in the east and the Khanate of Bukhara in the south. Initially, Khak-Nazar Khan led the Kazakhs in two major battles against Khanate of Bukhara at Tashkent, then against the Chagatai (Chagatai khans) leader Abdur-Rashid Khan (Abdurashid Khan). In 1568, the Kazakhs successfully defeated the Nogai Horde at the Emba River and reached Astrakhan, but were repelled by Russian (Tsardom of Russia) forces. http: www.britannica.com EBchecked topic 254780 Haqq-Nazar A History of the Moghuls of Central Asi: The Tarikh-i-Rashidi By Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlt, N. Elias, Sir E Denison Ross page 121 http: books.google.com.pk books?id 1pkeWqq7pdgC&pg PA121&dq sultan+Abdul+rashid+khan&hl en&sa X&ei poyNUMidMZKZhQen54DoCA&redir_esc y#v onepage&q Ak%20nazar%20khan&f false Shygai Khan (1580–1582) Tauekel Khan (1582–1598) Tauekel Khan expanded the control of the Kazakh Khanate over Tashkent, Fergana, Andijan and Samarkand. In 1598, Kazakh forces approached Bukhara and besieged it for 12 days, but afterwards the Bukharan leader Pir-Muhammad and reinforcements under the command of his brother Baki-Muhammad pushed back the Kazakhs. In that battle, Tauekel Khan was wounded, and died during the retreat back to Tashkent. Esim Khan (1598–1628) After the death of Tauekel Khan came Esim Sultan, son of Sheehan Khan. His reign was the time of the next (third) strengthening of the Kazakh Khanate after Kasim Khan and Khak-Nazar Khan. Esim Khan moved the capital of the khanate to Sygnak in Turkestan and suppressed the revolts of Karakalpaks. There followed a 15-year period of calm between the Kazakh Khanate and the Khanate of Bukhara. Esim Khan established peace with the Khanate of Bukhara and returned to them control of Samarkand. However, Bukhara was still bitter about the loss of Tashkent, and that led to additional conflicts. Starting in 1607, the Khanate of Bukhara engaged in several battles and eventually obtained control of Tashkent. Esim Khan united the Kazakh army and began a campaign against the Tashkent Khan Tursun Muhammad and Khan of Bukhara. In 1627, he defeated the enemy. Esim Khan abolished the Tashkent Khanate and the war finally ended. Salqam-Jangir Khan (1629–1680) During Salqam-Jangir Khan's reign, a new and powerful rival for the Kazakhs appeared in the east, known as the Zunghar Khanate (Zunghars). The Zunghar had recently converted to Mahayana Buddhism and their Erdeni Batur believed he could reestablish the 13th-century empire of Genghis Khan. However, much had changed since the days of the Mongol Empire and the Kazakh (Kazakhs)s, like the Kirghiz (Kyrgyz people) and the Tatars, had almost entirely converted to Islam under the authority of Emir Timur, who also reestablished new centers of power such as Samarqand and Bukhara, which had greatly influenced the founding of the Kazakh Khanate. In 1652, the Zunghar leader Erdeni Batur attempted to eliminate the Kazakh Khanate and its inhabitants; he dispatched more than 50,000 Zunghar warriors against the Kazakh Khanate, which refused to submit to him. The early stages of their ferocious conflict took place in the Altai Mountains and later battles were fought on the vast steppes. Unable to halt the advance of the Zunghars, the Kazakh Ghazis (Ghazi warriors) and their leader Salqam-Jangir Khan's forces were defeated. Unfortunately in the year 1680, Salqam-Jangir Khan died in a battle, protecting his people against the Zunghars. Tauke Khan (1680–1718) Tauke Khan was elected as the leader of the Kazakh Khanate, immediately after the death of Salqam-Jangir Khan, and he led the battered Kazakh (Kazakhs) warriors across the steppes to resist the advance of the Zunghars. Unfortunately the already weakened Kazakhs were once again faced with defeat at Sayram (Sayram (city)) and soon lost many major cities to the Zunghars. Tauke Khan soon sought alliances with the Kirghiz (Kyrgyz people) in the south-east who were also facing a Zunghar invasion in their Issyk-Kul Lake region and even the Uyghurs (Uyghur people) of the Tarim Basin. In 1687, Zunghars besieged Hazrat-e Turkestan and were forced to retreat after the arrival led by Subhan Quli Khan. In 1697, Tsewang Rabtan became the leader of the Zunghar Khanate, and he dispatched several of his commanders to subjugate Tauke Khan and many major wars between the Zunghars and the Kazakh Khanate continued into the following years: 1709, 1711—1712, 1714 and 1718. The Kazakh Khanate had indeed been weakened by the confrontation and nearly one-third of their population had been lost by the ensuing conflict. With Tauke Khan's death in 1718, the Kazakh Khanate splintered into three ''Jüz'' — the Great jüz, the Middle jüz and the Little jüz. Each Jüz had its own Khan (Khan (title)) from this time onward. Tauke Khan is also known for refining the Kazakh code of laws, and reissuing it under the title "Жеті Жарғы" (transliterated, "Jeti Jarği"—"Seven Charters"). Ablai Khan (1771–1781) Ablai Khan was a khan of the Middle jüz or Horde who managed to extend his control over the other two jüzes to include all of the Kazakhs. Before he became khan, Ablai participated in the wars against the Zunghars and proved himself a talented organizer and commander. He led numerous campaigns against Kokand Khanate and the Kyrgyz. In the last campaign his troops liberated many cities in Southern Kazakhstan and even captured Tashkent. During his actual reign, Ablai Khan did his best to keep Kazakhstan as independent as possible from the encroaching Russian Empire and the Chinese Qing dynasty. He employed s multi-vector foreign policy to protect the tribes from Chinese, Tatar and Dzungar (Dzungar people) aggressors. He also sheltered the Dzungar Oirat (Oirats) ''taishas'' Amursana and Dawachi from attacks by the Khoshut-Orait King of Tibet, Lha-bzang Khan, as the Dzungar Khanate fractured following the death of Galdan Tseren in 1745. However, once Amursana and Dawachi were no longer allies, Ablai Khan took the opportunity to capture herds and territory from the Dzungars. Political struggles and the shift in overland trade in favor of maritime routes soon led to the town's decline, before it finally passed on to the Russian Empire in 1864. In 1680 the Black Kyrgyz raided Moghulistan and occupied Yarkend (Yarkent County). The inhabitants of Yarkend appealed to Galdan Khan for help. The Zunghars conquered Kashgar and Yarkend; and Galdan had its ruler chosen by its inhabitants. Valikhanov, Ch. Ch. - The Russians in Central Asia, p.169 Then he invaded the north of Tengeri Mountain in modern Kazakhstan the next year; he defeated Tauke Khan's (Tauke Khan) Kazakhs (Kazakh Khanate) but failed to take Sayram (Sayram (city)). He conquered Turfan and Hami (Hami City) the next year. Baabar, Christopher Kaplonski, D. Suhjargalmaa - Twentieth century Mongolia, p.80 In 1683 Galdan's armies under Tsewen Rabtan reached Tashkent and the Syr Darya and crushed two armies of the Kazakhs. After that Galdan subjugated the Black Khirgizs and ravaged the Fergana valley. From 1685 Galdan's forces aggressively pushed the Kazakhs. While his general Rabtan took Taraz, and his main force forced the Kazakhs to migrate westwards. Michael Khodarkovsky - Where Two Worlds Met: The Russian State and the Kalmyk Nomads, 1600-1771, p.211

Kazakh Khanate

thumb 200px Postage stamp Stamp (Image:Abulkhair khan.jpg) of Kazakhstan devoted to Abul Khair Khan.

'''Kazakh Khanate''' ( ) was a Kazakh (Kazakhs) state (Sovereign state) that existed in 1456–1847, located roughly on the territory of present-day Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan). At its height the khanate ruled from eastern Cumania (modern-day West Kazakhstan) to most of Uzbekistan, Karakalpakstan and the Syr Darya river with military confrontation as far as Astrakhan and Khorasan Province, which is now in Iran. Slaves were also captured by frequent Kazakh raids on territory belonging to Russia, Eastern Destiny: Russia in Asia and the North Pacific By G. Patrick March Central Asia , and Western Siberia (Bashkortostan) during the Kazakh Khanate. The Kazakhs By Martha Brill Olcott Studies in History, Volume 4 Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making Of A Colonial Empire, 1500-1800 By Michael Khodarkovsky The Khanate was later weakened by a series of Kalmyk people Kalmyk Oirat invasions, devastating raids and warfare, and gradually lost control and autonomy to the Russian Empire.

From the sixteenth through the early nineteenth century, the most powerful nomadic peoples were the Kazakhs and the Oirats. Middle East, western Asia, and northern Africa. By Ali Aldosari

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