Karasahr

What is Karasahr known for?


works drawing

expeditione apud Sinas ), or later works drawing on those (e.g., the ''Dictionary of Ming biography'') usually go for "Cialis", but some maps use a more anglicized form, "Chialis". -in the early 17th century, when the Portuguese Jesuit Lay Brother Bento de Góis visited it on his way from India to China (via Kabul and Kashgar). De Góis and his traveling companions spent several months in the "Kingdom of Cialis", while crossing


414

); and *'''Tocharian B''' (Kuchean or West Tocharian) of Kucha and Tocharian A sites. During the turbulent reign of Wang Mang, Han lost control over the Tarim Basin, which was conquered by the Northern Xiongnu in 63 CE and used as a base to invade Han's Hexi Corridor in Gansu. Yü (1986), 413–414. Dou Gu (d. 88 CE) defeated the Northern Xiongnu at the Battle of Yiwulu in 73 CE, evicting them from Turpan and chasing them as far as Barkol Kazakh Autonomous

County Lake Barkol before establishing a garrison at Hami (Hami Prefecture). Yü (1986), 414–415. After the new Protector General of the Western Regions Chen Mu (d. 75 CE) was killed by allies of the Xiongnu in Karasahr and Kucha, the garrison at Hami was withdrawn. Yü (1986), 414–415; de Crespigny (2007), 73. At the Battle of Ikh Bayan in 89 CE, Dou Xian (d. 92 CE) defeated the Northern Chanyu (1st century

) Northern Xiongnu chanyu who then retreated into the Altai Mountains. Yü (1986), 414–415; de Crespigny (2007), 171. After the Northern Xiongnu fled into the Ili River valley in 91 CE, the nomadic Xianbei occupied the area from the borders of the Buyeo Kingdom in Manchuria to the Ili River of the Wusun people. Yü (1986), 405, 443–444. The Xianbei reached their apogee under Tanshihuai (檀石槐) (d. 180 CE), who consistently defeated


detailed

''. Penguin Viking, New Delhi. ISBN 0-670-05823-8. * Stein, Aurel M. 1912. ''Ruins of Desert Cathay: Personal narrative of explorations in Central Asia and westernmost China'', 2 vols. Reprint: Delhi. Low Price Publications. 1990. * Stein, Aurel M. 1921. ''Serindia: Detailed report of explorations in Central Asia and westernmost China'', 5 vols. London & Oxford. Clarendon Press. Reprint: Delhi. Motilal Banarsidass. 1980. * Stein Aurel M. 1928. ''Innermost Asia

: Detailed report of explorations in Central Asia, Kan-su and Eastern Iran'', 5 vols. Clarendon Press. Reprint: New Delhi. Cosmo Publications. 1981. *Yu, Taishan. 2004. ''A History of the Relationships between the Western and Eastern Han, Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Western Regions''. Sino-Platonic Papers No. 131 March, 2004. Dept. of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Pennsylvania. External links * Silk Road


made quot

- the first Ming China (Ming Dynasty) city he reached - while waiting for an entry permit to proceed toward Beijing; but, in the words of Henry Yule, it was his expedition that made "''Cathay''... finally disappear from view, leaving ''China'' only in the mouths and minds of men". Henry Yule (1866), p. 530. To resolve the China-Cathay controversy, the India Jesuits sent a Portuguese lay brother, Bento de Góis on an overland expedition north

Beijing inn with Portuguese Jesuits. (In fact, those were the same very "Saracens" who had, a few months earlier, confirmed it to Ricci that they were in "Cathay"). De Góis died in Suzhou, Gansu (Suzhou District) - the first Ming China (Ming Dynasty) city he reached - while waiting for an entry permit to proceed toward Beijing; but, in the words of Henry Yule, it was his expedition that made "''Cathay''... finally disappear from view, leaving ''China'' only


444

) Northern Xiongnu chanyu who then retreated into the Altai Mountains. Yü (1986), 414–415; de Crespigny (2007), 171. After the Northern Xiongnu fled into the Ili River valley in 91 CE, the nomadic Xianbei occupied the area from the borders of the Buyeo Kingdom in Manchuria to the Ili River of the Wusun people. Yü (1986), 405, 443–444. The Xianbei reached their apogee under Tanshihuai (檀石槐) (d. 180 CE), who consistently defeated

Chinese armies. However, Tanshihuai's confederation disintegrated after his death. Yü (1986), 444–446. To resolve the China-Cathay controversy, the India Jesuits sent a Portuguese lay brother, Bento de Góis on an overland expedition north and east, with the goal of reaching Cathay and finding out once and for all whether it is China or some other country. Góis spent almost three years (1603–1605) crossing Afghanistan, Badakhshan, Kashgaria, and Kingdom


SuZhou

, the Turkic word for fire. The city had possibly once been called Yanghi-shaher or Fire City. Xuanzang, a stickler for precision and partial to India, had used the Sanskrit word for fire, agni, and transliterated this into Chinese, yielding 'O-ki-ni." Saran (2005), p. 61. thumb This 17th-century map shows Cialis (Karashar) as of one the cities in the chain stretching from Yarkant County Hiarcan (File:CEM-36-NW-corner.jpg) to Suzhou District Sucieu

of Cialis (Karasahr) with Muslim trade caravans (camel train). In 1605, in Cialis (Karasahr), he, too, became convinced that his destination ''is'' China, as he met the members of a caravan returning from Beijing to Kashgar, who told them about staying in the same Beijing inn with Portuguese Jesuits. (In fact, those were the same very "Saracens" who had, a few months earlier, confirmed it to Ricci that they were in "Cathay"). De Góis died in Suzhou District Suzhou, Gansu

Beijing inn with Portuguese Jesuits. (In fact, those were the same very "Saracens" who had, a few months earlier, confirmed it to Ricci that they were in "Cathay"). De Góis died in Suzhou, Gansu (Suzhou District) - the first Ming China (Ming Dynasty) city he reached - while waiting for an entry permit to proceed toward Beijing; but, in the words of Henry Yule, it was his expedition that made "''Cathay''... finally disappear from view, leaving ''China'' only


historical works

Seattle - University of Washington (The Silk Road Seattle website contains many useful resources including a number of full-text historical works, maps, photos, etc.) *Baidu Baike Encyclopedia Category:Central Asian Buddhist kingdoms Category:Central Asian Buddhist sites Category:Populated places along the Silk Road Category:Populated


74

, chasing them as far as Lake Barkol (Barkol Kazakh Autonomous County) before establishing a garrison at Hami (Hami Prefecture). Yü (1986), 414–415. In 74 AD, the king of Jushi (Gushi culture) submitted to the Han forces under General Dou Gu as the Xiongnu were unable to engage the Han forces. Whiting (2002), 195. Meanwhile (74 AD), General Ban Chao captured King Douti of Kashgar (Shule 疏勒), who was a puppet

of Kucha (Qiuci 龜玆) and a resolute ally of the Xiongnu. Whiting (2002), 195. Later that year (74 AD), the kingdoms of Karasahr (Yanqi 焉耆) and Kucha were forced to surrender to the Han empire. Although Dou Gu was able to evict the Xiongnu from Turpan in 74 AD, the Northern Xiongnu soon invaded the Bogda Mountains (Bogda Shan) while their allies from Karasahr and Kucha killed the Protectorate of the Western Regions

County Lake Barkol before establishing a garrison at Hami (Hami Prefecture). Yü (1986), 414–415. In 74 AD, the king of Jushi (Gushi culture) submitted to the Han forces under General Dou Gu as the Xiongnu were unable to engage the Han forces. Whiting (2002), 195. Meanwhile (74 AD), General Ban Chao captured King Douti of Kashgar (Shule 疏勒), who was a puppet of Kucha (Qiuci 龜玆) and a resolute ally of the Xiongnu


hard life

about Kara-shahr and live a hard life with their herds ... :Just as these Mongols wander about here at the present day, so the nomadic tribes of an earlier period must have used this district as their entrance and exit gate. The Tochari (Yue-chi) Pinyin: Yuezhi , on their way from China, undoubtedly at that time passed through this gate to get into the Ili valley ..." ''Buried Treasures of Chinese Turkestan: An Account of the Activities and Adventures of the Second and Third German Turfan Expeditions''. Albert von Le Coq. Translated by Anna Barwell. London George Allen & Unwin Ltd. 1928. Reprint: Oxford University Press, 1985. Pages 145-146. Descriptions in historical accounts thumb 300px Tarim Basin in the 3rd century (Image:Tarimbecken 3. Jahrhundert.png) According to the ''Book of the Later Han'': thumb The chain of cities along the northern route along the Taklamakan, probably based on Bento de Góis (File:CEM-36-NW-corner.jpg)'s itinerary, from Hiarcan (Yarkant County) (Yarkand) to Cialis (Karasahr) (Karasahr or Korla) to Sucieu (Suzhou District) (Suzhou, Gansu) Since 73 AD, General Ban Chao had led several Han military campaigns into the Tarim Basin. It resulted in the retreat of the Northern Xiongnu to Dzungaria, while Ban Chao threatened and brought the city-states at the Tarim Basin to submission under the Han empire once again. Millward (2006), 23–24. General Dou Gu defeated the Northern Xiongnu at the Battle of Yiwulu in 73 AD, chasing them as far as Lake Barkol (Barkol Kazakh Autonomous County) before establishing a garrison at Hami (Hami Prefecture). Yü (1986), 414–415. In 74 AD, the king of Jushi (Gushi culture) submitted to the Han forces under General Dou Gu as the Xiongnu were unable to engage the Han forces. Whiting (2002), 195. Meanwhile (74 AD), General Ban Chao captured King Douti of Kashgar (Shule 疏勒), who was a puppet of Kucha (Qiuci 龜玆) and a resolute ally of the Xiongnu. Whiting (2002), 195. Later that year (74 AD), the kingdoms of Karasahr (Yanqi 焉耆) and Kucha were forced to surrender to the Han empire. Although Dou Gu was able to evict the Xiongnu from Turpan in 74 AD, the Northern Xiongnu soon invaded the Bogda Mountains (Bogda Shan) while their allies from Karasahr and Kucha killed the Protector General (Protectorate of the Western Regions) Chen Mu and his men. Crespigny (2007), 73. As a result, the Han garrison at Hami was forced to withdraw in 77 AD, which was not reestablished until 91 AD. Yü (1986), 415 & 420; Crespigny (2007), 73. From 78 AD onwards, General Ban Chao used the troops of the surrendered western states and launched several expeditions against the Xiongnu. Since 73 AD, General Ban Chao had led several Han military campaigns into the Tarim Basin. It resulted in the retreat of the Northern Xiongnu to Dzungaria, while Ban Chao threatened and brought the city-states at the Tarim Basin to submission under the Han empire once again. Millward (2006), 23–24. General Dou Gu defeated the Northern Xiongnu at the Battle of Yiwulu in 73 AD, chasing them as far as Lake Barkol (Barkol Kazakh Autonomous County) before establishing a garrison at Hami (Hami Prefecture). Yü (1986), 414–415. In 74 AD, the king of Jushi (Gushi culture) submitted to the Han forces under General Dou Gu as the Xiongnu were unable to engage the Han forces. Whiting (2002), 195. Meanwhile (74 AD), General Ban Chao captured King Douti of Kashgar (Shule 疏勒), who was a puppet of Kucha (Qiuci 龜玆) and a resolute ally of the Xiongnu. Whiting (2002), 195. Later that year (74 AD), the kingdoms of Karasahr (Yanqi 焉耆) and Kucha were forced to surrender to the Han empire. Although Dou Gu was able to evict the Xiongnu from Turpan in 74 AD, the Northern Xiongnu soon invaded the Bogda Mountains (Bogda Shan) while their allies from Karasahr and Kucha killed the Protector General (Protectorate of the Western Regions) Chen Mu and his men. Crespigny (2007), 73. As a result, the Han garrison at Hami was forced to withdraw in 77 AD, which was not reestablished until 91 AD. Yü (1986), 415 & 420; Crespigny (2007), 73. From 78 AD onwards, General Ban Chao used the troops of the surrendered western states and launched several expeditions against the Xiongnu.


abundance

. Geography The modern town of Yanqi is situated about , making it one of the largest lakes in Xinjiang. It has been noted since Han times for its abundance of fish. The lake is fed by the Kaidu River and the Konqi River See Note in Korla for naming ambiguity flows out of it past

grape wine, and also to love music. It is some ten ''li'' north of a body of water, and has an abundance of fish, salt, and rushes. In the fourth year of the period Pao-ting, its king sent an envoy to present its renowned horses. ''Zhoushu'', translation by Roy Andrew Miller.

Karasahr

'''Yanqi''' ( growing to 31,773 persons in 2006; 16,032 persons of which were Han (Han Chinese), 7781 people Hui (Hui people), 7154 people Uygur (Uyghur people), 628 Mongol, and 178 other ethnicities and an agricultural population of 1078 people.

The town is well connected, being located on the Kaidu River (known in ancient times as the Liusha), China National Highway 314 and the Southern Xinjiang Railway, and is an important material distribution center and regional business hub. The town administers ten communities.

The town has a notable Islamic population and contains the Yanqi Mosque.

The Buddhist Sanskrit name for the town was 'Agni' or 'Fire.' "Yanqi, it seemed, was the local derivation of yanghi, the Turkic word for fire. The city had possibly once been called Yanghi-shaher or Fire City. Xuanzang, a stickler for precision and partial to India, had used the Sanskrit word for fire, agni, and transliterated this into Chinese, yielding 'O-ki-ni." Saran (2005), p. 61.

thumb This 17th-century map shows Cialis (Karashar) as of one the cities in the chain stretching from Yarkant County Hiarcan (File:CEM-36-NW-corner.jpg) to Sucieu (Suzhou District) .

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