Karasahr

What is Karasahr known for?


early stage

Yanqi, were controlled by the nomadic Xiongnu, but later came under the influence of the Han dynasty after its show of force when it attacked Dayuan (Fergana) in the late 2nd century BC.

''. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1. *Hulsewé, A. F. P. and Loewe, M. A. N. 1979. ''China in Central Asia: The Early Stage 125 BC – AD 23: an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty''. E. J. Brill, Leiden. *Puri, B. N. ''Buddhism in Central Asia'', Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited, Delhi, 1987. (2000 reprint). *Saran, Mishi (2005). ''Chasing the Monk’s Shadow: A Journey in the Footsteps of Xuanzang


written characters

%E5%91%A8%E6%9B%B8 %E5%8D%B750 Zhoushu thumb The chain of cities along the northern route along the Taklamakan, probably based on Bento de Góis (File:CEM-36-NW-corner.jpg)'s itinerary, from Hiarcan (Yarkant County) (Yarkand) to Cialis (Karasahr) (Karasahr or Korla) to Sucieu (Suzhou District) (Suzhou, Gansu) Since 73 AD, General Ban Chao had led several Han military campaigns into the Tarim Basin. It resulted in the retreat of the Northern Xiongnu to Dzungaria, while Ban Chao threatened and brought the city-states at the Tarim Basin to submission under the Han empire once again. Millward (2006), 23–24. General Dou Gu defeated the Northern Xiongnu at the Battle of Yiwulu in 73 AD, chasing them as far as Lake Barkol (Barkol Kazakh Autonomous County) before establishing a garrison at Hami (Hami Prefecture). Yü (1986), 414–415. In 74 AD, the king of Jushi (Gushi culture) submitted to the Han forces under General Dou Gu as the Xiongnu were unable to engage the Han forces. Whiting (2002), 195. Meanwhile (74 AD), General Ban Chao captured King Douti of Kashgar (Shule 疏勒), who was a puppet of Kucha (Qiuci 龜玆) and a resolute ally of the Xiongnu. Whiting (2002), 195. Later that year (74 AD), the kingdoms of Karasahr (Yanqi 焉耆) and Kucha were forced to surrender to the Han empire. Although Dou Gu was able to evict the Xiongnu from Turpan in 74 AD, the Northern Xiongnu soon invaded the Bogda Mountains (Bogda Shan) while their allies from Karasahr and Kucha killed the Protector General (Protectorate of the Western Regions) Chen Mu and his men. Crespigny (2007), 73. As a result, the Han garrison at Hami was forced to withdraw in 77 AD, which was not reestablished until 91 AD. Yü (1986), 415 & 420; Crespigny (2007), 73. From 78 AD onwards, General Ban Chao used the troops of the surrendered western states and launched several expeditions against the Xiongnu. Since 73 AD, General Ban Chao had led several Han military campaigns into the Tarim Basin. It resulted in the retreat of the Northern Xiongnu to Dzungaria, while Ban Chao threatened and brought the city-states at the Tarim Basin to submission under the Han empire once again. Millward (2006), 23–24. General Dou Gu defeated the Northern Xiongnu at the Battle of Yiwulu in 73 AD, chasing them as far as Lake Barkol (Barkol Kazakh Autonomous County) before establishing a garrison at Hami (Hami Prefecture). Yü (1986), 414–415. In 74 AD, the king of Jushi (Gushi culture) submitted to the Han forces under General Dou Gu as the Xiongnu were unable to engage the Han forces. Whiting (2002), 195. Meanwhile (74 AD), General Ban Chao captured King Douti of Kashgar (Shule 疏勒), who was a puppet of Kucha (Qiuci 龜玆) and a resolute ally of the Xiongnu. Whiting (2002), 195. Later that year (74 AD), the kingdoms of Karasahr (Yanqi 焉耆) and Kucha were forced to surrender to the Han empire. Although Dou Gu was able to evict the Xiongnu from Turpan in 74 AD, the Northern Xiongnu soon invaded the Bogda Mountains (Bogda Shan) while their allies from Karasahr and Kucha killed the Protector General (Protectorate of the Western Regions) Chen Mu and his men. Crespigny (2007), 73. As a result, the Han garrison at Hami was forced to withdraw in 77 AD, which was not reestablished until 91 AD. Yü (1986), 415 & 420; Crespigny (2007), 73. From 78 AD onwards, General Ban Chao used the troops of the surrendered western states and launched several expeditions against the Xiongnu.


74

, chasing them as far as Lake Barkol (Barkol Kazakh Autonomous County) before establishing a garrison at Hami (Hami Prefecture). Yü (1986), 414–415. In 74 AD, the king of Jushi (Gushi culture) submitted to the Han forces under General Dou Gu as the Xiongnu were unable to engage the Han forces. Whiting (2002), 195. Meanwhile (74 AD), General Ban Chao captured King Douti of Kashgar (Shule 疏勒), who was a puppet

of Kucha (Qiuci 龜玆) and a resolute ally of the Xiongnu. Whiting (2002), 195. Later that year (74 AD), the kingdoms of Karasahr (Yanqi 焉耆) and Kucha were forced to surrender to the Han empire. Although Dou Gu was able to evict the Xiongnu from Turpan in 74 AD, the Northern Xiongnu soon invaded the Bogda Mountains (Bogda Shan) while their allies from Karasahr and Kucha killed the Protectorate of the Western Regions

County Lake Barkol before establishing a garrison at Hami (Hami Prefecture). Yü (1986), 414–415. In 74 AD, the king of Jushi (Gushi culture) submitted to the Han forces under General Dou Gu as the Xiongnu were unable to engage the Han forces. Whiting (2002), 195. Meanwhile (74 AD), General Ban Chao captured King Douti of Kashgar (Shule 疏勒), who was a puppet of Kucha (Qiuci 龜玆) and a resolute ally of the Xiongnu


628

, in northwestern China. growing to 31,773 persons in 2006; 16,032 persons of which were Han (Han Chinese), 7781 people Hui (Hui people), 7154 people Uygur (Uyghur people), 628 Mongol, and 178 other ethnicities and an agricultural population of 1078 people. The town is well connected, being


444

) Northern Xiongnu chanyu who then retreated into the Altai Mountains. Yü (1986), 414–415; de Crespigny (2007), 171. After the Northern Xiongnu fled into the Ili River valley in 91 CE, the nomadic Xianbei occupied the area from the borders of the Buyeo Kingdom in Manchuria to the Ili River of the Wusun people. Yü (1986), 405, 443–444. The Xianbei reached their apogee under Tanshihuai (檀石槐) (d. 180 CE), who consistently defeated

Chinese armies. However, Tanshihuai's confederation disintegrated after his death. Yü (1986), 444–446. To resolve the China-Cathay controversy, the India Jesuits sent a Portuguese lay brother, Bento de Góis on an overland expedition north and east, with the goal of reaching Cathay and finding out once and for all whether it is China or some other country. Góis spent almost three years (1603–1605) crossing Afghanistan, Badakhshan, Kashgaria, and Kingdom


work de

. J. "China in the Sixteenth Century: The Journals of Mathew Ricci: 1583–1610". English translation by Louis J. Gallagher, S.J. (New York: Random House, Inc. 1953). This is an English translation of the Latin work, ''De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas'' based on Matteo Ricci's journals completed by Nicolas Trigault. Book Five, Chapter 12, "Cathay and China Proved to Be Identical", pp. 510-513. There is also


hard life

about Kara-shahr and live a hard life with their herds ... :Just as these Mongols wander about here at the present day, so the nomadic tribes of an earlier period must have used this district as their entrance and exit gate. The Tochari (Yue-chi) Pinyin: Yuezhi , on their way from China, undoubtedly at that time passed through this gate to get into the Ili valley ..." ''Buried Treasures of Chinese Turkestan: An Account of the Activities and Adventures of the Second and Third German Turfan Expeditions''. Albert von Le Coq. Translated by Anna Barwell. London George Allen & Unwin Ltd. 1928. Reprint: Oxford University Press, 1985. Pages 145-146. Descriptions in historical accounts thumb 300px Tarim Basin in the 3rd century (Image:Tarimbecken 3. Jahrhundert.png) According to the ''Book of the Later Han'': thumb The chain of cities along the northern route along the Taklamakan, probably based on Bento de Góis (File:CEM-36-NW-corner.jpg)'s itinerary, from Hiarcan (Yarkant County) (Yarkand) to Cialis (Karasahr) (Karasahr or Korla) to Sucieu (Suzhou District) (Suzhou, Gansu) Since 73 AD, General Ban Chao had led several Han military campaigns into the Tarim Basin. It resulted in the retreat of the Northern Xiongnu to Dzungaria, while Ban Chao threatened and brought the city-states at the Tarim Basin to submission under the Han empire once again. Millward (2006), 23–24. General Dou Gu defeated the Northern Xiongnu at the Battle of Yiwulu in 73 AD, chasing them as far as Lake Barkol (Barkol Kazakh Autonomous County) before establishing a garrison at Hami (Hami Prefecture). Yü (1986), 414–415. In 74 AD, the king of Jushi (Gushi culture) submitted to the Han forces under General Dou Gu as the Xiongnu were unable to engage the Han forces. Whiting (2002), 195. Meanwhile (74 AD), General Ban Chao captured King Douti of Kashgar (Shule 疏勒), who was a puppet of Kucha (Qiuci 龜玆) and a resolute ally of the Xiongnu. Whiting (2002), 195. Later that year (74 AD), the kingdoms of Karasahr (Yanqi 焉耆) and Kucha were forced to surrender to the Han empire. Although Dou Gu was able to evict the Xiongnu from Turpan in 74 AD, the Northern Xiongnu soon invaded the Bogda Mountains (Bogda Shan) while their allies from Karasahr and Kucha killed the Protector General (Protectorate of the Western Regions) Chen Mu and his men. Crespigny (2007), 73. As a result, the Han garrison at Hami was forced to withdraw in 77 AD, which was not reestablished until 91 AD. Yü (1986), 415 & 420; Crespigny (2007), 73. From 78 AD onwards, General Ban Chao used the troops of the surrendered western states and launched several expeditions against the Xiongnu. Since 73 AD, General Ban Chao had led several Han military campaigns into the Tarim Basin. It resulted in the retreat of the Northern Xiongnu to Dzungaria, while Ban Chao threatened and brought the city-states at the Tarim Basin to submission under the Han empire once again. Millward (2006), 23–24. General Dou Gu defeated the Northern Xiongnu at the Battle of Yiwulu in 73 AD, chasing them as far as Lake Barkol (Barkol Kazakh Autonomous County) before establishing a garrison at Hami (Hami Prefecture). Yü (1986), 414–415. In 74 AD, the king of Jushi (Gushi culture) submitted to the Han forces under General Dou Gu as the Xiongnu were unable to engage the Han forces. Whiting (2002), 195. Meanwhile (74 AD), General Ban Chao captured King Douti of Kashgar (Shule 疏勒), who was a puppet of Kucha (Qiuci 龜玆) and a resolute ally of the Xiongnu. Whiting (2002), 195. Later that year (74 AD), the kingdoms of Karasahr (Yanqi 焉耆) and Kucha were forced to surrender to the Han empire. Although Dou Gu was able to evict the Xiongnu from Turpan in 74 AD, the Northern Xiongnu soon invaded the Bogda Mountains (Bogda Shan) while their allies from Karasahr and Kucha killed the Protector General (Protectorate of the Western Regions) Chen Mu and his men. Crespigny (2007), 73. As a result, the Han garrison at Hami was forced to withdraw in 77 AD, which was not reestablished until 91 AD. Yü (1986), 415 & 420; Crespigny (2007), 73. From 78 AD onwards, General Ban Chao used the troops of the surrendered western states and launched several expeditions against the Xiongnu.


works drawing

expeditione apud Sinas ), or later works drawing on those (e.g., the ''Dictionary of Ming biography'') usually go for "Cialis", but some maps use a more anglicized form, "Chialis". -in the early 17th century, when the Portuguese Jesuit Lay Brother Bento de Góis visited it on his way from India to China (via Kabul and Kashgar). De Góis and his traveling companions spent several months in the "Kingdom of Cialis", while crossing


detailed

''. Penguin Viking, New Delhi. ISBN 0-670-05823-8. * Stein, Aurel M. 1912. ''Ruins of Desert Cathay: Personal narrative of explorations in Central Asia and westernmost China'', 2 vols. Reprint: Delhi. Low Price Publications. 1990. * Stein, Aurel M. 1921. ''Serindia: Detailed report of explorations in Central Asia and westernmost China'', 5 vols. London & Oxford. Clarendon Press. Reprint: Delhi. Motilal Banarsidass. 1980. * Stein Aurel M. 1928. ''Innermost Asia

: Detailed report of explorations in Central Asia, Kan-su and Eastern Iran'', 5 vols. Clarendon Press. Reprint: New Delhi. Cosmo Publications. 1981. *Yu, Taishan. 2004. ''A History of the Relationships between the Western and Eastern Han, Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Western Regions''. Sino-Platonic Papers No. 131 March, 2004. Dept. of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Pennsylvania. External links * Silk Road


420

Protector General Chen Mu and his men. Crespigny (2007), 73. As a result, the Han garrison at Hami was forced to withdraw in 77 AD, which was not reestablished until 91 AD. Yü (1986), 415 & 420; Crespigny (2007), 73. From 78 AD onwards, General Ban Chao used the troops of the surrendered western states and launched several expeditions against the Xiongnu. Since 73 AD

"de crespigny 2007 73" Crespigny (2007), 73. As a result, the Han garrison at Hami was forced to withdraw in 77 AD, which was not reestablished until 91 AD. Yü (1986), 415 & 420; Crespigny (2007), 73. From 78 AD onwards, General Ban Chao used the troops of the surrendered western states and launched several expeditions against the Xiongnu.

Karasahr

'''Yanqi''' ( growing to 31,773 persons in 2006; 16,032 persons of which were Han (Han Chinese), 7781 people Hui (Hui people), 7154 people Uygur (Uyghur people), 628 Mongol, and 178 other ethnicities and an agricultural population of 1078 people.

The town is well connected, being located on the Kaidu River (known in ancient times as the Liusha), China National Highway 314 and the Southern Xinjiang Railway, and is an important material distribution center and regional business hub. The town administers ten communities.

The town has a notable Islamic population and contains the Yanqi Mosque.

The Buddhist Sanskrit name for the town was 'Agni' or 'Fire.' "Yanqi, it seemed, was the local derivation of yanghi, the Turkic word for fire. The city had possibly once been called Yanghi-shaher or Fire City. Xuanzang, a stickler for precision and partial to India, had used the Sanskrit word for fire, agni, and transliterated this into Chinese, yielding 'O-ki-ni." Saran (2005), p. 61.

thumb This 17th-century map shows Cialis (Karashar) as of one the cities in the chain stretching from Yarkant County Hiarcan (File:CEM-36-NW-corner.jpg) to Sucieu (Suzhou District) .

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