Kaluga

What is Kaluga known for?


romantic

; ( , Kaluga – 3 January 1956, New York City) was a Russian Romantic (Romantic music) composer. +55%: Kaluga Kiev Kostroma Kutaisi Minsk Mogilev Nizhny Novgorod Podolia Riazan Smolensk Tula (Tula, Russia) Vitebsk Vladimir Volhynia Yaroslavl Soon enough, the noblemen realized that most of Ivan

the collection of ''dainas'' his life's work. The poet Auseklis (the nom de plume of Krogzemju Mikus), in the diplomat and scholar Arnolds Spekke's words, represented "the romantic and mystic search for the nation's soul." The Young Latvian Andrejs Pumpurs later penned the national epic Lāčplēsis, "The Bear Slayer." production March 2004–present assembly Mladá Boleslav, Czech Republic Kaluga, Russia br>


satirical novels

from Moscow Pedagogical Institute and worked as a school teacher in Kaluga and Moscow regions. He published his poetry translations from a variety of languages. Daniel and his friend Andrei Sinyavsky also wrote satirical (political satire) novels and smuggled them to France to be published under pseudonyms. (See samizdat) In December of 1609, the Tushino Thief (as the impostor came to be known) and his wife Marina Mniszech fled from Tushino to Kaluga after losing


local military

during the climactic Battle of Moscow. It was occupied from October 12, 1941 to January 4, 1942. In 1944, the Soviet Government used its local military buildings to intern hundreds of Polish POWs—soldiers of the Polish Underground Home Army (Armia Krajowa)—who were arrested by advancing Soviet front in the Vilno (Vilnius) area. Administrative and municipal status Kaluga is the administrative center of the oblast. Charter of Kaluga Oblast'' Within the framework of administrative divisions (subdivisions of Russia#Administrative divisions), it is, together with seventy-two rural localities, incorporated as the '''City (City of federal subject significance) of Kaluga'''—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts (administrative divisions of Kaluga Oblast). As a municipal division (subdivisions of Russia#Municipal divisions), the City of Kaluga, together with one settlement of urban type in Dzerzhinsky District (Dzerzhinsky District, Kaluga Oblast) and one rural locality in Ferzikovsky District, is incorporated as '''Kaluga Urban Okrug'''. Law #7-OZ Economy In Kaluga, Kaluga Turbine Plant is located, is part of the company Power Machines ;Kaluga Machine Works (manufactures track machines for railways), plant a foreign company MACO Door & Window. In recent years Kaluga has become one of the centers of the Russian automotive industry, with a number of foreign companies opening assembly plants in the area. On November 28, 2007, Volkswagen Group opened a new assembly plant in Kaluga, with further expansion plans planned to be completed by, or during, 2009. The investment has reached more than 500 million Euro. The plant currently assembles the Volkswagen Passat and Škoda Octavia. Planned annual capacity from 2009: up to 150,000 vehicles. The 307 remains in production for several countries, especially those that prefer Sedan_(automobile) saloon bodies such as Brazil and China.


defense line

–Bryansk line. The second, the Mozhaisk defense line, was a double defense stretching between Kalinin (Tver) and Kaluga. Finally, a triple defense ring surrounded the city itself, forming the Moscow Defense Zone. These defenses were still largely unprepared by the beginning of the operation because of the speed of the German advance. Furthermore, the German attack plan had been discovered quite late, and Soviet troops were ordered to assume a total defensive stance only on 27 September 1941. However, new Soviet divisions were being formed on the Volga, in Asia and in the Urals, and it would only be a matter of a few months before these new troops could be committed, Vasilevsky, p. 138. making the battle a race against time as well. Mozhaisk defense line (13 October – 30 October) By 13 October 1941, the ''Wehrmacht'' had arrived at the Mozhaisk defense line, a hastily constructed double set of fortifications protecting Moscow from the west and stretching from Kalinin (Tver) towards Volokolamsk and Kaluga. However, despite recent reinforcements, the combined strength of the Soviet armies manning the line (the 5th (Fifth Army (Soviet Union)), 16th (16th Army (Soviet Union)), 43rd and 49th armies) barely reached 90,000 men, hardly sufficient to stem the German advance. Zhukov, tome 2, p. 17. In light of the situation, Zhukov decided to concentrate his forces at four critical points: Volokolamsk, Mozhaisk, Maloyaroslavets and Kaluga. The entire Soviet Western Front—almost completely destroyed after its encirclement near Vyazma—was being recreated from scratch. Zhukov, tome 2, p. 18. *'''Leninskiy rayon''' (Ленинский район ~ Lenin city district), Minsk Belarus *'''Leninskiy rayon''' (Ленинский район ~ Lenin city district) in the following Russian cities: Astrakhan, Barnaul, Cheboksary, Chelyabinsk, Grozny, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Izhevsk, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov (Kirov, Russia), Komsomolsk-na-Amure, Krasnoyarsk, Magnitogorsk, Makhachkala, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Nizhniy Tagil, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orsk, Penza, Perm, Rostov-na-Donu, Samara (Samara, Russia), Saransk, Saratov, Smolensk, Stavropol, Tambov, Tomsk, Tyumen, Ufa, Ulyanovsk, Vladimir (Vladimir, Russia), Vladivostok, Voronezh, Yaroslavl and Yekaterinburg *'''Závody V. I. Lenina''' (V. I. Lenin Works) – now Škoda Plzeň (Škoda Works), Plzeň Czech Republic In 1946 Shukshin left his native village and worked as a metal craftsman at several enterprises in the trust Soyuzprommekhanizatsiya: at the turbine plant in Kaluga, at the tractor plant in Vladimir, etc. In 1949, Shukshin was drafted into the Navy (Soviet Navy). He first served as a sailor in the Baltic Fleet, then a radio operator on the Black Sea. In 1953 he was demobilized due to a stomach ulcer and returned to his native village. Having passed an external exam for high school graduation, he became a teacher of Russian, and later a school principal in Srostki. #Oktyabrsky City District, Izhevsk, a city district of Izhevsk, The 307 remains in production for several countries, especially those that prefer saloon bodies (Sedan_(automobile)) such as Brazil and China.


music romantic

; ( , Kaluga – 3 January 1956, New York City) was a Russian Romantic (Romantic music) composer. +55%: Kaluga Kiev Kostroma Kutaisi Minsk Mogilev Nizhny Novgorod Podolia Riazan Smolensk Tula (Tula, Russia) Vitebsk Vladimir Volhynia Yaroslavl Soon enough, the noblemen realized that most of Ivan


satirical

from Moscow Pedagogical Institute and worked as a school teacher in Kaluga and Moscow regions. He published his poetry translations from a variety of languages. Daniel and his friend Andrei Sinyavsky also wrote satirical (political satire) novels and smuggled them to France to be published under pseudonyms. (See samizdat) In December of 1609, the Tushino Thief (as the impostor came to be known) and his wife Marina Mniszech fled from Tushino to Kaluga after losing

Born a priest's son in Kaluga, he was trained as a lawyer but became a journalist and popular novelist. In 1902 he was exiled for writing a satirical article on the imperial family. He returned to visit the front during the Russo-Japanese War, then returned to Western Europe, living in France and Italy. DATE OF BIRTH December 26, 1862 PLACE OF BIRTH Kaluga, Russia DATE OF DEATH February 26, 1938 '''Kirov''' ( ), formerly known


defensive stance

a total defensive stance only on 27 September 1941. However, new Soviet divisions were being formed on the Volga, in Asia and in the Urals, and it would only be a matter of a few months before these new troops could be committed, Vasilevsky, p. 138. making the battle a race against time as well. Mozhaisk defense line (13 October – 30 October) By 13 October 1941, the ''Wehrmacht'' had arrived at the Mozhaisk defense line, a hastily constructed double set of fortifications protecting Moscow from the west and stretching from Kalinin (Tver) towards Volokolamsk and Kaluga. However, despite recent reinforcements, the combined strength of the Soviet armies manning the line (the 5th (Fifth Army (Soviet Union)), 16th (16th Army (Soviet Union)), 43rd and 49th armies) barely reached 90,000 men, hardly sufficient to stem the German advance. Zhukov, tome 2, p. 17. In light of the situation, Zhukov decided to concentrate his forces at four critical points: Volokolamsk, Mozhaisk, Maloyaroslavets and Kaluga. The entire Soviet Western Front—almost completely destroyed after its encirclement near Vyazma—was being recreated from scratch. Zhukov, tome 2, p. 18. *'''Leninskiy rayon''' (Ленинский район ~ Lenin city district), Minsk Belarus *'''Leninskiy rayon''' (Ленинский район ~ Lenin city district) in the following Russian cities: Astrakhan, Barnaul, Cheboksary, Chelyabinsk, Grozny, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Izhevsk, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov (Kirov, Russia), Komsomolsk-na-Amure, Krasnoyarsk, Magnitogorsk, Makhachkala, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Nizhniy Tagil, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orsk, Penza, Perm, Rostov-na-Donu, Samara (Samara, Russia), Saransk, Saratov, Smolensk, Stavropol, Tambov, Tomsk, Tyumen, Ufa, Ulyanovsk, Vladimir (Vladimir, Russia), Vladivostok, Voronezh, Yaroslavl and Yekaterinburg *'''Závody V. I. Lenina''' (V. I. Lenin Works) – now Škoda Plzeň (Škoda Works), Plzeň Czech Republic In 1946 Shukshin left his native village and worked as a metal craftsman at several enterprises in the trust Soyuzprommekhanizatsiya: at the turbine plant in Kaluga, at the tractor plant in Vladimir, etc. In 1949, Shukshin was drafted into the Navy (Soviet Navy). He first served as a sailor in the Baltic Fleet, then a radio operator on the Black Sea. In 1953 he was demobilized due to a stomach ulcer and returned to his native village. Having passed an external exam for high school graduation, he became a teacher of Russian, and later a school principal in Srostki. #Oktyabrsky City District, Izhevsk, a city district of Izhevsk, The 307 remains in production for several countries, especially those that prefer saloon bodies (Sedan_(automobile)) such as Brazil and China.


military buildings

during the climactic Battle of Moscow. It was occupied from October 12, 1941 to January 4, 1942. In 1944, the Soviet Government used its local military buildings to intern hundreds of Polish POWs—soldiers of the Polish Underground Home Army (Armia Krajowa)—who were arrested by advancing Soviet front in the Vilno (Vilnius) area. Administrative and municipal status Kaluga is the administrative center of the oblast. Charter of Kaluga Oblast


quot strict

The '''battle on the Vedrosha River''' was a battle in the course of the Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars#Second war (1500–1503


308

in Kaluga. PSA Peugeot Citroën to Build Plant in Kaluga, Russia, PSA Peugeot Citroën press release, December 12, 2007 By March 2010 the plant was operational, building Peugeot 308s for the Russian market and would also produce Citroën and Mitsubishi (Mitsubishi Motors) models.

, and the Peugeot 308 and Citroën C4. platform PSA PF2 platform assembly Mulhouse, France Kaluga, Russia predecessor In 1965

-fabbrica-in-russia title Peugeot-Citroën-Mitsubishi: parte la produzione nella nuova fabbrica in Russia accessdate 2010-11-11 work autoblog.it Jakarta, Indonesia (Gaya Motor) (2008-2011) predecessor Peugeot 307 The 308 is manufactured in France at the Mulhouse and Sochaux factories.

Kaluga

thumb Aerial view of Kaluga (File:Kaluga, Russia, from air.jpg)

'''Kaluga''' (

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