Kairouan

What is Kairouan known for?


gibbon

Tingitana where here he was finally halted. Edward Gibbon, ''History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire'', gibbon edward g43d chapter51.html Chapter 51. As the historian Luis Garcia de Valdeavellano explains: thumb The Tribune of the Uffizi, Johann Zoffany (File:The Tribuna of the Uffizi (1772-78); Zoffany, Johann.jpg) (1772-78), showing many famous works of European art File:Kairouan Mosque

Carthage to the Muslims, Emperor Leontius sent the navy under the command of John the Patrician and the ''droungarios'' Tiberius Apsimarus. They entered the harbor and successfully recaptured it, as well as the city, in a stunning surprise attack. The Arab forces fled to Kairouan. As Gibbon (Edward Gibbon) writes, "the Christians landed; the citizens hailed the ensign of the cross, and the winter was idly wasted in the dream of victory or deliverance."


world fact

;ref name "CIA World Fact Book Tunisia" ''The World Factbook'' on "Tunisia". * Istanbul, Turkey File:Casa Mila interior arches.jpg Catenary arches inside Casa Milà in Barcelona, Spain by Antoni Gaudí File:Great Mosque of Kairouan gallery.jpg Arches


complex legal

of the Qur'an; if a student was sufficiently interested or apt, it progressed to law (fiqh), theology, Arabic grammar (usually taught with al-Ajurrumi's famous summary), mathematics (mainly as it pertained to the complex legal system of inheritance distribution), and sometimes astronomy. These are still operational throughout the Maghreb, and continue to be a major educational resource in the Sahel of West Africa, from Mauritania to Nigeria. On the orders of the Ismaili Fatimid caliph, Abu Zayd moved his tribe to Tunisia via Egypt to punish the Zirids for adopting Sunniism. The Banu Hilali weakened largely the Zirid state and sacked Kairouan. The event was fictionalized in the epic ''Taghribat Bani Hilal''. In the epic it is said that he was murdered by his rival Dhieb bin Ghanim. Despite this, the Jerusalem Talmud remains an indispensable source of knowledge of the development of the Jewish Law in the Holy Land. It was also an important resource in the study of the Babylonian Talmud by the Kairouan school of Hananel ben Hushiel (Chananel Ben Chushiel) and Nissim Gaon (Nissim Ben Jacob), with the result that opinions ultimately based on the Jerusalem Talmud found their way into both the Tosafot and the Mishneh Torah of Maimonides. ''Arabic Thought and its Place in History'', De Lacy O'Leary, London: Kegan, Paul 1922 , p. 227-8 says: "Gradually the Arabs spread all along North Africa and down to the desert edge, their tribes as a rule occupying the lower ground, whilst the older population had its chief centres in the mountainous districts. During the invasion of 45 (A.H.) the city of Kairouan (Qairouan, Qayrawan) was founded some distance south of Tunis. The site was badly chosen, and is now marked only by ruins and a scanty village, but for some centuries it served as the capital city of Ifrikiya, which was the name given to the province lying next to Egypt, embracing the modern states of Tripoli, Tunis, and the eastern part of Algeria up to the meridian of Bougie (Béjaïa)." From their base in Kairouan the Aghlabids conquered Sicily, beginning in 827 and establishing the Emirate of Sicily, which lasted until it was displaced by the Normans, effecting lasting changes in Sicilian culture. * Mu'awiya ibn Hudaij al-Kindi as-Sakuni In Barqa (Barqah) , 665-666 * Oqba ibn Nafi'i al-Fihri (Uqba ibn Nafi), 666-674 - Kairouan founded (670) * Abu al-Muhajir Dinar, 674-681 * Musa ibn Nusair al-Lakhmi (Musa ibn Nusair), 703-715 * Abd Allah ibn Musa regent in Kairouan, while Musa is in Spain (al-Andalus), 712-715 * Muhammad ibn Yazid, 715-718 A new capital, al-Abbasiyya, was founded outside Kairouan, partly to escape the opposition of the Malikite jurists and theologians, who condemned what they saw as the godless life of the Aghlabids, and disliked the unequal treatment of the Muslim Berbers (Berber people). Additionally, border defenses (Ribat) were set up in Sousse and Monastir (Monastir, Tunisia). The Aghlabids also built up the irrigation of the area and enhanced the public buildings and mosques. History The '''Ibādiyya''' reached North Africa by 719, when the missionary Salma ibn Sa'd was sent from the Ibādī ''jama'a'' of Basra to Kairouan. By 740, their efforts had converted the major Berber (Berber people) tribes of Huwwara around Tripoli, Nafusa in Jabal Nafusa and Zenata in western Tripolitania. In 757 (140 AH), a group of four Basra-educated missionaries (including Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rustam) proclaimed an Ibādī imamate, starting an abortive state led by Abul-Khattab Abdul-A'la ibn as-Samh which lasted until the Abbasids suppressed it in 761, and Abul-Khattab Abdul-A'la ibn as-Samh was killed. On his death, the Tripolitanian Ibādiyya elected Abul-Hatim al-Malzuzi as imām; he was killed in 772 after launching a second unsuccessful revolt in 768. religion Sunni Islam capital Achir (before 1057)r Kairouan (until 1057) Mahdia (after 1057) government_type Monarchy The '''Zirid dynasty''' ( commons:Qairawān


science knowledge

and research, particularly in the dissemination of medical science knowledge. In mathematics, contributions to computational algorithms were also made in Kairouan. The Arabs then erected buildings specific to Islamic architecture. While some retain a Byzantine essence, such as Three Doors Mosque in Kairouan (built in the ninth century) or ribat Sousse, many of the ancient columns are purely Arab such as the great Zitouna Mosque of Tunis (ninth century


bizarre amazing

first Julie title Ripley's Believe It or Not! Encyclopedia of the Bizarre: Amazing, Strange, Inexplicable, Weird and All True! publisher Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers location New York year 2004 isbn 1-57912-399-6 page 47 The Great Mosque of Kairouan (Great Mosque of Sidi-Uqba) is considered as one of the most important monuments of Islamic civilization as well as a worldwide architectural masterpiece.


art historical

-Heptapyrgion spolia 3.jpg thumb Fragments of Greek inscriptions in the masonry of the Ottoman Heptapyrgion (Heptapyrgion (Thessaloniki)) (Yedikule) fortress (1431), Thessaloniki. '''Spolia''' (Latin, 'spoils') is a modern art-historical term used to describe the re-use of earlier building material or decorative sculpture on new monuments. The practice was common in late antiquity: Roman examples include the Arch of Janus, the earlier imperial reliefs reused on the Arch of Constantine


historical term

-Heptapyrgion spolia 3.jpg thumb Fragments of Greek inscriptions in the masonry of the Ottoman Heptapyrgion (Heptapyrgion (Thessaloniki)) (Yedikule) fortress (1431), Thessaloniki. '''Spolia''' (Latin, 'spoils') is a modern art-historical term used to describe the re-use of earlier building material or decorative sculpture on new monuments. The practice was common in late antiquity: Roman examples include the Arch of Janus, the earlier imperial reliefs reused on the Arch of Constantine, the colonnade of Old Saint Peter's Basilica; examples in Byzantine territories include the exterior sculpture on the Church of Panagia Gorgoepikoos in Athens); in the medieval West Roman tiles were reused in St Albans Cathedral, porphyry columns in the Palatine Chapel in Aachen, and the colonnade of the basilica of Santa Maria in Trastevere. Spolia in the medieval Islamic world include the columns in the hypostyle mosques of Kairouan and Cordoba (Mezquita). ''Iwan mosques'' are most notable for their domed chambers and ''iwans'', which are vaulted spaces open out on one end. In ''iwan'' mosques, one or more iwans face a central courtyard that serves as the prayer hall. The style represents a borrowing from pre-Islamic Iranian architecture and has been used almost exclusively for mosques in Iran. Many ''iwan'' mosques are converted Zoroastrian (Zoroastrism) fire temples where the courtyard was used to house the sacred fire. Today, iwan mosques are no longer built. The Shah Mosque in Isfahan (Isfahan (city)), Iran is a classic example of an ''iwan'' mosque. right thumb View of the square three-tiered minaret of the Mosque of Uqba (File:Mosque of Uqba minaret.jpg) (Great Mosque of Kairouan); this mosque, founded in 670, is one of the most impressive mosques in North Africa, situated in Kairouan, Tunisia '''Jeunesse Sportive Kairouanaise''' ( commons:Qairawān


history de

an important resource in the study of the Babylonian Talmud by the Kairouan school of Hananel ben Hushiel (Chananel Ben Chushiel) and Nissim Gaon (Nissim Ben Jacob), with the result that opinions ultimately based on the Jerusalem Talmud found their way into both the Tosafot and the Mishneh Torah of Maimonides. ''Arabic Thought and its Place in History'', De Lacy O'Leary, London: Kegan, Paul 1922 , p. 227-8 says: "Gradually the Arabs spread all along North


artistic commercial

artistic, commercial and agricultural heyday. Schools and universities flourished, overseas trade in local manufactures and farm produce ran high and the courts of the Zirids rulers were centres of refinement that eclipsed those of their European contemporaries. When the Zirids declared their independence from Cairo and their conversion to Sunni Islam in 1045 by giving allegiance to Baghdad, the Fatimid Caliph Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah sent as punishment hordes


main modern

Minaret of the Mosque of Uqba (Great Mosque of Kairouan) regarded as the oldest standing minaret, Kairouan, Tunisia. thumb Plan view of Bab al-Barqiyya along Ayyubid (File:Ayyubid wall cyark.jpg) Wall. Located close to one of Cairo's main modern traffic arteries, al-Azhar Street, the Fatimid-era Bab al-Barqiyya fortified gate was constructed with interlocking volumes that surrounded the entrant in such a way as to provide greater security and control than typical city wall gates

Kairouan

website

'''Kairouan''' ( and thus attracting a large number of Muslims from various parts of the world, next only to Mecca and Medina. The holy Mosque of Uqba is situated in the city. Europa Publications “General Survey: Holy Places” ''The Middle East and North Africa 2003'', p. 147. Routledge, 2003. ISBN 1-85743-132-4. “The city is regarded as a holy place for Muslims.” title Hutchinson Encyclopedia 1996 Edition publisher Helicon Publishing Ltd, Oxford year 1996 page 572 doi isbn 1-85986-107-5

In 2014, the city had about 186,653 inhabitants.

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