prince Soběslav (Sobeslav I of Bohemia) (later duke Soběslav I) burnt the town to the ground, but he rebuilt it shortly afterwards. He also rebuilt and strengthened the castle located on a high rock overlooking the town. After the peace treaty of 1137, Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland ceded all claims to the land of Kłodzko to the Bohemian Principality (later Kingdom). The town was granted German city rights under Magdeburg Law between 1253 and 1278, though the exact date is unknown. In 1278 it was taken over by the Silesian duke Henry Probus (Henryk IV Probus) (he claimed entire Bohemian kingdom after death of Ottokar II of Bohemia (Přemysl Otakar II) but failed). In 1290 it was sold to the Dukes of Świdnica and then, in 1301, it was sold to the Dukes of Ziębice. However, in 1334, Duke Boleslav II sold the town back to the Kingdom of Bohemia. The same year John of Luxemburg, King of Bohemia (John I of Bohemia), relocated the town, which led to a period of fast growth. A city hall was built in 1341, and in the following year a brick factory was opened. From 1366, the town has been protected by a group of professional firemen. The town gained significant profits from its location on the ancient road through mountain passes in the Sudetes. German Augustian monks (Augustinians) were invited to the city and, in 1376, most streets were paved with stone setts. The Augustian abbey became one of the most important centres of culture in the region and, in 1399, the Florian Psalter (''Psałterz Floriański''), one of the earliest texts in the Polish language, was written there by a Polish Augustinian monk. In 1390 a Gothic (Gothic architecture) stone bridge over the Młynówka, a local branch of Nysa Kłodzka river) was built by the local prince. During the Later Middle Ages, the population of the city gradually became Germanised (Germans), due to the German ''Ostsiedlung''. Glatz developed rapidly until the start of the Hussite Wars in the 15th century. The wars left the town depopulated by plagues, partially burnt, and demolished by several consecutive floods. In 1459 was elevated by king of Bohemia George of Poděbrady to County, but still remained integral part of Bohemia as "outer region", and was not counted as part of Silesia. Before this elevation was integral part of the Kingdom of Bohemia. Habsburg Monarchy In 1526 the Habsburgs were enthroned as the kings of Bohemia. Thus the County of Kladsko (''hrabství Kladské'') became a part of the Habsburg Monarchy; the local counts retained their powers and Bohemian kings (i.e. Habsburg emperors (Holy Roman Emperor#List of Emperors#House of Habsburg)) ruled this land as suzerains. It was not until the 16th century that the local economy began to recover from the previous wars. In 1540 the sewer system (sanitary sewer) was built. In 1549 the remaining streets were paved and the city hall was refurbished. Most of the houses surrounding the town square were rebuilt in a pure Renaissance (Renaissance architecture) style. In 1617 the first census was organised in the County of Glatz. The city itself had approximately 1,300 houses and over 7,000 inhabitants. However, two years after the census took place the Thirty Years' War started. Between 1619 and 1649 the fortress was besieged several times. Although the fortress was never captured, the city itself was largely destroyed. Over 900 out of 1,300 buildings were destroyed by fire and artillery and the population dropped by more than a half. After the war the Austrian authorities put an end to all local self-government, and the County of Glatz existed in name only. The city was gradually converted into a small garrison town attached to the ever-growing fortress. '''Historical population of Kłodzko''' cellpadding 2 style "background:transparent;" - 1620 align "right" 6,500 - 1734 align "right" 4,400 - 1807 align "right" 4,549 - 1809 align "right" 4,887 - 1816 align "right" 5,510 - 1825 align "right" 6,187 - 1834 align "right" 6,644 - 1840 align "right" 7,654 - 1843 align "right" 7,777 - 1849 align "right" 8,222 - 1858 align "right" 13,052 - 1871 align "right" 11,545 - 1880 align "right" 13,701 - 1885 align "right" 13,588 - 1894 align "right" 13,501 - 1900 align "right" 15,015 - 1905 align "right" 16,052 - 1910 align "right" 17,121 - 1912 align "right" 17,284 - 2003 align "right" 30,100 Source: Commons:Kłodzko WikiPedia:Kłodzko Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland Voivodships Dolnoslaskie Klodzko
and was constructed after a plague (Plague (disease)) in 1625. This is a common sight in many other cities and towns that once belonged to the Habsburg Monarchy. Education Educational establishments in Kłodzko include: * a branch of the Wrocław-based "Edukacja" College of Management * the Bolesław Chrobry Lyceum (secondary school) * Kłodzko's School of Enterprise (secondary school) Notable residents * David Origanus (1558–1628), mathematician * Johann Christoph Pezel (1639–1694), composer * Friedrich Wilhelm Riemer (1774–1845), secretary of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe * Friedrich Wilhelm Hemprich (1796–1825), scientist * Eduard Tauwitz (1812–1894), composer * Emma Ihrer (1857–1911), politician * Gustav Adolf von Götzen (1866-1910), explorer * Otto Reche (1879–1966), scientist * Friedrich Wilhelm von Lindeiner-Wildau (1880-1963), Luftwaffe officer * Friedrich Wilhelm Sander (1885–1938), engineer * Albrecht Schubert (1886–1966), Wehrmacht general * Renée Sintenis (1888–1965), artist * Annelies Kupper (1906–1987), opera singer Surroundings * Stołowe Mountains with Stołowe Mountains National Park * Spa resorts in Polanica-Zdrój, Duszniki-Zdrój, Kudowa-Zdrój & Lądek-Zdrój * Medieval town of Niemcza * Cistercian monastery at Henryków (Henryków, Lower Silesian Voivodeship) * Wojsławice Arboretum * Gola Dzierżoniowska Castle International relations Commons:Kłodzko WikiPedia:Kłodzko Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland Voivodships Dolnoslaskie Klodzko
by the Mongol vanguard at Kłodzko. However, the Bohemian cavalry easily fended off the Mongol detachment. As Baidar and Kadan's orders had been to serve as a diversion, they turned away from Bohemia and Poland and went southward to join Batu and Subutai, who had crushed the Hungarians (Magyars) at the Battle of Mohi. Although much of the region is relatively low-lying it also includes part of the Sudetes mountain range running along the Polish Czech (Czech Republic) border. Popular ski (skiing) resorts in Lower Silesian Voivodeship include Karpacz and Szklarska Poręba in the Karkonosze mountains. The town of Kudowa Zdrój, also in the Sudetes (west of Kłodzko near the Czech border), is a traditional spa town often visited by heart patients. Other important tourist destinations in the voivodeship include the chief city, Wrocław, as well as the towns of Jelenia Góra and Legnica. The town of Boleslawiec is famed for its pottery (Boleslawiec Pottery). In 1137, during the whitsun meeting with Duke Soběslav I of Bohemia (Soběslav I, Duke of Bohemia) at Niemcza (other sources mention Kłodzko), in which several disputed matters were decided, Władysław stood as godfather in the baptism of the youngest son of Soběslav, the future Duke Wenceslaus II (Wenceslaus II, Duke of Bohemia). # Frankenstein (Ząbkowice Śląskie) # Glatz (Kłodzko) (former County of Kladsko) # Groß Wartenberg (Syców) Floods Nysa Kłodzka originates in the Śnieżnik (Śnieżnik Mountains) mountain range of the Sudetes, near the border with the Czech Republic. It is partially regulated. The river has often left its banks and flooded nearby cities, at times destroying them completely. City chronicles from Kłodzko mention floods in the following years: parts Total 14 (incl. 5 urban) p1 Duszniki-Zdrój p2 Kłodzko p3 Kudowa-Zdrój p4 Nowa Ruda p5 Polanica-Zdrój p6 Gmina Bystrzyca Kłodzka p7 Gmina Kłodzko p8 Gmina Lądek-Zdrój p9 Gmina Lewin Kłodzki p10 Gmina Międzylesie p11 Gmina Nowa Ruda p12 Gmina Radków (Gmina Radków, Lower Silesian Voivodeship) p13 Gmina Stronie Śląskie p14 Gmina Szczytna area_total_km2 1643.37 The county covers an area of Commons:Kłodzko WikiPedia:Kłodzko Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland Voivodships Dolnoslaskie Klodzko
related diseases, which made significant impact of the number of people visiting the town. In 1900 the number of people who visited was 4,150 . A famous visitor of the town was Helmut von Moltke together with his family. Thanks to development of business organizations, a railway line to Glatz (Kłodzko) and a local power plant the spa grew and in 1906 8.000 visitors attended its facilities . Among the guests one of the more famous people was Winston Churchill. In 1920 the ''Gebrüder Martin und Paul Polka O.H.G.'' company bought the largest spa resort of the town. From 1911 to 1931 Raphael Friedeberg worked as a physician in the Spa. Biography at SPD (Social Democratic Party of Germany)-Berlin.de Commons:Kłodzko WikiPedia:Kłodzko Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland Voivodships Dolnoslaskie Klodzko
Silesia. In view of his father’s disapproval, and after discovering the plans of Sieciech and Duchess Judith-Sophia to take over the country Zbigniew (Zbigniew of Poland) gained an ally in the young prince Bolesław. Both brothers demanded that the reins of government should be handed over to them. It is difficult to believe, however, that Bolesław was making independent decisions at this point as he was only 12 years of age. It is postulated that at this stage he was merely a pawn of the Baron’s power struggle. Władysław I Herman, however, agreed to divide the realm between the brothers, According to K. Maleczyński, Bolesław III and Zbigniew received separated districts already in 1093, and the first actual division of the Principality took in a few years later; K. Maleczyński: ''Bolesław III Krzywousty'', pp. 34-35. In 1093, Władysław I admitted, ''inter alia'', to give Kłodzko to Bolesław III (hypothesis presented by G. Labuda). R. Gładkiewicz (ed.): ''Kłodzko: dzieje miasta''. Kłodzko 1998, p. 34. ISBN 83-904888-0-9. each to be granted his own province while the Prince - Władysław I himself – kept control of Mazovia and its capital at Plock. Władysław also retained control of the most important cities i.e. Wroclaw, Krakow and Sandomierz. S. Szczur: ''Historia Polski – średniowiecze'', p. 119. Zbigniew he should rule over Mazovia after the death of his father. This district, along with the towns inherited by Bolesław III (Wroclaw, Krakow and Sandomierz) had to ensure the future control and full authority over the state. R. Grodecki, S. Zachorowski, J. Dąbrowski: ''Dzieje Polski średniowiecznej'', vol. I, pp. 131-132. Zbigniew’s province encompassed Greater Poland including Gniezno, Kuyavia, Leczyca Land and Sieradz Land. Bolesław’s territory included Lesser Poland, Silesia and Lubusz Land. Historians presented different views on the division of the country. R. Grodecki think that first division took place during the reign of Władysław I (in the years 1097-1098) and the second after his death in 1102, under the arbitration of Archbishop Martin I of Gniezno. R. Grodecki, S. Zachorowski, J. Dąbrowski: ''Dzieje Polski średniowiecznej'', vol. I, pp- 131-135. G. Labuda believes that the division occurred around 1097, but only when Bolesław III had completed 12 years. G. Labuda: ''Korona i infuła. Od monarchii do poliarchii'', Kraków:1996, pp. 16-69. ISBN 83-03-03659-9. K. Maleczyński placed the date of the first division around 1099. J. Wyrozumski: ''Historia Polski do roku 1505'', Warszaw 1984, p. 101. ISBN 83-01-03732-6. thumb 180px A scene from an altar of St. Hedwig of Silesia: Mongol warriors display the head of Henry II of Silesia on a long lance in an attempt to weaken the morale of the defenders. (File:HedwigAltarVII.jpg) Wenceslaus I of Bohemia fell back to gather reinforcements from Thuringia and Saxony (Electorate of Saxony), but was overtaken by the Mongol vanguard at Kłodzko. However, the Bohemian light cavalry was able to ambush a Mongol detachment. As Baidar and Kadan's orders had been to serve as a diversion, and they were facing a regrouping opponent, they turned away from Bohemia and Poland and headed southward to join Batu and Subutai, who had soundly defeated the Hungarians (Magyars) at the Battle of Mohi. After the battle the Mongols had great success in seizing the cities of Germany and Poland. Commons:Kłodzko WikiPedia:Kłodzko Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland Voivodships Dolnoslaskie Klodzko
and was constructed after a plague (Plague (disease)) in 1625. This is a common sight in many other cities and towns that once belonged to the Habsburg Monarchy. Education Educational establishments in Kłodzko include: * a branch of the Wrocław-based "Edukacja" College of Management * the Bolesław Chrobry Lyceum (secondary school) * Kłodzko's School of Enterprise (secondary school) Notable residents * David Origanus (1558–1628), mathematician * Johann Christoph
" 30,100 Source: Kingdom of Prussia The Kingdom of Prussia annexed Glatz during the 18th century Silesian Wars, although Austrian influence is still evident in the architecture and culture of the region. The construction of the fortress was continued and the town had to bear the costs of the fortress expansion
) . The area of the former county became a popular place among the rich bourgeoisie of Breslau (Wrocław) (Wrocław), Berlin, Vienna, and Kraków. In 1910 the city had 17,121 inhabitants: 13,629 Roman Catholics (Roman Catholic Church), 3,324 Protestants (Protestantism) (mostly members of the Evangelical State Church of Prussia's older Provinces), and 150 Jews. The Kłodzko Valley region on the Nysa Kłodzka river was the focus of several attempts to reincorporate the area into Czechoslovakia after the First World War. From the Czech perspective, Kłodzko and Kłodzko Land are culturally and traditionally a part of Bohemia, although the region has been a part of Lower Silesia since its conquest by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1763. These efforts to incorporate Kłodzko into Czechoslovakia would continue into the period after World War II. File:Kladsko 1919 A.jpg The maximalist variant File:Kladsko 1919 B.jpg The intermediate variant File:Kladsko 1919 C.jpg The minimalist variant Because of the 1935 Nuremberg Laws, all Jewish Germans were declassed to so-called state citizens, as opposed to the status of Reich's citizens for other Germans. With effect of January 1939 Jews had to add either Sara or Israel as their middle names. Cf. Verordnung zur Durchführung des Gesetzes über die Änderung von Familiennamen und Vornamen, issued on 17 August 1938, published in: ''Reichsgesetzblatt'' I, p. 1044. Most of the Jews emigrated and by 1939 there were only 25 of them left. In 1938 Glatz was severely damaged by "the flooding of the century", but the damage done was quickly repaired. World War II thumb right Kłodzko (File:2014 Kłodzko, panorama.jpg) During World War II, the fortress was changed into a prison. At first it was administered by the Abwehr, but was soon taken over by the Gestapo. It was also used as a POW camp for officers of various nationalities. Beginning in 1944, the casemates housed the AEG arms factory evacuated from Łódź. The slave labourers were kept in the stronghold, which was turned into a sub-camp of Gross-Rosen concentration camp. The town itself was not damaged by the war and was taken over by the Soviet (Soviet Union) Red Army without much opposition. However, shortly after the war the Kłodzko Valley became the scene of alleged Werwolf activities. The Nazis (Nazism) had blown up all the bridges in Glatz; the only one to survive was the Gothic stone bridge erected in 1390. Within Poland After the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945, the town was placed under Polish administration according to the Potsdam Conference. Since then it remains as part of Poland. The German (Germans) inhabitants of the town were expelled (Expulsion of Germans after World War II) and replaced with Poles, many of whom had themselves been expelled from Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union. Other Polish settlers came from war-devastated central Poland. In May 1945 Czechoslovakia tried to annex the area on behalf of Czech (Czechs) minority (living especially in the western part of the land, called "Czech Corner") and historical claims, but on pressure of Soviet union ceased military operations and Czech minority was expelled to Germany and Czechoslovakia. In the 1950s and 1960s much of the town centre was damaged by landslides. It turned out that throughout the city's history, generations of Kłodzko's merchants had developed an extensive net of underground basements and tunnels. They were used for storage and, in times of trouble, as a safe shelter from artillery fire. With time the tunnels were forgotten, especially after the original German population was deported, and during the years after World War II many of them started to collapse, along with the houses above. Since the 1970s the tunnels were conserved and the destruction of the city was stopped. Another disaster happened in 1997, when the city was damaged by flooding even greater than that of 1938. However, the town quickly recovered. On 28 June 1972 the Catholic parishes of Kłodzko were redeployed from the traditional Hradec Králové diocese (Diocese of Hradec Králové) (est. 1664; Ecclesiastical province of Bohemia (List of Roman Catholic dioceses in Europe#Episcopal Conference of the Czech Republic)) into the Archdiocese of Wrocław. Paulus VI (Pope Paul VI), Constitutio Apostolica (Apostolic constitution) "Vratislaviensis - Berolinensis et aliarum", in: ''Acta Apostolicae Sedis'', 64 (1972), n. 10, pp. 657seq. Currently, Kłodzko is one of the most important centres of culture, commerce and tourism in Lower Silesia. It is popular with German tourists interested in the city's history and among younger tourists for its winter sports facilities. thumb 800px center Kłodzko (File:Klodzko panorama.jpg) Climate Commons:Kłodzko WikiPedia:Kłodzko Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland Voivodships Dolnoslaskie Klodzko
Commons:Kłodzko WikiPedia:Kłodzko Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland Voivodships Dolnoslaskie Klodzko
worked at the Walter de Gruyter academic publishing house. In the end of World War II Löbe found himself in Glatz (Kłodzko) (Kłodzko), from where he was expelled (Flight and expulsion of Germans from Poland during and after World War II) according to the resolutions of the Potsdam Agreement. He joined the staff of the daily newspaper ''Das Volk'', and later became co-publisher of the ''Telegraf'' in Berlin. He died in West Germany's capital, Bonn and is buried in an ''Ehrengrab'' at the Berlin-Zehlendorf (Zehlendorf (Berlin)) cemetery. It is traversed by the upper Nysa Kłodzka river running from south to north and surrounded by the Table Mountains, Bardzkie Mountains and Bystrzyckie Mountains of the Central Sudetes in the west as well as by the Śnieżnik Mountains, Golden Mountains (Golden Mountains (Sudetes)) and Owl Mountains of the Eastern Sudetes in the east. The mountain passes of Kudowa (Kudowa-Zdrój) in the west and of Międzylesie in the south lead to Bohemia. In the northwest the Nysa river passes through the Bardzkie Mountains to Bardo (Bardo, Poland) in Lower Silesia. The major towns of the valley are Kłodzko, Bystrzyca Kłodzka and Nowa Ruda. The history of the Table Mountains is closely connected with the history of the Kłodzko region, located on the borderland of Silesia, Bohemia and Moravia. After Hussite wars of the 14th and 15th century, the area thrived and later on first spas at Kudowa, Duszniki and Polanica were opened. Duszniki is also a center of paper production – one of the first paper mills in Europe was opened there in 1605. thumb left 300px "Monkey" (File:Szczeliniec Wielki @.jpg) Commons:Kłodzko WikiPedia:Kłodzko Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland Voivodships Dolnoslaskie Klodzko
'''Kłodzko''' ) is a town in south-western Poland, in the region of Lower Silesia. It is situated in the centre of the Kłodzko Valley, on the Nysa Kłodzka river.
Kłodzko is the seat of Kłodzko County (and of the rural Gmina Kłodzko, although the town itself is a separate urban gmina), and is situated in Lower Silesian Voivodeship (from 1975–1998 it was in the former Wałbrzych Voivodeship). With 28,250 inhabitants (2006), Kłodzko is the main commercial centre as well as an important transport and tourist node for the area. For its historical monuments it is sometimes referred to as "Little Prague" ( ). Culturally and traditionally a part of Bohemia, administratively it has been a part of Silesia since 1763.