Joseon

What is Joseon known for?


influential voice

not have actual authority to decide or implement policies, but had influential voice in the ensuing debate. The officials who served in these offices tended to be younger and of lower rank compared to other offices but had strong academic reputation and enjoyed special privileges and great prestige (For instance, censors were permitted to drink during working hours because of their function of criticizing the king). To be appointed, they went through more thorough review of character and family background. Three Offices provided the fastest route of promotion to high posts and was almost a requirement to becoming a State Councillor. :*Office of Inspector General (Saheonbu·사헌부) - It monitored government administration and officials at each level in both central and local governments for corruption, malfeasance, or inefficiency. It was also in charge of advancing public morals and Confucian customs and redressing grievances of the populace. It was headed by Inspector General (Daesaheon·대사헌), a position of 2nd junior rank, who oversaw 30 largely independent officials. :*Office of Censors (Saganwon·사간원) - Its chief function was to remonstrate with the king if there was wrong or improper action or policy. Important decrees of the king were first reviewed by censors, who could ask to withdraw them if judged improper. It also issued opinions about the general state of affairs. It was composed of five officials, led by Chief Censor (Daesagan·대사간), of 3rd senior rank. While the primary focus for Office of Inspector General is the government officials and Office of Censors is focused on the king, two offices often performed each other's functions, and there was much overlap. Together they were called "Yangsa," (양사) which literally means "Both Offices," and often worked jointly especially when they sought to reverse the king's decision. :*Office of Special Advisors (Hongmungwan·홍문관 弘文館) - It oversaw the royal library and served as research institute to study Confucian philosophy and answer the king's questions. Its officials took part in the daily lessons called ''gyeongyeon'' (경연), in which they discussed history and Confucian philosophy with the king. Since these discussions often led to commentary on current political issues, its officials had significant influence as advisors. It was headed by Chief Scholar (Daejehak·대제학), a part-time post of 2nd senior rank that served concurrently in another high post (such as in State Council), and Deputy Chief Scholar (Bujehak·부제학), a full-time post of 3rd senior rank that actually ran the office. There was great prestige attached to being Chief Scholar in this deeply Confucian society. (The office was established to replace Hall of Worthies (Jiphyeonjeon·집현전) after the latter was abolished by King Sejo (Sejo of Joseon) in the aftermath of Six martyred ministers.) Other offices The major offices include the following: :*Royal Secretariat (Seungjeongwon·승정원) served as a liaison between the king and Six Ministries. There were six royal secretaries (승지), one for each ministry, and all were of 3rd senior rank. Their primary role was to pass down royal decree to the ministries and submit petitions from the officials and the populace to the king, but they also advised the king and served in other key positions close to the king. In particular Chief Royale Secretary (도승지), a liaison to Ministry of Personnel, served the king in the closest proximity of all government official and often enjoyed great power that was derived from the king's favor. Hong Guk-yeong (during Jeongjo (Jeongjo of Joseon)'s reign) and Han Myeong-hwe (during Sejo (Sejo of Joseon)) are some examples of chief royal secretaries who were the most powerful official of their time. :*Capital Bureau (Hanseungbu·한성부) was in charge of running the capital, ''Hanyang'' or present-day Seoul. It was led by ''Paanyoon''(판윤), of 2nd senior second rank equivalent to today's mayor of Seoul. :*Royal Investigation Bureau (Uigeumbu·의금부) was an investigative and enforcement organ under direct control of the king. It chiefly dealt with treason and other serious cases that concerned the king and royal family and served to arrest, investigate, imprison, and carry out sentences against the suspected offenders, who were often government officials. ) (1549–1598) was a Chinese general of Ming empire who is from the town of Tieling (Chinese:鐵嶺衛), LiaoDong (Chinese:遼東) province,he was the Commander-in-chief of the Ming Empire (Ming Dynasty)'s army in the first half of the "Sino-Japanese War"(1592–1598) took place in Korea peninsula. The war was ordered by Emperor titled ShenZong (Wanli Emperor) (Chinese:明神宗) http: www.tianyabook.com lishi2005 mingshi 020.htm 冬十月壬寅,李如松提督蓟、辽、保定、山东军务,充防海御倭总兵官,救朝鲜。-《明史》 to protect Korea (Joseon) from the Japanese invasion (Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)) masterminded by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, upon the request of the King of Korea- Li Yan (Seonjo of Joseon) (Chinese:李昖), http: www.tianyabook.com lishi2005 mingshi 020.htm 五月,倭犯朝鲜,陷王京,朝鲜王李昖公奔义州求救。-《明史》 as well as following Ming empire's obligation to protect its vassal state(In Ming dynasty,Korea was considered part of China,unlike the present concept of "vassal state".) http: www.tianyabook.com lishi2005 mingshi 320.htm 朝鲜在明虽称属国,而无异域内。-《明史》 His father was Li Chengliang (Chinese:李成梁),was also a famed army commander of Ming empire,was known for his accomplishment of defending LiaoDong province from Manchus. http: www.read126.cn 194c6894-51d5-4df3-a4bc-fa1282139f82!39f5412a-ad19-49c8-bffc-bceba1682122.html 成梁英毅骁健,有大将才。家贫,不能袭职,年四十犹为诸生。巡按御史器之,资入京,乃得袭。积功为辽东险山参将。隆庆元年,士蛮大入永平。成梁赴援有功,进副总兵,仍守险山。寻协守辽阳。三年四月,张摆失等屯塞下,成梁迎击斩之,歼其卒百六十有奇。-《明史》 Based on historical document Li Rusong's 6th generation ancestor Li Ying(Chinese:李英) is originally from the Korean town of Chosan in present-day North Korea (Hangul: 초산군, Hanja: 楚山郡,Chinese:楚山郡). But there is also historical document states that the further ancestor of family Li was from central China,who moved to Korea during war time. http: baike.baidu.com view 70277.htm 有考证说李如松祖籍为陇西,唐朝末年为避乱迁入朝鲜,祖上旅居朝鲜的先祖可以追查四代,名为:李哲根穗、李哈山、李厦霸努、李把图理。李把图理的儿子“李膺尼,洪武渡江 李如松 李如松 归附”明朝,归附后“授总旗”,高祖李英,授世铁岭指挥佥事,从此李氏便在铁岭安家落户。到了李如松的父亲李成梁这一代,李氏一门世袭官爵,族亲旺盛,成了明清以来铁岭著名的大户。 Expulsion Jang's extraordinary accomplishments earned him much trust of the king. Some government officials were very jealous of Jang, especially when he had achieved so much regardless of his common origin. Furthermore, as Joseon's society was rooted in Korean Confucianism, scientists and engineers were held in low esteem in parallel with craftsmen. *Chosen Army of Japan, the occupation army under Japanese rule (Korea under Japanese rule). *Chosŏn, see under Joseon or Joseon Dynasty. *''Chosun Ilbo'', a South Korean newspaper. According to Annals of Joseon Dynasty, Nam Gon now set out to slander Jo and wrote a phrase "Ju cho will become the king" (주초위왕, 走肖爲王)" with honey or sugary water on mulberry leaves so that caterpillars left behind such phrase on leaves in the palace. Annals, September 21, 1568 When two Hanja (Chinese) characters "ju"(走) and "cho"(肖) are put together, they form a new Hanja character "jo"(趙), which happen to be Jo Gwang-jo's family name. Consort Hong or Consort Park showed the leaf to Jungjong and claimed that this was the heaven's warning that Jo would take the throne himself after eliminating Hungu faction. Jungjong, who himself rose to the throne through a coup d'état, began to distrust Jo Gwang-jo. It should be noted that when Goryeo dynasty fell and was replaced by Joseon dynasty, there was popular saying "Son of wood will gain the country" (목자득국 木子得國). When two Hanja characters meaning wood(木) and son(子) are combined, they form a new character "yi"(李), which happens to be the family name of Yi Seoung-gye (Taejo of Joseon), who deposed the last king of Goryeo and founded Joseon dynasty. These phrases helped Yi Seoung-gye win popular support for the new dynasty as heaven's will.


modern period

a tributary of the Ch'ing dynasty, should have disregarded Ming reign titles, and especially so after the fall of the Ming in 1644." conventional_long_name Kingdom of Great Joseon common_name Joseon continent Asia region Korean country South Korea, North Korea era Early modern period government_type Monarchy year_start 1392 year_end 1897 event_start Coronation of Taejo (Taejo of Joseon) date_start July 17, event_end

and the Malla Purana, and Korean martial arts with Joseon era texts such as Muyejebo (1598). "Historical martial arts" in both Asia and Europe are mostly based on such records of the late medieval to early modern period (15th to 17th centuries; see also Koryū). Korean art has been highly influenced by Buddhism (Buddhism in Korea) and Confucianism (Korean Confucianism), which can be seen in the many traditional paintings, sculptures, ceramics and the performing arts. Korean painting, Asia Art Korean pottery and porcelain, such as Joseon's ''baekja (Joseon white porcelain)'' and buncheong, and Goryeo's celadon are well known throughout the world. Korean Pottery and Celadon, Asian Relocation Management Korea The Korean tea ceremony, pansori, talchum and buchaechum are also notable Korean performing arts. He may have suffered from undisclosed impotence in his later life. He is remembered very much for his cruelty, just like his father. He killed most of the Jian Wen palace servants, tortured many Jianwen Emperor loyalists to death, killed or by other means badly treated their relatives. Bo Yang, ''中國人史綱'', ch.28 宋端儀, ''立齋閑錄'', vol.2 陸人龍, ''型世言'', ch.1 建文帝出亡宁德之谜揭秘八:建文帝出亡闽东金邶寺 His successor emperor freed most of them alive. In 1420, he ordered 2,800 ladies-in-waiting to a slow slicing death, and watched, because he thought one of his favourite Joseon concubine had been poisoned. 李朝實錄太宗實錄 However, unlike his father, he did not kill most of his generals, and he entrusted power to eunuchs like Zheng He, with serious consequences for subsequent Ming emperors. He showed some regrets over his cruelty, built the Yongle bell, but still had about thirty beautiful women hanged to be buried with him after he died. 李朝實錄世宗實錄 ::South Koreans call Korea ''Hanguk'' from the Great Han Empire of 1897–1910 ::North Koreans call it ''Joseon'' ( ) (1549–1598) was a Chinese general of Ming empire who is from the town of Tieling (Chinese:鐵嶺衛), LiaoDong (Chinese:遼東) province,he was the Commander-in-chief of the Ming Empire (Ming Dynasty)'s army in the first half of the "Sino-Japanese War"(1592–1598) took place in Korea peninsula. The war was ordered by Emperor titled ShenZong (Wanli Emperor) (Chinese:明神宗) http: www.tianyabook.com lishi2005 mingshi 020.htm 冬十月壬寅,李如松提督蓟、辽、保定、山东军务,充防海御倭总兵官,救朝鲜。-《明史》 to protect Korea (Joseon) from the Japanese invasion (Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)) masterminded by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, upon the request of the King of Korea- Li Yan (Seonjo of Joseon) (Chinese:李昖), http: www.tianyabook.com lishi2005 mingshi 020.htm 五月,倭犯朝鲜,陷王京,朝鲜王李昖公奔义州求救。-《明史》 as well as following Ming empire's obligation to protect its vassal state(In Ming dynasty,Korea was considered part of China,unlike the present concept of "vassal state".) http: www.tianyabook.com lishi2005 mingshi 320.htm 朝鲜在明虽称属国,而无异域内。-《明史》 His father was Li Chengliang (Chinese:李成梁),was also a famed army commander of Ming empire,was known for his accomplishment of defending LiaoDong province from Manchus. http: www.read126.cn 194c6894-51d5-4df3-a4bc-fa1282139f82!39f5412a-ad19-49c8-bffc-bceba1682122.html 成梁英毅骁健,有大将才。家贫,不能袭职,年四十犹为诸生。巡按御史器之,资入京,乃得袭。积功为辽东险山参将。隆庆元年,士蛮大入永平。成梁赴援有功,进副总兵,仍守险山。寻协守辽阳。三年四月,张摆失等屯塞下,成梁迎击斩之,歼其卒百六十有奇。-《明史》 Based on historical document Li Rusong's 6th generation ancestor Li Ying(Chinese:李英) is originally from the Korean town of Chosan in present-day North Korea (Hangul: 초산군, Hanja: 楚山郡,Chinese:楚山郡). But there is also historical document states that the further ancestor of family Li was from central China,who moved to Korea during war time. http: baike.baidu.com view 70277.htm 有考证说李如松祖籍为陇西,唐朝末年为避乱迁入朝鲜,祖上旅居朝鲜的先祖可以追查四代,名为:李哲根穗、李哈山、李厦霸努、李把图理。李把图理的儿子“李膺尼,洪武渡江 李如松 李如松 归附”明朝,归附后“授总旗”,高祖李英,授世铁岭指挥佥事,从此李氏便在铁岭安家落户。到了李如松的父亲李成梁这一代,李氏一门世袭官爵,族亲旺盛,成了明清以来铁岭著名的大户。 Expulsion Jang's extraordinary accomplishments earned him much trust of the king. Some government officials were very jealous of Jang, especially when he had achieved so much regardless of his common origin. Furthermore, as Joseon's society was rooted in Korean Confucianism, scientists and engineers were held in low esteem in parallel with craftsmen. *Chosen Army of Japan, the occupation army under Japanese rule (Korea under Japanese rule). *Chosŏn, see under Joseon or Joseon Dynasty. *''Chosun Ilbo'', a South Korean newspaper. According to Annals of Joseon Dynasty, Nam Gon now set out to slander Jo and wrote a phrase "Ju cho will become the king" (주초위왕, 走肖爲王)" with honey or sugary water on mulberry leaves so that caterpillars left behind such phrase on leaves in the palace. Annals, September 21, 1568 When two Hanja (Chinese) characters "ju"(走) and "cho"(肖) are put together, they form a new Hanja character "jo"(趙), which happen to be Jo Gwang-jo's family name. Consort Hong or Consort Park showed the leaf to Jungjong and claimed that this was the heaven's warning that Jo would take the throne himself after eliminating Hungu faction. Jungjong, who himself rose to the throne through a coup d'état, began to distrust Jo Gwang-jo. It should be noted that when Goryeo dynasty fell and was replaced by Joseon dynasty, there was popular saying "Son of wood will gain the country" (목자득국 木子得國). When two Hanja characters meaning wood(木) and son(子) are combined, they form a new character "yi"(李), which happens to be the family name of Yi Seoung-gye (Taejo of Joseon), who deposed the last king of Goryeo and founded Joseon dynasty. These phrases helped Yi Seoung-gye win popular support for the new dynasty as heaven's will.


writing quot

, it was said that no official dared to receive a bribe or exploit the populace during this time because as Inspector General, he applied law strictly. These radical reforms were very popular with the populace but were fiercely opposed by the conservative officials who helped to put Jungjong on the throne. They plotted to cause Jungjong to doubt Jo's loyalty by writing "Jo will become the king" (주초위왕, 走肖爲王) with honey on leaves so that caterpillars left behind the same phrase as if in supernatural manifestation. Jo Gwang-jo was executed, and most of his reform measures died with him in the resulting Third Literati Purge of 1519 (Korean Literati Purges#Third Literati Purge of 1519). For nearly 50 years afterward, the court politics was marred by bloody and chaotic struggles between factions backing rival consorts and princes. In-laws of the royal family wielded great power and contributed to much corruption in that era. Middle Joseon period thumb right 120px Jeong Cheol (File:정철.jpg) (1536-1593), head of the Western faction. The middle period of Joseon dynasty was marked by a series of intense and bloody power struggles between political factions that weakened the country and large-scale invasions by Japan and Manchu that nearly toppled the dynasty. Factional struggle ) (1549–1598) was a Chinese general of Ming empire who is from the town of Tieling (Chinese:鐵嶺衛), LiaoDong (Chinese:遼東) province,he was the Commander-in-chief of the Ming Empire (Ming Dynasty)'s army in the first half of the "Sino-Japanese War"(1592–1598) took place in Korea peninsula. The war was ordered by Emperor titled ShenZong (Wanli Emperor) (Chinese:明神宗) http: www.tianyabook.com lishi2005 mingshi 020.htm 冬十月壬寅,李如松提督蓟、辽、保定、山东军务,充防海御倭总兵官,救朝鲜。-《明史》 to protect Korea (Joseon) from the Japanese invasion (Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)) masterminded by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, upon the request of the King of Korea- Li Yan (Seonjo of Joseon) (Chinese:李昖), http: www.tianyabook.com lishi2005 mingshi 020.htm 五月,倭犯朝鲜,陷王京,朝鲜王李昖公奔义州求救。-《明史》 as well as following Ming empire's obligation to protect its vassal state(In Ming dynasty,Korea was considered part of China,unlike the present concept of "vassal state".) http: www.tianyabook.com lishi2005 mingshi 320.htm 朝鲜在明虽称属国,而无异域内。-《明史》 His father was Li Chengliang (Chinese:李成梁),was also a famed army commander of Ming empire,was known for his accomplishment of defending LiaoDong province from Manchus. http: www.read126.cn 194c6894-51d5-4df3-a4bc-fa1282139f82!39f5412a-ad19-49c8-bffc-bceba1682122.html 成梁英毅骁健,有大将才。家贫,不能袭职,年四十犹为诸生。巡按御史器之,资入京,乃得袭。积功为辽东险山参将。隆庆元年,士蛮大入永平。成梁赴援有功,进副总兵,仍守险山。寻协守辽阳。三年四月,张摆失等屯塞下,成梁迎击斩之,歼其卒百六十有奇。-《明史》 Based on historical document Li Rusong's 6th generation ancestor Li Ying(Chinese:李英) is originally from the Korean town of Chosan in present-day North Korea (Hangul: 초산군, Hanja: 楚山郡,Chinese:楚山郡). But there is also historical document states that the further ancestor of family Li was from central China,who moved to Korea during war time. http: baike.baidu.com view 70277.htm 有考证说李如松祖籍为陇西,唐朝末年为避乱迁入朝鲜,祖上旅居朝鲜的先祖可以追查四代,名为:李哲根穗、李哈山、李厦霸努、李把图理。李把图理的儿子“李膺尼,洪武渡江 李如松 李如松 归附”明朝,归附后“授总旗”,高祖李英,授世铁岭指挥佥事,从此李氏便在铁岭安家落户。到了李如松的父亲李成梁这一代,李氏一门世袭官爵,族亲旺盛,成了明清以来铁岭著名的大户。 Expulsion Jang's extraordinary accomplishments earned him much trust of the king. Some government officials were very jealous of Jang, especially when he had achieved so much regardless of his common origin. Furthermore, as Joseon's society was rooted in Korean Confucianism, scientists and engineers were held in low esteem in parallel with craftsmen. *Chosen Army of Japan, the occupation army under Japanese rule (Korea under Japanese rule). *Chosŏn, see under Joseon or Joseon Dynasty. *''Chosun Ilbo'', a South Korean newspaper. According to Annals of Joseon Dynasty, Nam Gon now set out to slander Jo and wrote a phrase "Ju cho will become the king" (주초위왕, 走肖爲王)" with honey or sugary water on mulberry leaves so that caterpillars left behind such phrase on leaves in the palace. Annals, September 21, 1568 When two Hanja (Chinese) characters "ju"(走) and "cho"(肖) are put together, they form a new Hanja character "jo"(趙), which happen to be Jo Gwang-jo's family name. Consort Hong or Consort Park showed the leaf to Jungjong and claimed that this was the heaven's warning that Jo would take the throne himself after eliminating Hungu faction. Jungjong, who himself rose to the throne through a coup d'état, began to distrust Jo Gwang-jo. It should be noted that when Goryeo dynasty fell and was replaced by Joseon dynasty, there was popular saying "Son of wood will gain the country" (목자득국 木子得國). When two Hanja characters meaning wood(木) and son(子) are combined, they form a new character "yi"(李), which happens to be the family name of Yi Seoung-gye (Taejo of Joseon), who deposed the last king of Goryeo and founded Joseon dynasty. These phrases helped Yi Seoung-gye win popular support for the new dynasty as heaven's will.


complex social

; gradually came to be equated with a strict observance to a complex social hierarchy, with many fine gradations. By the early 18th century the social critic Yi Junghwan (1690–1756) sarcastically complained that " W ith so many different ranks and grades separating people from one another, people tend not to have a very large circle of friends." 이중환, "총론" in 택리지, p. 355, quoted in translation in Choe et al. (2000: 162). But, even as Yi wrote, the informal social distinctions of the Early Joseon were being reinforced by legal discrimination, such as Sumptuary law Haboush (1988: 78) regulating the dress of different social groups, and laws restricting inheritance and property ownership by women. Haboush JHK (2003), ''Versions and subversions: Patriarchy and polygamy in Korean narratives'', in D Ko, JHK Haboush & JR Piggott (eds.), Women and Confucian Cultures in Premodern China, Korea and Japan. University of California Press, pp. 279-304. Yet, these laws may have been announced precisely because social mobility was increasing, particularly during the prosperous century beginning about 1710. Haboush (1988: 88-89); Oh (2006) The original social hierarchy of the Joseon Dynasty was developed based on the social hierarchy of the Goryeo era. In the 14th–16th centuries, this hierarchy was strict and stable. Since economic opportunities to change status were limited, no law was needed. In the late 17–19th centuries, however, new commercial groups emerged, and the old class system was extremely weakened. Especially, the population of Daegu region's Yangban class was expected to reach nearly 70 percent in 1858. ) (1549–1598) was a Chinese general of Ming empire who is from the town of Tieling (Chinese:鐵嶺衛), LiaoDong (Chinese:遼東) province,he was the Commander-in-chief of the Ming Empire (Ming Dynasty)'s army in the first half of the "Sino-Japanese War"(1592–1598) took place in Korea peninsula. The war was ordered by Emperor titled ShenZong (Wanli Emperor) (Chinese:明神宗) http: www.tianyabook.com lishi2005 mingshi 020.htm 冬十月壬寅,李如松提督蓟、辽、保定、山东军务,充防海御倭总兵官,救朝鲜。-《明史》 to protect Korea (Joseon) from the Japanese invasion (Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)) masterminded by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, upon the request of the King of Korea- Li Yan (Seonjo of Joseon) (Chinese:李昖), http: www.tianyabook.com lishi2005 mingshi 020.htm 五月,倭犯朝鲜,陷王京,朝鲜王李昖公奔义州求救。-《明史》 as well as following Ming empire's obligation to protect its vassal state(In Ming dynasty,Korea was considered part of China,unlike the present concept of "vassal state".) http: www.tianyabook.com lishi2005 mingshi 320.htm 朝鲜在明虽称属国,而无异域内。-《明史》 His father was Li Chengliang (Chinese:李成梁),was also a famed army commander of Ming empire,was known for his accomplishment of defending LiaoDong province from Manchus. http: www.read126.cn 194c6894-51d5-4df3-a4bc-fa1282139f82!39f5412a-ad19-49c8-bffc-bceba1682122.html 成梁英毅骁健,有大将才。家贫,不能袭职,年四十犹为诸生。巡按御史器之,资入京,乃得袭。积功为辽东险山参将。隆庆元年,士蛮大入永平。成梁赴援有功,进副总兵,仍守险山。寻协守辽阳。三年四月,张摆失等屯塞下,成梁迎击斩之,歼其卒百六十有奇。-《明史》 Based on historical document Li Rusong's 6th generation ancestor Li Ying(Chinese:李英) is originally from the Korean town of Chosan in present-day North Korea (Hangul: 초산군, Hanja: 楚山郡,Chinese:楚山郡). But there is also historical document states that the further ancestor of family Li was from central China,who moved to Korea during war time. http: baike.baidu.com view 70277.htm 有考证说李如松祖籍为陇西,唐朝末年为避乱迁入朝鲜,祖上旅居朝鲜的先祖可以追查四代,名为:李哲根穗、李哈山、李厦霸努、李把图理。李把图理的儿子“李膺尼,洪武渡江 李如松 李如松 归附”明朝,归附后“授总旗”,高祖李英,授世铁岭指挥佥事,从此李氏便在铁岭安家落户。到了李如松的父亲李成梁这一代,李氏一门世袭官爵,族亲旺盛,成了明清以来铁岭著名的大户。 Expulsion Jang's extraordinary accomplishments earned him much trust of the king. Some government officials were very jealous of Jang, especially when he had achieved so much regardless of his common origin. Furthermore, as Joseon's society was rooted in Korean Confucianism, scientists and engineers were held in low esteem in parallel with craftsmen. *Chosen Army of Japan, the occupation army under Japanese rule (Korea under Japanese rule). *Chosŏn, see under Joseon or Joseon Dynasty. *''Chosun Ilbo'', a South Korean newspaper. According to Annals of Joseon Dynasty, Nam Gon now set out to slander Jo and wrote a phrase "Ju cho will become the king" (주초위왕, 走肖爲王)" with honey or sugary water on mulberry leaves so that caterpillars left behind such phrase on leaves in the palace. Annals, September 21, 1568 When two Hanja (Chinese) characters "ju"(走) and "cho"(肖) are put together, they form a new Hanja character "jo"(趙), which happen to be Jo Gwang-jo's family name. Consort Hong or Consort Park showed the leaf to Jungjong and claimed that this was the heaven's warning that Jo would take the throne himself after eliminating Hungu faction. Jungjong, who himself rose to the throne through a coup d'état, began to distrust Jo Gwang-jo. It should be noted that when Goryeo dynasty fell and was replaced by Joseon dynasty, there was popular saying "Son of wood will gain the country" (목자득국 木子得國). When two Hanja characters meaning wood(木) and son(子) are combined, they form a new character "yi"(李), which happens to be the family name of Yi Seoung-gye (Taejo of Joseon), who deposed the last king of Goryeo and founded Joseon dynasty. These phrases helped Yi Seoung-gye win popular support for the new dynasty as heaven's will.


century white

Museum of Art title Birmingham Museum of Art : guide to the collection year 2010 publisher Birmingham Museum of Art location Birmingham, Ala isbn 978-1-904832-77-5 pages 35–39 url http: artsbma.org Beginning in the 10th century, white porcelain has been crafted in Korea. Historically overshadowed by the popularity of celadon, it was not until the 15th and 16th centuries that white porcelain was recognized for its own artistic value. Among the most prized of Korean


century white/

Museum of Art title Birmingham Museum of Art : guide to the collection year 2010 publisher Birmingham Museum of Art location Birmingham, Ala isbn 978-1-904832-77-5 pages 35–39 url http: artsbma.org Beginning in the 10th century, white porcelain has been crafted in Korea. Historically overshadowed by the popularity of celadon, it was not until the 15th and 16th centuries that white porcelain was recognized for its own artistic value. Among the most prized of Korean


landscape painting

and girls and subdued colors by middle-aged men and women. Commoners were restricted by law to everyday clothes of white, but for special occasions they wore dull shades of pale pink, light green, gray, and charcoal. Formally, when Korean men went outdoors, they were required to wear overcoats known as ''durumagi'' which reach the knees. Art File:서문보 산수도(山水圖) 15세기.jpg right 260px thumb Early Joseon landscape painting by Seo Munbo in the late 15th century


light green

and girls and subdued colors by middle-aged men and women. Commoners were restricted by law to everyday clothes of white, but for special occasions they wore dull shades of pale pink, light green, gray, and charcoal. Formally, when Korean men went outdoors, they were required to wear overcoats known as ''durumagi'' which reach the knees. Art ) (1549–1598) was a Chinese general of Ming empire who is from the town of Tieling (Chinese:鐵嶺衛), LiaoDong (Chinese:遼東) province,he was the Commander-in-chief of the Ming Empire (Ming Dynasty)'s army in the first half of the "Sino-Japanese War"(1592–1598) took place in Korea peninsula. The war was ordered by Emperor titled ShenZong (Wanli Emperor) (Chinese:明神宗) http: www.tianyabook.com lishi2005 mingshi 020.htm 冬十月壬寅,李如松提督蓟、辽、保定、山东军务,充防海御倭总兵官,救朝鲜。-《明史》 to protect Korea (Joseon) from the Japanese invasion (Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)) masterminded by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, upon the request of the King of Korea- Li Yan (Seonjo of Joseon) (Chinese:李昖), http: www.tianyabook.com lishi2005 mingshi 020.htm 五月,倭犯朝鲜,陷王京,朝鲜王李昖公奔义州求救。-《明史》 as well as following Ming empire's obligation to protect its vassal state(In Ming dynasty,Korea was considered part of China,unlike the present concept of "vassal state".) http: www.tianyabook.com lishi2005 mingshi 320.htm 朝鲜在明虽称属国,而无异域内。-《明史》 His father was Li Chengliang (Chinese:李成梁),was also a famed army commander of Ming empire,was known for his accomplishment of defending LiaoDong province from Manchus. http: www.read126.cn 194c6894-51d5-4df3-a4bc-fa1282139f82!39f5412a-ad19-49c8-bffc-bceba1682122.html 成梁英毅骁健,有大将才。家贫,不能袭职,年四十犹为诸生。巡按御史器之,资入京,乃得袭。积功为辽东险山参将。隆庆元年,士蛮大入永平。成梁赴援有功,进副总兵,仍守险山。寻协守辽阳。三年四月,张摆失等屯塞下,成梁迎击斩之,歼其卒百六十有奇。-《明史》 Based on historical document Li Rusong's 6th generation ancestor Li Ying(Chinese:李英) is originally from the Korean town of Chosan in present-day North Korea (Hangul: 초산군, Hanja: 楚山郡,Chinese:楚山郡). But there is also historical document states that the further ancestor of family Li was from central China,who moved to Korea during war time. http: baike.baidu.com view 70277.htm 有考证说李如松祖籍为陇西,唐朝末年为避乱迁入朝鲜,祖上旅居朝鲜的先祖可以追查四代,名为:李哲根穗、李哈山、李厦霸努、李把图理。李把图理的儿子“李膺尼,洪武渡江 李如松 李如松 归附”明朝,归附后“授总旗”,高祖李英,授世铁岭指挥佥事,从此李氏便在铁岭安家落户。到了李如松的父亲李成梁这一代,李氏一门世袭官爵,族亲旺盛,成了明清以来铁岭著名的大户。 Expulsion Jang's extraordinary accomplishments earned him much trust of the king. Some government officials were very jealous of Jang, especially when he had achieved so much regardless of his common origin. Furthermore, as Joseon's society was rooted in Korean Confucianism, scientists and engineers were held in low esteem in parallel with craftsmen. *Chosen Army of Japan, the occupation army under Japanese rule (Korea under Japanese rule). *Chosŏn, see under Joseon or Joseon Dynasty. *''Chosun Ilbo'', a South Korean newspaper. According to Annals of Joseon Dynasty, Nam Gon now set out to slander Jo and wrote a phrase "Ju cho will become the king" (주초위왕, 走肖爲王)" with honey or sugary water on mulberry leaves so that caterpillars left behind such phrase on leaves in the palace. Annals, September 21, 1568 When two Hanja (Chinese) characters "ju"(走) and "cho"(肖) are put together, they form a new Hanja character "jo"(趙), which happen to be Jo Gwang-jo's family name. Consort Hong or Consort Park showed the leaf to Jungjong and claimed that this was the heaven's warning that Jo would take the throne himself after eliminating Hungu faction. Jungjong, who himself rose to the throne through a coup d'état, began to distrust Jo Gwang-jo. It should be noted that when Goryeo dynasty fell and was replaced by Joseon dynasty, there was popular saying "Son of wood will gain the country" (목자득국 木子得國). When two Hanja characters meaning wood(木) and son(子) are combined, they form a new character "yi"(李), which happens to be the family name of Yi Seoung-gye (Taejo of Joseon), who deposed the last king of Goryeo and founded Joseon dynasty. These phrases helped Yi Seoung-gye win popular support for the new dynasty as heaven's will.


arts quot

and the Malla Purana, and Korean martial arts with Joseon era texts such as Muyejebo (1598). "Historical martial arts" in both Asia and Europe are mostly based on such records of the late medieval to early modern period (15th to 17th centuries; see also Koryū). Korean art has been highly influenced by Buddhism (Buddhism in Korea) and Confucianism (Korean Confucianism), which can be seen in the many traditional paintings, sculptures, ceramics and the performing


koreans

; Throughout Korean history, there were frequent pirates attacks on both the sea and land. The only purpose for the Koreans running a navy was to secure the maritime trade against the Wokou pirates (Wokou). The Korean navy repelled the pirates

the Japanese advance and decisive naval victories by Admiral Yi Sun-shin left control over sea routes in Korean hands, severely hampering Japanese supply lines. Furthermore, Ming China intervened on the side of the Koreans, sending a large force in 1593 which pushed back the Japanese together with the Koreans. During the war, Koreans developed powerful firearms and the Geobukseon (turtle ship) ships (right before the war started, however). The Joseon and Ming forces defeated

and granting the Japanese extraterritoriality. Port Hamilton was occupied (Port Hamilton Incident) by the British Navy in 1885. left thumb 160px Gojong of the Korean Empire Emperor Gojong (File:Emper Kojong.jpg) Many Koreans despised Japanese and foreign influences over their land and the corrupt oppressive rule of the Joseon Dynasty. In 1894, the Donghak Peasant Revolution saw farmers rise up in a mass rebellion, with peasant leader Jeon Bong-jun defeating the forces of local

Joseon

native_name ) status Tributary state (Imperial Chinese tributary system) of *Ming dynasty (1392–1637 (Second Manchu invasion of Korea)) *Qing dynasty (1637–1895 (Treaty of Shimonoseki)) , p.97: "Korea had sent troops into Manchuria as ordered by the Ming fn.5 ". p.97, fn.5: "In the suzerain–vassal relationships of the Chinese system of international relations, one of the duties of a tributary state was to assist its suzerain in military campaigns when requested. Korea was a tributary of the Ming at that time." p.80: "Korea yielded and . . . agreed to break relations with China, to turn over certain princes and high ministers as hostages, to observe suzerain-vassal relations toward the Manchu Ch'ing, and even to send reinforcements to the Ch'ing forces for their attacks on the Ming emperor. However, even after this, Korea's regard for China was strong; she secretly continued her relations with the Ming emperor, used Ming reign titles even after the fall of Ming fn.6 ". p.80, fn.6: "Ordinarily a tributary state in the Chinese system of international relations used for dating the reign titles of the state to whom it paid tribute. Korea, having at that time become a tributary of the Ch'ing dynasty, should have disregarded Ming reign titles, and especially so after the fall of the Ming in 1644." conventional_long_name Kingdom of Great Joseon common_name Joseon continent Asia region Korean country South Korea, North Korea era Early modern period government_type Monarchy year_start 1392 year_end 1897 event_start Coronation of Taejo (Taejo of Joseon) date_start July 17, event_end Elevation to empire (Korean Empire) date_end October 12, event1 Promulgation of the Korean alphabet (Hangul) date_event1 October 9, 1446 event2 Seven-Year War (Japanese invasions of Korea) date_event2 1592–1598 event3 Manchu invasions (Second Manchu invasion of Korea) date_event3 1636–1637 event4 Treaty of Ganghwa date_event4 February 27, 1876 event_pre Coup of 1388 date_pre May 20, 1388 p1 Goryeo flag_p1 s1 Korean Empire flag_s1 Flag of Korea 1882.svg image_flag Flag of the king of Joseon.svg flag_border no flag List of Korean flags flag_type Royal standard image_coat Coat of Arms of Joseon Korea.png symbol symbol_type Royal emblem image_map Korea (orthographic projection).svg image_map_caption Territory of Joseon after Jurchen conquest of King Sejong capital Hanseong (Seoul) (Seoul) latd 37 latm 32 latNS N longd 126 longm 59 longEW E national_motto 대명천지 (:ko:대명천지) (Hanja:大明天地 (:zh:大明天地)) (English: The glorious land) common_languages Korean (Korean language), Classical Chinese religion Korean Buddhism Korean Shamanism Christianity (Christianity in Korea) (from 1886) currency Mun (Korean mun) (1633–1892) Yang (Korean yang) (1892–97) title_leader leader1 Taejo (Taejo of Joseon) (first) year_leader1 1392–1398 leader2 Sejong the Great (Sejong the Great of Joseon)(4th) year_leader2 1418–1450 leader3 Jeongjo (Jeongjo of Joseon)(22th) year_leader3 1776–1800 leader4 Gojong (Gojong of Korea)(26th) 1 year_leader4 1863–1897 title_deputy Yeonguijeong deputy1 Jeong Do-jeon year_deputy1 1392-1398 deputy2 Hwang Hui year_deputy2 1431–1449 deputy3 Ryu Seongryong year_deputy3 1592–1598 deputy4 Chae Jegong year_deputy4 1793–1801 stat_year2 1753 stat_area1 stat_pop2 est. 18,960,000 footnotes 1 Became Emperor of Korea in 1897 today thumb Korean plated mail (File:Joseon plate mail in Gyeongbokgung Palace.jpg) '''Joseon''' ( ; Hanja: 朝鮮; also ''Chosŏn'', ''Choson'', ''Chosun'', ''Cho-sen'') was a Korean kingdom founded by Taejo Yi Seong-gye (Taejo of Joseon) that lasted for approximately five centuries, from July 1392 to October 1897. It was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of the Goryeo dynasty in what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul (서울). The kingdom's northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the Amnok (Yalu river) and Duman (or Tumen) (Tumen River) rivers through the subjugation of the Jurchens. Joseon was the last dynasty of Korean history and the longest-ruling Confucian (Confucianism) dynasty.

During its reign, Joseon encouraged the entrenchment of Chinese (China) Confucian ideals and doctrines in Korean society. Neo-Confucianism was installed as the new dynasty's state ideology. Buddhism was accordingly discouraged and occasionally faced persecutions by the dynasty. Joseon consolidated its effective rule over the territory of current Korea and saw the height of classical Korean culture, trade, science, literature, and technology. However, the dynasty was severely weakened during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when invasions by the neighboring states of Japan (Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)) and Qing (Qing dynasty) nearly overran the peninsula, leading to an increasingly harsh isolationist policy for which the country became known as the "hermit kingdom". After the end of invasions from Manchuria, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace.

However, whatever power the kingdom recovered during its isolation further waned as the 18th century came to a close, and faced with internal strife, power struggles, international pressure and rebellions (list of revolutions and rebellions) at home, the Joseon dynasty declined rapidly in the late 19th century.

The Joseon period has left a substantial legacy to modern Korea; much of modern Korean etiquette, cultural norms, societal attitudes towards current issues, and the modern Korean language and its dialects derive from the culture and traditions of Joseon.

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