Jerusalem

What is Jerusalem known for?


temple set

: King Solomon lays the foundation for the First Temple. Set in Jerusalem during the Third Crusade, it describes how the wise Jewish merchant Nathan, the enlightened sultan Saladin, and the (initially anonymous) Templar (Knights Templar) bridge their gaps between Judaism, Islam and Christianity. Its major themes are friendship, tolerance, relativism of God, a rejection of miracles and a need for communication. During the 1980s, José José sold out Madison


run concentration

, but grew up in Czernowitz (now in Ukraine), in Bukovina, Romania., His Lifelines, Haaretz http: www.standpointmag.co.uk drawing-board-june-10-avigdor-arikha His family faced forced deportation in 1941 to the Romanian-run concentration camps of Transnistria (now in Western Ukraine), where his father died. He managed to survive thanks to the drawings he made of deportation scenes, which were shown to delegates of the International Red Cross. As a result of that, he was given a the name of another young prisoner who was killed and both he and his sister were freed and brought to Palestine (Palestine (mandate)) in 1944. Until 1948, he lived in Kibbutz Ma'ale HaHamisha. In 1948 he was severely wounded in Israel's War of Independence. From 1946 to 1949, he attended the Bezalel School of Art (Bezalel Academy of Art and Design) in Jerusalem; its teaching was based on the Bauhaus methods. In 1949 he was awarded a scholarship which enabled him to study at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, where he learned the fresco technique. From 1954 on Arikha resided in Paris. Arikha was married from 1961 until his death to the American poet and writer Anne Atik, with whom he had two daughters. Arikha died in Paris from complications of cancer on April 29, 2010, http: www.nytimes.com 2010 05 01 arts 01arikha.html the day after his 81st birthday. Egypt had dispatched an expeditionary force of around 10,000 men under the command of Major General Ahmad Ali al-Mwawi to Palestine in April 1948. Mwawi had separated his forces into two parts, one to march towards Jerusalem, the other to advance up the coast to Tel Aviv. The Egyptians had bypassed several settlements along their route of advance, but on reaching Yad Mordechai on May 16, Mwawi decided that the settlement was far larger and well defended than to be simply bypassed. The Egyptians had the benefit of armor, artillery and air support. They also mustered 2,500 soldiers for the assault, far outnumbering the commune's 130 defenders. image3 Josef Tal at the Electronic Music Studio.jpg caption3 Israeli composer Josef Tal at the Electronic Music Studio in Jerusalem (~1965). On the right a sound synthesizer, on the left a Studer C37 Vacuum tube reel-to-reel tape recorder Judaea was the stage of three major rebellions (see Jewish-Roman wars). These are the Great Jewish Revolt (66–70 CE), the Kitos War (115–117 CE), and Bar Kokhba's revolt (132–135 CE). After the last of these, the Roman Emperor Hadrian (Hadrian#Hadrian in Judea) changed the name of the province to ''Syria Palaestina'' and Jerusalem to ''Aelia Capitolina'' in an attempt to erase the historical ties of the Jewish people to the region. H.H. Ben-Sasson, ''A History of the Jewish People'', Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, page 334: "In an effort to wipe out all memory of the bond between the Jews and the land, Hadrian changed the name of the province from Iudaea to Syria-Palestina, a name that became common in non-Jewish literature." Ariel Lewin. ''The archaeology of Ancient Judea and Palestine''. Getty Publications, 2005 p. 33. "It seems clear that by choosing a seemingly neutral name - one juxtaposing that of a neighboring province with the revived name of an ancient geographical entity (Palestine), already known from the writings of Herodotus - Hadrian was intending to suppress any connection between the Jewish people and that land." ISBN 0-892-36800-4 In 63 BCE, Aristobulus was besieged in Jerusalem by his brother's armies. He sent an envoy to Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (praetor 56 BC)), Pompey's representative in the area. Aristobulus offered a massive bribe to be rescued, which Pompey promptly accepted. Afterwards, Aristobulus accused Scaurus of extortion. Since Scaurus was Pompey's brother in law and protégée, the general retaliated by putting Hyrcanus in charge of the kingdom as Ethnarch and High Priest (Kohen Gadol), but he was denied the title of King. When Pompey was defeated by Julius Caesar, Hyrcanus was succeeded by his courtier Antipater the Idumaean, also known as Antipas, as the first Roman Procurator (List of Kings of Judea#Hasmonean High Priests and Kings.2C 153–37 B.C.). In 57–55 BCE, Aulus Gabinius, proconsul of Syria (Syria (Roman province)#Syria in antiquity), split the former Hasmonean Kingdom of Israel into five districts of the Sanhedrin. Antiquities of the Jews 14.5.4: "And when he had ordained five councils (συνέδρια), he distributed the nation into the same number of parts. So these councils governed the people; the first was at Jerusalem, the second at Gadara (Umm Qais), the third at Amathus, the fourth at Jericho, and the fifth at Sepphoris (Tzippori) in Galilee." Jewish Encyclopedia: Sanhedrin: "Josephus uses συνέδριον for the first time in connection with the decree of the Roman governor of Syria, Gabinius (57 BCE), who abolished the constitution and the then existing form of government of Palestine and divided the country into five provinces, at the head of each of which a sanhedrin was placed ("Ant." xiv. 5, § 4)." thumb 350px The Roman empire in the time of Hadrian (File:Roman Empire 125.png) (ruled 117–138 CE), showing, in western Asia, the Roman province of '''Iudaea''' (modern Israel). 1 legion (Roman legion) deployed in 125. In 6 CE Judea became part of a larger Roman province, called ''Iudaea'', which was formed by combining Judea proper (Judea) (biblical Judah (Kingdom of Judah)) with Samaria and Idumea (biblical Edom). H.H. Ben-Sasson, ''A History of the Jewish People'', Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, page 246: "When Archelaus was deposed from the ethnarchy in 6 CE, Judea proper, Samaria and Idumea were converted into a Roman province under the name Iudaea." Even though ''Iudaea'' is simply derived from the Latin for ''Judea'', many historians use it to distinguish the Roman province from the previous territory and history. Iudaea province did not include Galilee, Gaulanitis (the Golan), nor Peraea (Perea (Holy Land)) or the Decapolis. The capital was at Caesarea (Caesarea Maritima), ''A History of the Jewish People'', H.H. Ben-Sasson editor, 1976, page 247: "When Judea was converted into a Roman province in 6 CE, page 246 , Jerusalem ceased to be the administrative capital of the country. The Romans moved the governmental residence and military headquarters to Caesarea. The centre of government was thus removed from Jerusalem, and the administration became increasingly based on inhabitants of the hellenistic cities (Sebaste, Caesarea and others)." not Jerusalem which had been the capital for King David, King Hezekiah, King Josiah, the Maccabees and Herod the Great. Quirinius became Legate (Legatus) (Governor) of Syria (Syria (Roman province)#Syria in antiquity) and conducted the first Roman tax census of Syria and Iudaea (Census of Quirinius), which was opposed by the Zealots. Josephus' Antiquities 18 Iudaea was not a Senatorial province, nor exactly an Imperial province, but instead was a "satellite of Syria" H.H. Ben-Sasson, ''A History of the Jewish People'', page 247-248: "Consequently, the province of Judea may be regarded as a satellite of Syria, though, in view of the measure of independence left to its governor in domestic affairs, it would be wrong to say that in the Julio-Claudian era Judea was legally part of the province of Syria." governed (List of Kings of Judea#Roman Prefects and Procurators of Iudaea Province.2C 6–132 AD) by a prefect who was a knight of the equestrian order (Equestrian (Roman)) (as was Roman Egypt (Egypt (Roman province))), not a former consul or praetor of senatorial rank (Roman senate). Josephus, Antiquities 17.355 & 18.1-2; Its revenue was of little importance to the Roman treasury, but it controlled the land and coastal sea routes to the bread basket Egypt (Egypt (Roman province)) and was a border province against the Parthian Empire because of the Jewish connections to Babylonia (since the Babylonian exile). Pontius Pilate was one of these prefects, from 26 to 36 CE. Caiaphas was one of the appointed High Priest (Kohen Gadol)s of Herod's Temple, being appointed by the Prefect Valerius Gratus in 18. Both were deposed by the Syrian Legate Lucius Vitellius in 36 CE. Military record His actions against the Muslim forces working for the liberation of Jerusalem were so effective, that they were forced to propose a surrender. In return for the Templars calling off their siege at Damietta, the Islamic forces would return many Frankish soldiers, halt attacks on Jerusalem and most importantly, return the part of the True Cross, captured from the Europeans at the Battle of Hattin. Catholic pressure meant the Muslim terms were refused and the carnage continued. His military victories, aided by the Hospitaller knights, made him a renowned warrior. On April 24, Laskov presided over a huge military parade in Jerusalem to mark the tenth anniversary of Israel's independence. This took place despite warnings by Jordan that such a parade would be considered an act of aggression. During the parade, Laskov displayed Israel's latest military hardware, including weapons captured from Egypt in the Sinai and from Syria during clashes in the Hula Valley. death_date July 16, 1995 birth_place Jerusalem, Mandate Palestine (British Mandate for Palestine) death_place Tel Aviv, Israel Military career Gur was born in Jerusalem and later joined the Palmach Haganah (the underground armed group of the Jews in the British Mandate of Palestine). He continued serving in a military capacity with the founding of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) during the Israeli War of Independence (1948 Arab-Israeli War) in 1948. In 1966 Gur was appointed as the commander of the 55th (Reserve) Paratroopers Brigade, which he led during the Six-Day War. Gur and his troops were part of the assault force which wrested Jerusalem from the Jordanians, and which were the first to visit the Western Wall and the Temple Mount. The pictures of paratroopers crying at the Wall and Gur's audio recording in the communication networks, "The Temple Mount is in our hands!" ( Commons:Category:Jerusalem Wikipedia:Jerusalem Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Jerusalem


annual+habit

-Norman 14th Jerusalem, Albania - A 1915 article in ''Overland Monthly'' magazine made note of the birds' annual habit of nesting beneath the Mission's eaves and archways from Spring through Fall, and made the swallows the "signature icon" of the Mission; Father O'Sullivan utilized interest in the phenomenon to generate public interest in restoration efforts during his two decades in residence. Yenne, p. 78 One of bell ringer Acú's most


unique physical

Patai, Raphael (1988). ''The Messiah Texts''. Wayne State University Press. pp. 165–166. If MNT were realized, some resources would remain limited, because unique physical objects are limited (a plot of land in the real Jerusalem, mining rights to the larger near-earth asteroids) or because they depend on the goodwill of a particular person (the love of a famous person, a live audience in a musical concert). Demand will always exceed supply for some things, and a political economy may continue to exist in any case. Whether the interest in these limited resources would diminish with the advent of virtual reality, where they could be easily substituted, is yet unclear. One reason why it might not is a hypothetical preference for "the real thing", although such an opinion could easily be mollified if virtual reality were to develop to a certain level of quality. Events * 70 – Siege of Jerusalem (Siege of Jerusalem (70)): Titus and his Roman legions breach the Second Wall of Jerusalem. The Jewish defenders retreat to the First Wall. The Romans build a circumvallation, cutting down all trees within fifteen kilometers. *1416 – The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund, a supporter of Antipope John XXIII, burns Jerome of Prague following a trial for heresy (Christian heresy). Of the 68 cities listed on Hasbro Inc.’s website for the vote, Jerusalem, was chosen as one of the 20 cities to be featured in the newest ''Monopoly'' World Edition. ''Monopoly'' Contest Stirs Up Jerusalem Conflict, Associated Press, published February 21, 2008. Before the vote took place, a Hasbro employee in the London office eliminated the country signifier “Israel” after the city, in response to pressure from pro-Palestinian (Palestinian people) advocacy groups. Commons:Category:Jerusalem Wikipedia:Jerusalem Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Jerusalem


strip drawing

of the conflict and the realization of the national visions of both parties. It would give Palestinians almost all of the West Bank and Gaza Strip drawing Israel's borders close to what existed prior to the Israeli annexation of territory at the culmination of the 1967 war (Six-Day War). Jerusalem would be divided administratively with East Jerusalem serving as the capital for the Palestinian state and West Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. In return for removing most of the Israeli


design including

. The National Museum of Decorative Arts (National Museum of Decorative Arts, Trondheim) boasts a large collection of decorative arts and design, including a great number of tapestries from the Norwegian tapestry artist Hannah Ryggen, as well as Norway's only permanent exhibibition of Japanese arts and crafts. http: www.nkim.museum.no Sverresborg, also named


silver metal

The Jews arrived in Chendamangalam after the destruction of the second temple and the final desolation of Jerusalem in (AD 69) and founded a colony. They moved to Fort Kochi in 1341 AD after the Great flood. All the synagogues in Kerala - Chendamangalam, Mala (Mala, Kerala), and Kochi (Kochi, India) - have similar traditional architectural (architecture) features: a central bimah of brass or silver metal on a concrete or stone base, an ark on the western wall, a balcony above the eastern entry to the sanctuary that is used by the reader on certain holidays. Behind the balcony is the women's gallery, with a stairway leading up to it, usually from outside the building. The synagogue has been restored and has an exhibit which is open to visitors from 9:30 to 5:00 during the week. In the autumn of 1840 Wilkie resolved on a voyage to the East. Passing through Holland and Germany, he reached Constantinople, where, while detained by the war in Syria, he painted a portrait of the young sultan. He then sailed for Smyrna (İzmir) and travelled to Jerusalem, where he remained for some five busy weeks. The last work of all upon which he was engaged was a portrait of Mehemet Ali, done at Alexandria. On his return voyage he suffered from an attack of illness at Malta, and died at sea off Gibraltar on the morning of 1 June 1841. His body was consigned to the deep in the Bay of Gibraltar. thumb right Szenes's gravestone (Image:Chana Senesh grave.JPG) Her diary was published in Hebrew in 1946. Her remains were brought to Israel in 1950 and buried in the cemetery on Mount Herzl, Jerusalem. Her tombstone was brought to Israel in November 2007 and placed in Sdot Yam. Tombstone of WWII poet and spy Hannah Szenes arrives in Israel Haaretz, 25 November 2007 In Jerusalem, tens of thousands of people finish off the nighttime study session by walking to the Western Wall before dawn and joining the sunrise minyan there. Commons:Category:Jerusalem Wikipedia:Jerusalem Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Jerusalem


defense location

978-90-411-0026-9 ean 9789041100269 Arad is located mostly on the western and southwestern Kidod Range, and the Arad Plain, which marks the southwestern end of the Judean Desert


strong culture

contacts and trades with Venice (Republic of Venice) and other Italian (Italy) city-states. Another major change in the ethnic composition of Lithuania was the extermination of the Jewish population during the Holocaust. Before World War II about 7.5% of the population was Jewish; they were concentrated in cities and towns and had a significant influence on crafts and business. They were called Litvaks (Lithuanian Jews) and had a strong culture. The population of Vilnius, sometimes

2006, p. 68–9 In the past, the ethnic composition of Lithuania has varied dramatically. The most prominent change was the extermination of the Jewish (Jews) population during the Holocaust. Before World War II, about 7.5% of the population was Jewish ; they were concentrated in cities and towns and had a significant influence on crafts and business. They were called Litvaks and had a strong culture. The population of Vilnius, which


modern term

for the modern

term Zionism

Jerusalem

'''Jerusalem''' ( located on a plateau in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean (Mediterranean Sea) and the Dead Sea, is one of the oldest cities in the world. It is considered holy (Holy city) to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Israelis (Israeli people) and Palestinians (Palestinian people) both claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally.

During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times. In 1538, walls were built (Walls of Jerusalem) around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City (Old City (Jerusalem)), which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian (Armenian Quarter), Christian (Christian Quarter), Jewish (Jewish Quarter (Jerusalem)), and Muslim (Muslim Quarter) Quarters. The Old City became a World Heritage site in 1981, and is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Modern Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries.

According to the Biblical tradition (Tanakh), King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united Kingdom of Israel (Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)), and his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple (Temple in Jerusalem); there is no archaeological evidence that Solomon's Temple existed or any record of it, other than the Bible. BBC Science and Nature These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. Since the 10th century BCE: * "Israel was first forged into a unified nation from Jerusalem some 3,000 years ago, when King David (David) seized the crown and united the twelve tribes (Israelites) from this city... For a thousand years Jerusalem was the seat of Jewish sovereignty, the household site of kings, the location of its legislative councils and courts. In exile, the Jewish nation came to be identified with the city that had been the site of its ancient capital. Jews, wherever they were, prayed for its restoration." Roger Friedland, Richard D. Hecht. ''To Rule Jerusalem'', University of California Press, 2000, p. 8. ISBN 0-520-22092-7 * "The centrality of Jerusalem to Judaism is so strong that even secular Jews express their devotion and attachment to the city, and cannot conceive of a modern State of Israel without it.... For Jews Jerusalem is sacred simply because it exists... Though Jerusalem's sacred character goes back three millennia...". Leslie J. Hoppe. ''The Holy City: Jerusalem in the theology of the Old Testament'', Liturgical Press, 2000, p. 6. ISBN 0-8146-5081-3 * "Ever since King David made Jerusalem the capital of Israel 3,000 years ago, the city has played a central role in Jewish existence." Mitchell Geoffrey Bard, ''The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Middle East Conflict'', Alpha Books, 2002, p. 330. ISBN 0-02-864410-7 * "Jerusalem became the center of the Jewish people some 3,000 years ago" Moshe Maoz, Sari Nusseibeh, ''Jerusalem: Points of Friction – And Beyond'', Brill Academic Publishers, 2000, p. 1. ISBN 90-411-8843-6 * "The Jewish people are inextricably bound to the city of Jerusalem. No other city has played such a dominant role in the history, politics, culture, religion, national life and consciousness of a people as has Jerusalem in the life of Jewry and Judaism. Since King David established the city as the capital of the Jewish state circa 1000 BCE, it has served as the symbol and most profound expression of the Jewish people's identity as a nation." Basic Facts you should know: Jerusalem, Anti-Defamation League, 2007. Retrieved 28 March 2007. The sobriquet of holy city (''עיר הקודש'', transliterated ''‘ir haqodesh'') was probably attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic (Babylonian captivity) times. Reinoud Oosting, The holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint Isaiah 52:1 πόλις ἡ ἁγία. which Christians adopted as their own authority, Joseph T. Lienhard,''The Bible, the Church, and Authority: The Canon of the Christian Bible in History and Theology,'' Liturgical Press, 1995 pp.65–66:'The Septuagint is a Jewish translation and was also used in the synagogue. But at the end of the first century C.E. many Jews ceased to use the Septuagint because the early Chritians had adopted it as their own translation, and it began to be considered a Christian translation.' was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion (Crucifixion of Jesus) there. In Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Mecca and Medina. Third-holiest city in Islam: * * * ''Middle East peace plans'' by Willard A. Beling: "The Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount is the third holiest site in Sunni Islam after Mecca and Medina". In Islamic tradition (Islam) in 610 CE it became the first Qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer (salat), and Muhammad made his Night Journey (Isra and Mi'raj) there ten years later, ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran. As a result, despite having an area of only the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount and its Western Wall, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the Dome of the Rock, the Garden Tomb and al-Aqsa Mosque.

Today, the status of Jerusalem (Positions on Jerusalem) remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and later annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and later annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it. Israel's 1980 Basic Law (Basic Laws of Israel) the Jerusalem Law refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. The international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory (Palestinian territories) occupied (military occupation) by Israel. Resolution 298 September 25, 1971: "Recalling its resolutions... concerning measures and actions by Israel designed to change the status of the Israeli-occupied section of Jerusalem,..." The international community does not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital, and the city hosts no foreign embassies.

In 2011, Jerusalem had a population of 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000 (62%), Muslims 281,000 (35%), Christians 14,000 (around 2%) and 9,000 (1%) were not classified by religion.

All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset (Israel's parliament), the residences of the Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Israel) and President (President of Israel), and the Supreme Court (Supreme Court of Israel). Jerusalem is home to the Hebrew University (Hebrew University of Jerusalem) and to the Israel Museum with its Shrine of the Book.

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