What is Jerusalem known for?

building history

Commons:Category:Jerusalem Wikipedia:Jerusalem Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Jerusalem

leading cultural

is considered the hub of secular culture, although many leading cultural institutions are located in Jerusalem. The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra plays at venues throughout the country and abroad. The Israel Broadcasting Authority has a symphony orchestra that performs in Israel and around the world, and almost every city has its own orchestras, many of the musicians hailing from the former Soviet Union. Israeli dance companies, among them the Batsheva (Batsheva Dance Company) and Bat Dor, are highly acclaimed in the dance world. Theater is also an important facet of the culture of Israel. The national theater, Habima (Habima Theatre) was established in 1917. Other theater companies include the Cameri Theater, Beit Lessin Theater, Gesher Theater (which performs in Hebrew and Russian), Haifa Theater and Beersheba Theater. Safed, Jaffa and Ein Hod are home to artist colonies. Major art museums operate in Tel Aviv, Herzliya and Jerusalem, as well as in many towns and kibbutzim. Jerusalem's Israel Museum has a special pavilion showcasing the Dead Sea scrolls and a large collection of Jewish religious art, Israeli art, sculptures and Old Masters paintings. Newspapers appear in dozens of languages, and every city and town publishes a local newsletter. Via Switzerland to England, ambassador After leaving Rome, where he had become intimate with all that was most interesting in the cosmopolitan society of the papal capital, Bunsen went to England, where, except for a short term as Prussian ambassador to Switzerland (1839–1841), he was destined to pass the rest of his official life. The accession to the throne of Prussia of Frederick William IV (Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia), on 7 June 1840, made a great change in Bunsen's career. Ever since their first meeting in 1828 the two men had been close friends and had exchanged ideas in an intimate correspondence, published under Ranke (Leopold Von Ranke)'s editorship in 1873. Enthusiasm for evangelical religion and admiration for the Anglican Church they held in common, and Bunsen was the instrument naturally selected for realizing the king's fantastic scheme of setting up at Jerusalem a Prusso-Anglican bishopric (Anglican-German Bishopric in Jerusalem) as a sort of advertisement of the unity and aggressive force of Protestantism. Early life Sununu was born in Havana, Cuba, the son of Victoria (née Dada) and John Saleh Sununu, an international film distributor. 1 He is of Palestinian Christian descent. His father grew up in Jerusalem and his mother was born in San Salvador, El Salvador. http: 2000 04 12 classified paid-notice-deaths-sununu-victoria-dada.html He is a Maronite Catholic . The prayer is recited standing with feet firmly together, and preferably while facing Jerusalem. In Orthodox public worship, the Shemoneh Esrei is usually first prayed silently by the congregation and is then repeated aloud by the ''chazzan'' (reader); the repetition's original purpose was to give illiterate members of the congregation a chance to participate in the collective prayer by answering "Amen." Conservative (Conservative Judaism) and Reform (Reform Judaism) congregations sometimes abbreviate the public recitation of the Amidah according to their customs. The rules (Halacha) governing the composition and recital of the Amidah are discussed primarily in the Talmud, in Chapters 4-5 of Berakhot (Berakhot (Talmud)); in the Mishneh Torah, in chapters 4-5 of ''Hilkhot Tefilah''; and in the Shulchan Aruch, Laws 89-127. Facing Jerusalem The Amidah is preferably said facing Jerusalem, as the patriarch Jacob proclaimed, "And this place is the gateway to Heaven," Genesis 28:17 where prayers may ascend. The Talmud records the following Baraita on this topic: The most recent known change to the text of the standard daily ''Amidah'' by an authority accepted by Orthodox Judaism was done by the Arizal in the 16th century. He formulated a text of the ''Amidah'' which seems to be a fusion of the Ashkenazi and Sepharadi text in accordance with his understanding of Kabbalah. Following the establishment of the State of Israel and the reunification of Jerusalem, some Orthodox authorities proposed changes to the special ''Nachem'' ("Console...") prayer commemorating the destruction of Jerusalem added to the Amidah on Tisha B'av in light of these events. Based in New York City, the magazine has 22 bureaus: nine in the U.S.: New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago Detroit, Dallas, Miami, Washington, D.C., Boston and San Francisco, as well as overseas in London, Paris, Berlin, Moscow, Jerusalem, Baghdad, Tokyo, Hong Kong, Beijing, South Asia, Cape Town, Mexico City and Buenos Aires. Commons:Category:Jerusalem Wikipedia:Jerusalem Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Jerusalem

short campaign

; (Hardwicke (Catherine Hardwicke), 2006). The goal of the campaign depends on which type of campaign is played. The short campaign requires the player to defeat one or two enemy factions (for example, Holy Roman Empire must defeat its historical enemies Milan and Denmark) and control at least 15 settlements. The long campaign requires the player to control at least 45 territories and one or two significant cities, which are faction specific, such as Jerusalem, Granada, Rome or Constantinople. He was originally from Meer (Meer (Egypt)) and his lay name was ''Shenouda''. He became monk in the Monastery of Saint Pishoy in Scetes. He was ordained on Sunday, 16 Paoni, 1303 A.M. (June 20, 1587 AD). The enthronement celebration was headed by Avva Zacharias, Bishop of Jerusalem, and Avva Kyrellos El-Khiami, in the Church of Saint Mercurius (Saint Mercurius Church in Coptic Cairo) in Old Cairo. At the time of his ordination, the Copts were divided, and they chose for themselves four different patriarchs. His papacy was later confirmed by everyone. He was contemporary of the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) Sultan Ahmed I. The major religions followed in Kerala are Hinduism (56.2% ), Islam (24.7% — Muslims of Kerala) and Christianity (19.00%). Indian Census Kerala also had a tiny Jewish population (Cochin Jews) until recently, said to date from 587 BC when they fled the occupation of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar (Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon). Edna Fernandes, The Last Jews of Kerala, Skyhorse Publishing, 2008 The 2001 Indian census recorded only 51 Jews in Kerala. The synagogue (Paradesi Synagogue) in Kochi (Kochi, India) is the oldest in the Commonwealth of Nations. The state has many famous Temples, Mosques, and Churches (church (building)). The oldest church in India is found in Palayoor, purportedly constructed in A.D. 52 by St. Thomas (Thomas the Apostle). Importantly, Kerala has one of the most secular majority populations in India. The ''' Commons:Category:Jerusalem Wikipedia:Jerusalem Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Jerusalem

images articles

on the Jewish Quarter (Jewish Quarter (Jerusalem)) in the Old City of Jerusalem. One such operation was the Deir Yassin Massacre of Arab villagers in April 1948. The day after the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel on 14 May 1948, Begin broadcast a speech on radio declaring that the Irgun was finally moving out of its underground status.images articles 12.pdf Begin's Speech on Saturday 15 May 1948 (Hebrew) ref>

modern manufacture

a prominent part in the investigation of the so-called Tiara of Saitaferne. This tiara had been purchased by the Louvre for 400,000 ''francs'', and exhibited as a genuine antique. Much discussion arose as to the perpetrators of the fraud, some believing that it came from southern Russia. It was agreed, however, that the whole object, except perhaps the band round the tiara, was of modern manufacture. Artistic career Jacob Steinhardt worked mainly in woodcuts depicting bible biblical

rock biography

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based knowledge

, all the way to Los Angeles. They toured as a three piece band for all of 2004 and then Maurer moved back to Chicago to rejoin the Greenskeepers and debuted the full four piece band at a Miami music conference in 2005. ''Billboard (Billboard magazine)'' called it the stand out performance of the conference. '''''' is an Internet-based knowledge exchange, which includes WikiAnswers, ReferenceAnswers, VideoAnswers, and five international language Q&A communities

huge military

, Laskov presided over a huge military parade in Jerusalem to mark the tenth anniversary of Israel's independence. This took place despite warnings by Jordan that such a parade would be considered an act of aggression. During the parade, Laskov displayed Israel's latest military hardware, including weapons captured from Egypt in the Sinai and from Syria during clashes in the Hula Valley. death_date July 16, 1995 birth_place Jerusalem, Mandate Palestine (British Mandate for Palestine) death_place Tel Aviv, Israel Military career Gur was born in Jerusalem and later joined the Palmach Haganah (the underground armed group of the Jews in the British Mandate of Palestine). He continued serving in a military capacity with the founding of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) during the Israeli War of Independence (1948 Arab-Israeli War) in 1948. In 1966 Gur was appointed as the commander of the 55th (Reserve) Paratroopers Brigade, which he led during the Six-Day War. Gur and his troops were part of the assault force which wrested Jerusalem from the Jordanians, and which were the first to visit the Western Wall and the Temple Mount. The pictures of paratroopers crying at the Wall and Gur's audio recording in the communication networks, "The Temple Mount is in our hands!" ( Commons:Category:Jerusalem Wikipedia:Jerusalem Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Jerusalem

monumental projects

of Jerusalem, Israel, in 1962. He received his Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy) in physics from the University of California, Berkeley in 1966 under the supervision of Geoffrey Chew. The most significant surviving monumental projects of this period were undertaken outside of the imperial capital. The church of Hagios Demetrios in Thessaloniki was rebuilt after a fire in the mid-seventh century. The new sections include mosaics executed in a remarkably abstract style. L. Brubaker, "Elites and patronage in early Byzantium: the evidence from Hagios Demetrios in Thessalonike," in J. Haldon et al., eds., ''The Byzantine and early Islamic Near East: elites old and new'' (Princeton, 2004), 63-90. The church of the Koimesis in Nicaea (present-day Iznik), destroyed in the early 20th century but documented through photographs, demonstrates the simultaneous survival of a more classical style of church decoration. C. Barber, “The Koimesis Church, Nicaea: the limits of representation on the eve of iconoclasm,” ''Jahrbuch der österreichischen Byzantinistik'' 41 (1991), 43-60. The churches of Rome, still a Byzantine territory in this period, also include important surviving decorative programs, especially Santa Maria Antiqua, Sant'Agnese fuori le mura, and the Chapel of San Venanzio in San Giovanni in Laterano. G. Matthiae, ''Pittura romana del medioevo'' (Rome, 1987). Byzantine mosaicists probably also contributed to the decoration of the early Umayyad monuments, including the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and the Great Mosque of Damascus (Umayyad Mosque). K.A.C. Creswell, ''Early Muslim architecture'' (New York, 1979); F.B. Flood, ''The Great Mosque of Damascus: studies on the making of an Umayyad visual culture'' (Leiden, 2001). '''Rachel's Tomb''' ( Commons:Category:Jerusalem Wikipedia:Jerusalem Dmoz:Regional Middle East Israel Localities Jerusalem

large commitment

is said to have stretched from the Euphrates in the north to the Red Sea in the south; it would have required a large commitment of men and arms and a high level of organization to conquer, subdue, and govern this area. But there is little archaeological evidence of Jerusalem being a sufficiently large city in the 10th century BCE, and Judah (Kingdom of Judah) seems to be sparsely settled in that time period. Since Jerusalem has been destroyed and then subsequently rebuilt


'''Jerusalem''' ( located on a plateau in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean (Mediterranean Sea) and the Dead Sea, is one of the oldest cities in the world. It is considered holy (Holy city) to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Israelis (Israeli people) and Palestinians (Palestinian people) both claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally.

During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times. In 1538, walls were built (Walls of Jerusalem) around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City (Old City (Jerusalem)), which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian (Armenian Quarter), Christian (Christian Quarter), Jewish (Jewish Quarter (Jerusalem)), and Muslim (Muslim Quarter) Quarters. The Old City became a World Heritage site in 1981, and is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Modern Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries.

According to the Biblical tradition (Tanakh), King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united Kingdom of Israel (Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)), and his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple (Temple in Jerusalem); there is no archaeological evidence that Solomon's Temple existed or any record of it, other than the Bible. BBC Science and Nature These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. Since the 10th century BCE: * "Israel was first forged into a unified nation from Jerusalem some 3,000 years ago, when King David (David) seized the crown and united the twelve tribes (Israelites) from this city... For a thousand years Jerusalem was the seat of Jewish sovereignty, the household site of kings, the location of its legislative councils and courts. In exile, the Jewish nation came to be identified with the city that had been the site of its ancient capital. Jews, wherever they were, prayed for its restoration." Roger Friedland, Richard D. Hecht. ''To Rule Jerusalem'', University of California Press, 2000, p. 8. ISBN 0-520-22092-7 * "The centrality of Jerusalem to Judaism is so strong that even secular Jews express their devotion and attachment to the city, and cannot conceive of a modern State of Israel without it.... For Jews Jerusalem is sacred simply because it exists... Though Jerusalem's sacred character goes back three millennia...". Leslie J. Hoppe. ''The Holy City: Jerusalem in the theology of the Old Testament'', Liturgical Press, 2000, p. 6. ISBN 0-8146-5081-3 * "Ever since King David made Jerusalem the capital of Israel 3,000 years ago, the city has played a central role in Jewish existence." Mitchell Geoffrey Bard, ''The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Middle East Conflict'', Alpha Books, 2002, p. 330. ISBN 0-02-864410-7 * "Jerusalem became the center of the Jewish people some 3,000 years ago" Moshe Maoz, Sari Nusseibeh, ''Jerusalem: Points of Friction – And Beyond'', Brill Academic Publishers, 2000, p. 1. ISBN 90-411-8843-6 * "The Jewish people are inextricably bound to the city of Jerusalem. No other city has played such a dominant role in the history, politics, culture, religion, national life and consciousness of a people as has Jerusalem in the life of Jewry and Judaism. Since King David established the city as the capital of the Jewish state circa 1000 BCE, it has served as the symbol and most profound expression of the Jewish people's identity as a nation." Basic Facts you should know: Jerusalem, Anti-Defamation League, 2007. Retrieved 28 March 2007. The sobriquet of holy city (''עיר הקודש'', transliterated ''‘ir haqodesh'') was probably attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic (Babylonian captivity) times. Reinoud Oosting, The holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint Isaiah 52:1 πόλις ἡ ἁγία. which Christians adopted as their own authority, Joseph T. Lienhard,''The Bible, the Church, and Authority: The Canon of the Christian Bible in History and Theology,'' Liturgical Press, 1995 pp.65–66:'The Septuagint is a Jewish translation and was also used in the synagogue. But at the end of the first century C.E. many Jews ceased to use the Septuagint because the early Chritians had adopted it as their own translation, and it began to be considered a Christian translation.' was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion (Crucifixion of Jesus) there. In Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Mecca and Medina. Third-holiest city in Islam: * * * ''Middle East peace plans'' by Willard A. Beling: "The Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount is the third holiest site in Sunni Islam after Mecca and Medina". In Islamic tradition (Islam) in 610 CE it became the first Qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer (salat), and Muhammad made his Night Journey (Isra and Mi'raj) there ten years later, ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran. As a result, despite having an area of only the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount and its Western Wall, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the Dome of the Rock, the Garden Tomb and al-Aqsa Mosque.

Today, the status of Jerusalem (Positions on Jerusalem) remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and later annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and later annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it. Israel's 1980 Basic Law (Basic Laws of Israel) the Jerusalem Law refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. The international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory (Palestinian territories) occupied (military occupation) by Israel. Resolution 298 September 25, 1971: "Recalling its resolutions... concerning measures and actions by Israel designed to change the status of the Israeli-occupied section of Jerusalem,..." The international community does not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital, and the city hosts no foreign embassies.

In 2011, Jerusalem had a population of 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000 (62%), Muslims 281,000 (35%), Christians 14,000 (around 2%) and 9,000 (1%) were not classified by religion.

All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset (Israel's parliament), the residences of the Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Israel) and President (President of Israel), and the Supreme Court (Supreme Court of Israel). Jerusalem is home to the Hebrew University (Hebrew University of Jerusalem) and to the Israel Museum with its Shrine of the Book.

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