Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies

What is Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies known for?


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;+similar+intrigue+was+then+'found%22+in+operation+in+Pontianak.+It+was+announced+in+a+Malay+language+newspaper+that+the+plotters+were&hl en&sa X&ei UwwiUpnPG6mlsQS-34G4CA&ved 0CCwQ6AEwAA Davidson 2002 , p. 78. According to some sources this happened in September 1943 at Amuntai in South Kalimantan and involved establishing up an Islamic State and expelling the Japanese but the plan was defeated.

0GrWCmZoEBMC&pg PA252&dq amuntai+japanese&hl en&sa X&ei cyZDU96IPIWw2gWY3oCgCg&ved 0CEwQ6AEwBg#v onepage&q amuntai%20japanese&f false Ricklefs 2001 , p. 252. X&ei MSZDU6jCJuaA2AXP6YDQCA&ved 0CCwQ6wEwAA#v onepage&q Amuntai%20South%20Kalimantan%20drive%20Japanese

: books.google.com books?id 4WK2s2ogHEAC&pg PA204&dq A+list+of+the+condemned+conspirators+followed;+they+included+Malays,+Bugis,+Javanese,+Minangkabaus,+Bataks,+Menadonese,+Chinese,+Eurasians,+and+...+Prominent+on+the+list+were+the+native+rulers,+who+were+entirely+wiped+out+in+this+action.&hl en&sa X&ei uStDU5aKFZDlyAHYw4CoCw&ved 0CCkQ6AEwAA#v onepage&q A%20list%20of%20the%20condemned%20conspirators%20followed%3B%20they%20included%20Malays%2C%20Bugis%2C%20Javanese%2C


books

publisher University of Chicago Press year 2008 isbn 978-0-226-76777-2 url http: books.google.com books?id GIHcaFVxXf0C&pg PA22 Poelgeest. Bart van, 1993, Gedwongen prostitutie van Nederlandse vrouwen in voormalig Nederlands-Indië 's-Gravenhage: Sdu Uitgeverij Plantijnstraat. Tweede Kamer

nationalists and Dutch against the Japanese was uncovered before the Pontianak incident occurred. books?id 5oO6AAAAIAAJ&q In+brief,+the+Japanese+had+discovered+a+plot+of+Dutch+and+Indonesian+nationalists+in+South+Kalimantan;+similar+intrigue+was+then+'found%22+in+operation+in+Pontianak.+It+was+announced+in+a+Malay+language+newspaper+that+the+plotters+were&dq In+brief,+the+Japanese+had+discovered+a+plot+of+Dutch+and+Indonesian+nationalists+in+South+Kalimantan

;+similar+intrigue+was+then+'found%22+in+operation+in+Pontianak.+It+was+announced+in+a+Malay+language+newspaper+that+the+plotters+were&hl en&sa X&ei UwwiUpnPG6mlsQS-34G4CA&ved 0CCwQ6AEwAA Davidson 2002 , p. 78. According to some sources this happened in September 1943 at Amuntai in South Kalimantan and involved establishing up an Islamic State and expelling the Japanese but the plan was defeated. books?id


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in power and used them to supply Japanese industries and armed forces. Indonesian cooperation allowed the Japanese to focus on securing the archipelago's waterways and skies, and using its islands as defence posts against Allied attack. Taylor (2003), p. 311 Japanese rulers divided Indonesia into three regions; Sumatra was placed under the 25th Army, Java and Madura were under the 16th Army (Sixteenth Army (Japan)), while Borneo and eastern Indonesia were controlled

+the+Japanese+machine-guns+and+mortars%2C+inspired+by+religious+fanaticism.&focus searchwithinvolume&q tjot+plieng "Berita Kadjian Sumatera: Sumatra Research Bulletin, Volumes 1-4" 1971 , p. 35.

+November+tentara+Djepang+menjerang+pertahanannja+...&focus searchwithinvolume&q tjot+plieng Nasution 1963 , p. 89. focus


military projects

Internment camp in Jakarta, c. 1945 Experience of the occupation varied considerably, depending upon where one lived and one's social position. Many who lived in areas considered important to the war effort experienced torture, sex slavery, arbitrary arrest and execution, and other war crimes. Many thousands of people were taken away from Indonesia as forced laborers (''romusha'') for Japanese military projects, including the Burma-Siam Railway (Death Railway), and suffered or died as a result of ill-treatment and starvation. Between four and 10 million ''romusha'' in Java were forced to work by the Japanese military. About 270,000 of these Javanese laborers (Javanese people) were sent to other Japanese-held areas in South East Asia, Only 52,000 were repatriated to Java, meaning that there was a death rate of 80%. Tens of thousands of Indonesians were to starve, work as slave labourers, or be forced from their homes. In the National Revolution that followed, tens, even hundreds, of thousands, would die in fighting against the Japanese, Allied forces, and other Indonesians, before Independence was achieved. (Category:Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies) Indonesia (Category:Japanese military occupations) Category:Indonesia in World War II Indonesia (Category:World War II occupied territories) Category:1940s in Indonesia Category:Japan–Netherlands relations Dutch East Indies (Category:Invasions by Japan) Category:Invasions of the Dutch East Indies Category:Articles containing video clips Category:1940s in the Dutch East Indies thumb upright 125px Sukarno, the leader for Indonesian Independence (Image:Soekarno.jpg) In January 1942, Japan (Imperial Japan) invaded the Netherlands East Indies (Netherlands East Indies campaign). L., Klemen, 1999–2000, ''The Netherlands East Indies 1941–42'', " Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942". The Dutch surrendered two months later in Java, with Indonesians initially welcoming the Japanese as liberators. Ricklefs (1991), p. 195. Vickers (2005), pp.85, 85. The subsequent Japanese occupation of Indonesia during the remainder of World War II saw the fundamental dismantling of the Dutch colonial state's (Dutch East Indies) economic, political and social structures, replacing it with a Japanese regime. In the decades before the war, the Dutch had been overwhelmingly successful in suppressing the small nationalist movement in Indonesia such that the Japanese occupation proved fundamental for Indonesian independence. Vickers (2005), page 85 However, the Indonesian Communist Party founded by Dutch socialist Henk Sneevliet in 1914, popular also with Dutch workers and sailors at the time, was in strategic alliance with Sarekat Islam (q.v.) as early as 1917 until the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence and was particularly important in the fight against Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies in the Second World War. The Japanese encouraged and backed Indonesian nationalism in which new indigenous institutions were created and nationalist leaders such as Sukarno were promoted. The internment of all Dutch citizens meant that Indonesians filled many leadership and administrative positions, although the top positions were still held by the Japanese.


time red

internment, for, this time, Red Cross supplies were made available and the Allies made the Japanese order the most heinous and cruel occupiers home. After four months of post-war internment, Western internees were released on the condition they left Indonesia. Most of the Japanese military personnel and civilian colonial administrators were repatriated to Japan following the war, except for several hundred who were detained for investigations into war crimes


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been antagonistic to each other, joined together to massacre Japanese.", naming the Sultan of the Pontianak Sultanate as one of the "ringleaders" in the planned rebellion.2023%201943%20Japanese%20Sultan&f false ed. Kratoska 2013, p. 160. Up to 25 aristocrats


taking political

) was formed to co-ordinate Allied (Allies of World War II) forces in South East Asia, under the commander of General Archibald Wavell. In the weeks leading up to the invasion, senior Dutch government officials went into exile taking political prisoners, family, and personal staff to Australia. Before the arrival of Japanese troops, there were conflicts between rival Indonesian groups where people were killed, vanished or went into hiding. Chinese


prominent+opposition

railway lines, railway rolling stock, and industrial plants in Java were appropriated and shipped back to Japan and Manchuria. British intelligence reports during the occupation noted significant removals of any materials that could be used in the war effort. Next to Sutan Sjahrir who led the student (Pemuda) underground, the only prominent opposition politician was leftist Amir Sjarifuddin who was given 25,000 guilders by the Dutch in early 1942 to organise an underground resistance through his Marxist and nationalist connections. The Japanese arrested Amir in 1943, and he only escaped execution following intervention from Sukarno, whose popularity in Indonesia and hence importance to the war effort was recognised by the Japanese. Apart from Amir's Surabaya-based group, the most active pro-Allied activities were among the Chinese, Ambonese (Ambon Island), and Menadonese. In South Kalimantan, a scheme by Indonesian nationalists and Dutch against the Japanese was uncovered before the Pontianak incident occurred. Davidson 2002, p. 78. According to some sources this happened in September 1943 at Amuntai in South Kalimantan and involved establishing up an Islamic State and expelling the Japanese but the plan was defeated. Ricklefs 2001, p. 252. Federspiel 2007, p. 124. In the 1943–1944 Pontianak incidents (also known as the Mandor Affair), the Japanese orchestrated a mass arrest of Malay elites and Arabs, Chinese, Javanese, Menadonese, Dayaks, Bugis, Bataks, Minangkabau, Dutch, Indians, and Eurasians in Kalimantan, including all of the Malay Sultans, accused them of plotting to overthrow Japanese rule, and then massacred them. Heidhues 2003, p. 204. Ooi 2013, p. 42. The Japanese falsely claimed that all of those ethnic groups and organizations such as the Islamic Pemuda Muhammadijah were involved in a plot to overthrow the Japanese and create a "People's Republic of West Borneo" (Negara Rakyat Borneo Barat). Heidhues 2003, p. 205. The Japanese claimed that- "Sultans, Chinese, Indonesian government officials, Indians and Arabs, who had been antagonistic to each other, joined together to massacre Japanese.", naming the Sultan of the Pontianak Sultanate as one of the "ringleaders" in the planned rebellion. ed. Kratoska 2013, p. 160. Up to 25 aristocrats, relatives of the Sultan of Pontianak, and many other prominent individuals were named as participants in the plot by the Japanese and then executed at Mandor. Davidson 2002, p. 79. Davidson 2003, p. 9. The Sultans of Pontianak, Sambas, Ketapang, Soekadana, Simbang, Koeboe, Ngabang, Sanggau, Sekadau, Tajan, Singtan, and Mempawa were all executed by the Japanese, respectively, their names were Sjarif Mohamed Alkadri (Sultan Syarif Muhammad Alkadrie), Mohamad Ibrahim Tsafidedin (Muhammad Ibrahim Shafi ud-din II), Goesti Saoenan, Tengkoe Idris, Goesti Mesir, Sjarif Saleh, Goesti Abdoel Hamid, Ade Mohamad Arif, Goesti Mohamad Kelip, Goesti Djapar, Raden Abdul Bahri Danoe Perdana, and Mohammed Ahoufiek. ed. Kratoska 2002, pp. 167–168. They are known as the "12 Dokoh". Ooi 2013. In Java, the Japanese jailed Syarif Abdul Hamid Alqadrie (Sultan Hamid II), the son of Sultan Syarif Mohamad Alkadrie (Sjarif Mohamed Alkadri). Ooi 2013, p. 176. Later in 1944 the Dayaks assassinated a Japanese named Nakatani, who was involved in the incident and who was known for his cruelty . Sultan of Pontianak Mohamed Alkadri's fourth son Pengeran Agoen (Pangeran Agung) and another son Pengeran Adipati (Pangeran Adipati) were also both killed by the Japanese in the incident. ed. Kratoska 2013, p. 168. The Japanese had beheaded both Pangeran Adipati and Pangeran Agung and the Malay elite was ravaged by the Japanese slaughters. Heidhues 2003, p. 207. The Japanese extermination of the Malay elite of Pontianak paved the way for a new Dayak elite to arise in its place. Davidson 2009, p. 37. According to Mary F. Somers Heidhues, on May–June 1945, some Japanese were killed in a rebellion by the Dayaks in Sanggau. Heidhues 2003, p. 206. According to Jamie S. Davidson this rebellion that killed many Dayaks and Japanese, occurred on April–August 1945 and was called the "Majang Desa War". Davidson 2003, p. 8. The Pontianak Incidents or Affairs are divided into two Potianak incidents by scholars, variously categorized according to mass killings and arrests which occurred in several stages on different dates. The Pontianak incident negatively impacted the Chinese community in Kalimantan. ed. Kratoska 2013, p. 165. Hui 2011, p. 42. Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (Netherlands). Afdeling Documentatie Modern Indonesie 2001, p. 41. Baldacchino 2013, p. 75. Sai & Hoon 2013, p. 119. The Acehnese Ulama (Islamic clerics) fought against both the Dutch and the Japanese, revolting against the Dutch in February 1942 and against Japan in November 1942. The revolt was led by the All-Aceh Religious Scholars' Association ( PUSA). The Japanese suffered 18 dead in the uprising while they slaughtered up to 100 or over 120 Acehnese. Martinkus 2004, p. 47. The revolt happened in Bayu and was centered around Tjot Plieng village's religious school. "Tempo: Indonesia's Weekly News Magazine, Volume 3, Issues 43-52" 2003, p. 27. http: www.atjehcyber.net 2011 08 sejarah-jejak-perlawanan-aceh.html Pepatah Lama Di Aceh Utara Pepatah Lama Di Aceh Utara During the revolt, the Japanese troops armed with mortars and machine guns were charged by sword wielding Acehnese under Teungku Abduldjalil (Tengku Abdul Djalil) in Buloh Gampong Teungah and Tjot Plieng on November 10 and 13. "Berita Kadjian Sumatera: Sumatra Research Bulletin, Volumes 1-4" 1971, p. 35. Nasution 1963, p. 89. "Sedjarah Iahirnja Tentara Nasional Indonesia" 1970, p. 12. "20 [i. e Dua puluh] tahun Indonesia merdeka, Volume 7", p. 547. "Sedjarah TNI-Angkatan Darat, 1945–1965. [Tjet. 1.]" 1965, p. 8. "20 tahun Indonesia merdeka, Volume 7", p. 545. Atjeh Post, Minggu Ke III September 1990. halaman I & Atjeh Post, Minggu Ke IV September 1990 halaman I On May 1945 the Acehnese rebelled again. Jong 2000, p. 189. Indonesian nationalism thumb Young Indonesian boys being trained by the Japanese Army (File:COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Indonesische jongens tijdens hun soldatentraining door de Japanners TMnr 10001989.jpg) In the decades before the war, the Dutch had been overwhelmingly successful in suppressing the small nationalist movement in Indonesia such that the Japanese proved fundamental for coming Indonesian independence. During the occupation, the Japanese encouraged and backed Indonesian nationalistic sentiments, created new Indonesian institutions, and promoted nationalist leaders such as Sukarno. The openness now provided to Indonesian nationalism, combined with the Japanese destruction of much of the Dutch colonial state, were fundamental to the Indonesian National Revolution that followed World War 2. (Category:Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies) Indonesia (Category:Japanese military occupations) Category:Indonesia in World War II Indonesia (Category:World War II occupied territories) Category:1940s in Indonesia Category:Japan–Netherlands relations Dutch East Indies (Category:Invasions by Japan) Category:Invasions of the Dutch East Indies Category:Articles containing video clips Category:1940s in the Dutch East Indies thumb upright 125px Sukarno, the leader for Indonesian Independence (Image:Soekarno.jpg) In January 1942, Japan (Imperial Japan) invaded the Netherlands East Indies (Netherlands East Indies campaign). L., Klemen, 1999–2000, ''The Netherlands East Indies 1941–42'', " Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942". The Dutch surrendered two months later in Java, with Indonesians initially welcoming the Japanese as liberators. Ricklefs (1991), p. 195. Vickers (2005), pp.85, 85. The subsequent Japanese occupation of Indonesia during the remainder of World War II saw the fundamental dismantling of the Dutch colonial state's (Dutch East Indies) economic, political and social structures, replacing it with a Japanese regime. In the decades before the war, the Dutch had been overwhelmingly successful in suppressing the small nationalist movement in Indonesia such that the Japanese occupation proved fundamental for Indonesian independence. Vickers (2005), page 85 However, the Indonesian Communist Party founded by Dutch socialist Henk Sneevliet in 1914, popular also with Dutch workers and sailors at the time, was in strategic alliance with Sarekat Islam (q.v.) as early as 1917 until the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence and was particularly important in the fight against Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies in the Second World War. The Japanese encouraged and backed Indonesian nationalism in which new indigenous institutions were created and nationalist leaders such as Sukarno were promoted. The internment of all Dutch citizens meant that Indonesians filled many leadership and administrative positions, although the top positions were still held by the Japanese.


hamid

, Singtan, and Mempawa were all executed by the Japanese, respectively, their names were Sjarif Mohamed Alkadri (Sultan Syarif Muhammad Alkadrie), Mohamad Ibrahim Tsafidedin (Muhammad Ibrahim Shafi ud-din II), Goesti Saoenan, Tengkoe Idris, Goesti Mesir, Sjarif Saleh, Goesti Abdoel Hamid, Ade Mohamad Arif, Goesti Mohamad Kelip, Goesti Djapar, Raden Abdul Bahri Danoe Perdana, and Mohammed Ahoufiek.

, the Japanese jailed Syarif Abdul Hamid Alqadrie (Sultan Hamid II), the son of Sultan Syarif Mohamad Alkadrie (Sjarif Mohamed Alkadri). Ooi 2013, p. 176. Later in 1944 the Dayaks assassinated a Japanese named Nakatani, who was involved in the incident

+November+tentara+Djepang+menjerang+pertahanannja+...&focus searchwithinvolume&q tjot+plieng Nasution 1963 , p. 89. Hamid+dari+M«-+rudu+%28Atjeh%3B+Nopember+...&focus


culture related" and "x"="x

;+similar+intrigue+was+then+'found%22+in+operation+in+Pontianak.+It+was+announced+in+a+Malay+language+newspaper+that+the+plotters+were&hl en&sa X&ei UwwiUpnPG6mlsQS-34G4CA&ved 0CCwQ6AEwAA Davidson 2002 , p. 78. According to some sources this happened in September 1943 at Amuntai in South Kalimantan and involved establishing up an Islamic State and expelling the Japanese but the plan was defeated.

0GrWCmZoEBMC&pg PA252&dq amuntai+japanese&hl en&sa X&ei cyZDU96IPIWw2gWY3oCgCg&ved 0CEwQ6AEwBg#v onepage&q amuntai%20japanese&f false Ricklefs 2001 , p. 252. X&ei MSZDU6jCJuaA2AXP6YDQCA&ved 0CCwQ6wEwAA#v onepage&q Amuntai%20South%20Kalimantan%20drive%20Japanese

: books.google.com books?id 4WK2s2ogHEAC&pg PA204&dq A+list+of+the+condemned+conspirators+followed;+they+included+Malays,+Bugis,+Javanese,+Minangkabaus,+Bataks,+Menadonese,+Chinese,+Eurasians,+and+...+Prominent+on+the+list+were+the+native+rulers,+who+were+entirely+wiped+out+in+this+action.&hl en&sa X&ei uStDU5aKFZDlyAHYw4CoCw&ved 0CCkQ6AEwAA#v onepage&q A%20list%20of%20the%20condemned%20conspirators%20followed%3B%20they%20included%20Malays%2C%20Bugis%2C%20Javanese%2C

Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies

The '''Japanese Empire (Empire of Japan) occupied the Dutch East Indies''', modern Indonesia, during World War II from March 1942 until after the end of the War in 1945. The period was one of the most critical in Indonesian history (History of Indonesia). Under German (Germany) occupation, the Netherlands had little ability to defend its colony against the Japanese army (Imperial Japanese Army), and less than three months after the first attacks on Borneo the Japanese navy and army overran Dutch and allied forces. Initially, most Indonesians optimistically and even joyfully welcomed the Japanese as liberators from their Dutch colonial masters. This sentiment changed as Indonesians were expected to endure more hardship for the war effort. In 1944–45, Allied troops largely by-passed Indonesia and did not fight their way into the most populous parts such as Java and Sumatra. As such, most of Indonesia was still under Japanese occupation at the time of their surrender in August 1945.

The occupation was the first serious challenge to the Dutch (Netherlands) in Indonesia—it ended the Dutch colonial rule—and, by its end, changes were so numerous and extraordinary that the subsequent watershed, the Indonesian National Revolution, was possible in a manner unfeasible just three years earlier. Unlike the Dutch, the Japanese facilitated the politicisation of Indonesians down to the village level. Particularly in Java and to a lesser extent Sumatra, the Japanese educated, trained and armed many young Indonesians and gave their nationalist leaders a political voice. Thus through both the destruction of the Dutch colonial regime and the facilitation of Indonesian nationalism, the Japanese occupation created the conditions for a claim of Indonesian independence. Within days of the Japanese surrender in the Pacific, Indonesian independence was declared. However, the Netherlands sought to reclaim the Indies and a bitter five-year diplomatic, military and social struggle ensued resulting in the Netherlands recognising Indonesian sovereignty in December 1949.

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