Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

What is Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant known for?


related criticism

-Infidels-Boosted-60-New-Terror-Groups#sthash.eYktEthB.dpuf title ISIS Beheads Another American As 60 New Terror Groups Join - The Fiscal Times work The Fiscal Times accessdate 28 November 2014 Allegations of Turkish support Turkey has been accused of supporting or colluding with ISIL, especially by Syrian Kurds.


religious training

url https: web.archive.org web 20140714145246 http: www.clarionproject.org news armed-children-young-9-patrolling-streets-mosul title Armed Children as Young as 9 Patrolling Streets of Mosul date 3 July 2014 publisher The Clarion Project accessdate 9 July 2014 According to a report by the magazine Foreign Policy, children as young as six are recruited or kidnapped and sent to military and religious training camps, where they practise beheading with dolls and are indoctrinated


harsh brand

textbooks from Saudi Arabia in the schools it controls. Videos from the group’s territory have shown Wahhabi texts plastered on the sides of an official missionary van. <


legendary battle

-criminal-operation title Islamic State Is a Diversified Criminal Operation work International Herald Tribune ISIL's philosophy is well represented by the symbolism in the Black Standard variant of the legendary battle flag of Muhammad that it has adopted. The flag shows the seal of the Muhammad within a white circle, with the phrase above it, "There is no God but Allah (Shahada)". What the ISIS Flag Says About the Militant Group, Time.com article by Ilene Prusher, 9 Sept 2014 Such symbolism has been said to point to ISIL's belief that it represents the restoration of the caliphate of early Islam, with all of the political, religious and eschatological ramifications that this would imply. Endtimes Brewing Huffington Post (UK) article by Anne Speckhard, 29 Aug. 2014 Saudi Arabia was criticised by Noam Chomsky in October 2014 of having “long been the major source of funding for ISIS as well as providing its ideological roots” (i.e. Wahhabism). Category:Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Category:2014 Iraq conflict Category:2015 Iraq conflict Category:Anti-government factions of the Syrian Civil War Category:Anti-Shi'ism Category:Designated terrorist organizations associated with Islam Category:Government of Canada designated terrorist organizations Category:Government of Egypt designated terrorist organizations Category:Government of India designated terrorist organisations Category:Iraqi insurgency Category:Islamic extremist groups restricting education Category:Islamism in Iraq Category:Islamism in Syria Category:Jihadist groups Category:Organisations based in Iraq Category:Organisations designated as terrorist by Australia Category:Organizations designated as terrorist by the Turkish Directorate General for Security Category:Organizations designated as terrorist by the United States government Category:Rebel groups in Egypt Category:Rebel groups in Iraq Category:Rebel groups in Libya Category:Rebel groups in Syria Category:Russian Federal Security Service designated terrorist organizations Category:Salafi groups Category:Sunni Islamist groups Category:Terrorism in Iraq Category:Terrorism in Lebanon Category:Terrorism in Syria Category:Terrorism in Turkey Category:United Kingdom Home Office designated terrorist groups Category:Wahhabism


called breaking

strongholds from which US troops and their Sunni allies (Sons of Iraq) had driven them prior to the withdrawal of US troops (Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq). He also declared the start of a new offensive in Iraq called

''Breaking the Walls'', which was aimed at freeing members of the group held in Iraqi prisons. Violence in Iraq began to escalate that month, and by July 2013, monthly fatalities had exceeded 1,000 for the first time since April 2008.


scale quot

"ReferenceB" The United Nations has held ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes, and Amnesty International has reported ethnic cleansing by the group on a "historic scale&quot;. The group has been designated (List of designated terrorist organizations) as a terrorist organization by the United Nations, the European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Canada, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia

the abuses and killings being carried out by the ISIL on "an unimaginable scale&quot;. Prince Zeid bin Ra'ad, the newly appointed UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, urged world leaders to step in to protect women and children suffering at the hands of ISIL militants, who he said were trying to create a "house of blood". He appealed to the international community to concentrate its efforts on ending the conflict in Iraq and Syria.

and religious minority groups in northern Iraq on a "historic scale&quot;. In a special report released on 2 September 2014, it describes how ISIL has "systematically targeted non-Arab and non-Sunni Muslim communities, killing or abducting hundreds, possibly thousands, and forcing more than 830,000 others to flee the areas it has captured since 10 June 2014". Among these people are Assyrian Christians, Turkmen (Iraqi Turkmens) Shia, Shabak (Shabak people) Shia, Yazidis, Kaka'i and Sabean Mandeans, who have lived together for centuries in Nineveh (Nineveh Province) province, large parts of which are now under ISIL's control. Category:Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Category:2014 Iraq conflict Category:2015 Iraq conflict Category:Anti-government factions of the Syrian Civil War Category:Anti-Shi'ism Category:Designated terrorist organizations associated with Islam Category:Government of Canada designated terrorist organizations Category:Government of Egypt designated terrorist organizations Category:Government of India designated terrorist organisations Category:Iraqi insurgency Category:Islamic extremist groups restricting education Category:Islamism in Iraq Category:Islamism in Syria Category:Jihadist groups Category:Organisations based in Iraq Category:Organisations designated as terrorist by Australia Category:Organizations designated as terrorist by the Turkish Directorate General for Security Category:Organizations designated as terrorist by the United States government Category:Rebel groups in Egypt Category:Rebel groups in Iraq Category:Rebel groups in Libya Category:Rebel groups in Syria Category:Russian Federal Security Service designated terrorist organizations Category:Salafi groups Category:Sunni Islamist groups Category:Terrorism in Iraq Category:Terrorism in Lebanon Category:Terrorism in Syria Category:Terrorism in Turkey Category:United Kingdom Home Office designated terrorist groups Category:Wahhabism


title dark

Huffington Post (UK) article by Anne Speckhard, 29 Aug. 2014 Saudi Arabia was criticised by Noam Chomsky in October 2014 of having “long been the major source of funding for ISIS as well as providing its ideological roots” (i.e. Wahhabism).


online presence

; Media sources worldwide have also called ISIL a terrorist organization.


major resistance

6268680 agency Associated Press publisher NBC News title Al-Zarqawi group vows allegiance to bin Laden date 18 October 2004 accessdate 13 July 2007 Attacks by the group on civilians, the Iraqi Government and security forces continued to increase over the next two years. (See list of major resistance attacks in Iraq (Iraq War insurgent attacks).) In a letter to al-Zarqawi in July 2005, al-Qaeda's deputy leader Ayman al-Zawahiri outlined a four-stage plan to expand the Iraq War, which included expelling US forces (Military of the United States) from Iraq, establishing an Islamic authority, as caliphate, spreading the conflict to Iraq's secular neighbors, and clash with Israel, which the letter says "was established only to challenge any new Islamic entity". Category:Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Category:2014 Iraq conflict Category:2015 Iraq conflict Category:Anti-government factions of the Syrian Civil War Category:Anti-Shi'ism Category:Designated terrorist organizations associated with Islam Category:Government of Canada designated terrorist organizations Category:Government of Egypt designated terrorist organizations Category:Government of India designated terrorist organisations Category:Iraqi insurgency Category:Islamic extremist groups restricting education Category:Islamism in Iraq Category:Islamism in Syria Category:Jihadist groups Category:Organisations based in Iraq Category:Organisations designated as terrorist by Australia Category:Organizations designated as terrorist by the Turkish Directorate General for Security Category:Organizations designated as terrorist by the United States government Category:Rebel groups in Egypt Category:Rebel groups in Iraq Category:Rebel groups in Libya Category:Rebel groups in Syria Category:Russian Federal Security Service designated terrorist organizations Category:Salafi groups Category:Sunni Islamist groups Category:Terrorism in Iraq Category:Terrorism in Lebanon Category:Terrorism in Syria Category:Terrorism in Turkey Category:United Kingdom Home Office designated terrorist groups Category:Wahhabism


shooting scores

News accessdate 4 July 2014 After ISIL released photographs of its fighters shooting scores of young men, the UN declared that cold-blooded "executions" by militants in northern Iraq

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

membership_type Military strength & operation areas membership '''Inside Iraq and Syria''' 200,000 (Kurdish claim) 20,000–31,000 (CIA estimate)

'''Outside Iraq and Syria''' 19,500–31,300 (See Military of ISIL for more-detailed estimates.) admin_center_type Administrative center admin_center Ar-Raqqah, Syria (''de facto'') largest_city Mosul, Iraq latd 35 latm 57 lats latNS N longd 39 longm 1 longs longEW E languages_type Ideologies languages Extremist Islamism Wahhabism Salafist Jihadism leader_title1 '''Leader''' leader_name1 '''Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi''' leader_title2 '''Deputy leader in Iraq''' leader_name2 '''Abu Muslim al-Turkmani''' leader_title3 '''Deputy leader in Syria''' leader_name3 '''Abu Ali al-Anbari''' leader_title4 '''Head of Military Shura''' leader_name4 '''Abu Ayman al-Iraqi''' leader_title5 '''Spokesman''' leader_name5 '''Abu Muhammad al-Adnani''' leader_title6 '''Field commander''' leader_name6 '''Abu Omar al-Shishani''' sovereignty_type '''Establishment''' established_event1 Formation (as Jamāʻat al-Tawḥīd wa-al-Jihād (#JTJ)) established_date1 1999 established_event2 Joined al-Qaeda established_date2 October 2004 established_event3 Declaration of an Islamic state in Iraq established_date3 13 October 2006 established_event4 Claim of territory in the Levant established_date4 8 April 2013 established_event6 Separated from al-Qaeda established_date6 3 February 2014 established_event7 Declaration of "Caliphate" established_date7 29 June 2014 established_event8 Claim of territory in Libya, Egypt, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen established_date8 13 November 2014 established_event9 established_date9 established_event10 established_date10 official_website area_magnitude area_km2 32133 area_sq_mi area_footnote percent_water area_label Estimate only of controlled areas area_label2 area_dabodyalign population_estimate 8,000,000 in controlled areas population_estimate_year 12 June 2014 ''The New York Times'' population_density_km2 population_density_sq_mi GDP_PPP GDP_PPP_rank GDP_PPP_year GDP_PPP_per_capita GDP_nominal GDP_nominal_year GDP_nominal_per_capita Gini Gini_ref Gini_year HDI HDI_ref HDI_year currency currency_code time_zone Eastern European Time and Arabia Standard Time utc_offset +2 and +3 footnote1 footnote2 footnote7 footnotes The '''Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant''' ('''ISIL'''

The United Nations has held ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes, and Amnesty International has reported ethnic cleansing by the group on a "historic scale". The group has been designated (List of designated terrorist organizations) as a terrorist organization by the United Nations, the European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Canada, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Egypt, India, and Russia. Over 60 countries are directly or indirectly waging war against ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant#Countries and groups at war with ISIL).

The group originated as ''Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad'' in 1999, which was renamed ''Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn''—commonly known as al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI)—when the group pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda in 2004. Following the 2003 invasion of Iraq (Iraq War), AQI took part in the Iraqi insurgency (Iraqi insurgency (2003–11)). In 2006, it joined other Sunni insurgent groups to form the Mujahideen Shura Council (Mujahideen Shura Council (Iraq)), which shortly afterwards proclaimed the formation of an Islamic state, naming it the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI). The ISI gained a significant presence in Al Anbar (Al Anbar Governorate), Nineveh (Nineveh Province), Kirkuk (At-Ta'mim Governorate) and other areas, but around 2008, its violent methods, including suicide attacks on civilian targets and the widespread killing of prisoners, led to a backlash from Sunni Iraqis and other insurgent groups.

The group grew significantly under the leadership of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, and after entering the Syrian Civil War, it established a large presence in Sunni-majority areas of Syria within the governorates of Ar-Raqqah (Ar-Raqqah Governorate), Idlib (Idlib Governorate), Deir ez-Zor (Deir ez-Zor Governorate) and Aleppo (Aleppo Governorate).

On 29 June 2014, the group proclaimed itself to be a worldwide caliphate under the name "Islamic State",

ISIL is known for its well-funded web and social media propaganda, which includes Internet videos of the beheadings of soldiers, civilians, journalists, and aid workers. (See ISIL beheading incidents.)

The group became notorious after it drove the Iraqi government forces out of key western cities in Iraq while in Syria it conquered and held ground against both the government forces and rebel factions in the Syrian Civil War. It gained those territories after an offensive initiated in early 2014, which the senior U.S. military commanders and members of the U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs saw as a reemergence of Sunni insurgents and Al Qaeda militants. This territorial loss implied a failure of U.S. foreign policy and almost caused a collapse of the Iraqi Government that required renewal of U.S. action in Iraq.

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