Islamic Courts Union

What is Islamic Courts Union known for?


growing power

Somalia In 2006, the Islamic Courts Union took over Mogadishu from CIA-backed ARPCT. Iran has been one of several nations backing the public uprising. According to Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Somalia) Ali Mohammed Ghedi, Iran, Egypt, and Libya are helping the militia. The Prime Minister accuses these countries of wanting more conflict in Somalia, which seems contradictory because of the Transitional Government's inability to extend authority beyond Baidoa, which is something the Islamic Republic sees. Somalia: Iran, Libya and Egypt helping militia : Mail & Guardian Online Abdirashid Hussein Shire was arrested by police at a hotel in the Kenyan capital Nairobi (w:Nairobi) and escorted to a flight out of the country, reportedly heading for Dubai (w:Dubai). Shire is alleged to be a supporter of the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism (w:Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism), an alliance of Somali warlords who are currently engaged in a conflict with the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union) for control over Mogadishu (w:Mogadishu), the capital of Somalia. A Somali Defence Ministry official has additionally reported that American helicopters launched an attack against ICU fighters (w:Islamic Courts Union) in Afmadow, a city near the Kenyan border, 350 kilometres southwest of Mogadishu (w:Mogadishu). The AC-130 gunship (w:Lockheed AC-130) attack killed an unknown number of civilians, alternatingly reported as 4, 19 or 31. A feud between Ghedi and the President has long been blamed for the lack of progress and inability of the government to deal effectively with the armed conflict (w:War in Somalia (2006–present)) with the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union). The rift often has been cited as frustrating for Western (w:Western world#Politcal) diplomats who support the government. Although moderate Islamists from the ARS have agreed to enter into reconciliation talks, hardliner insurgents have rejected the attempts at peace and continue to take over towns in the central and northern regions of Somalia. Since the fall of the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union), organizations like Al-Shabaab (w:Al-Shabaab) have become leading insurgent groups. A spokesman for Al-Shabaab told reporters on Sunday that they intend to impose Sharia (w:Sharia) law on all of Somalia, and that a peace deal would never be accepted. Although no one has claimed responsibility for the attack, Al-Shabab (w:Al-Shabaab (Somalia)), the militant youth group that has now taken the reigns of the insurgency in Somalia after the dissolution of the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union), is widely suspected. Al-Shabab seeks to institute the strictest sense of Shar'ia (w:Sharia) Law in Somalia and is a seam of contention for their participation in the government. Earlier this year, the newly elected Somali President agreed to implement tenets of Shar'ia into the nation's statutory codes, however negotiations quickly broke down over the details.


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robberies and drug (illegal drugs)-dealing, as well as stopping the showing of what it claims to be pornographic (pornography) films in local movie houses. Somalia is almost entirely Muslim, and these institutions initially had wide public support. The early years of the courts include such outfits as Sheikh Ali Dheere's, established in north Mogadishu in 1994 and the Beled Weyne court initiated in 1996. They soon saw the sense in working together through a joint committee to promote security

2006, the ICU claimed that they were in control of Mogadishu. Lacey, Mark, Islamic militias take control of Somali capital, ''The New York Times'', 5 June 2006 Meanwhile, in the United States the Bush (George W. Bush) administration (George W. Bush administration) neither confirmed nor denied support for either side. However, it was reported

the ICU in control of much of the weaponry in the country, which made a resurgence by the warlords difficult without outside support. The ICU also controlled significant territory outside the capital, including the important town of Balad (Balad, Somalia). In mid-August, ICU militiamen swept into the port town of Hobyo, 500 kilometers north of Mogadishu, meeting no opposition.


producing highly

of being controlled by al-Qaeda, but the Islamic Courts denied that charge. * Producing highly detailed analysis and advice on specific policy issues in scores of conflict or potential


radical

the country, which govern over the day to day issues of justice and law. These courts have enormous independence, and so the laws and regulations in ICU territory can vary wildly from town to town based on the particular moderation or radicalism of the local court. ICU Chairman Sharif Sheikh Ahmed is seen as a moderate and repeatedly declared the objective of the ICU was the restoration of order after 15 years of violence. However, of the eleven courts composing the Union, two had reputations as radical

;KXMA.com Hindustantimes.com There were also been reports of foreign mujahideen fighting alongside the ICU. In response, the U.S. provided funding for the secular warlord alliance (ARPCT) due to these fears. However, Somalia has little history of radical Islam and the ICU had not embraced the most extreme forms of Islamic law

, such as amputation of thieves' hands. Santoro, Lara, Islamic clerics combat lawlessness in Somalia, ''Christian Science Monitor'', 13 July 1999. Harakat al-Shabaab Mujahedeen The Hizbul Shabaab, also known as Al-Shabaab, or simply as "Shabaab", is the Youth Wing of the ICU. It is a radical and somewhat independent organization under the ICU umbrella


small team

in Paris, France. With the help of a small team of African Union troops, the coalition government also began a counteroffensive (War in Somalia (2009-)) in February 2009 to assume full control of the southern half of the country. To solidify its rule, the TFG formed an alliance with the Islamic Courts Union, other members of the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, and Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a, a moderate Sufi (Sufism) militia.

; With the help of a small team of African Union troops, the coalition government also began a counteroffensive (War in Somalia (2009-)) in February 2009 to assume full control of the southern half of the country. To solidify its rule, the TFG formed an alliance with the Islamic Courts

accessdate 2010-06-27 With the help of a small team of African Union troops, the coalition government also began a counteroffensive (War in Somalia (2009-)) in February 2009 to assume full control of the southern half of the country. To solidify its rule, the TFG formed an alliance with the Islamic Courts Union, other members of the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, and Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a, a moderate Sufi (Sufism) militia.


good international

which is integrated quite tightly with the ICU armed forces, acting as a sort of "special forces" for the ICU. The Shabab caused difficulties for the ICU in maintaining a good international image on a number of occasions due to their hot-headedness and zealousness, such as abducting critical journalists, harassing overly-hip youngsters, and murdering wounded JVA (Juba Valley Alliance) soldiers in a Bu'aale hospital. Sorry is not enough for barbaric killing in hospital beds at SomaliNet.com. The ICU formally apologized for each of the incidents and attempted to make it clear that these actions did not reflect ICU policy. Nevertheless, these incidents gave their opponents excellent propaganda ammunition and aided the global perception of the ICU being like the Taliban. Relationship with other Somali powers The major powers in Somalia included the Transitional Federal Government, the Juba Valley Alliance (JVA) in the south, plus the autonomous Puntland in the northeast and self-declared independent Somaliland in the northwest. In the midst of the conflict, Galmudug was formed in direct response to stem the rise of the ICU. The ICU was opposed by all the other factions, except for Somaliland, which remained generally neutral throughout the conflict. As a result of the collapse of the warlords' power, the four warlord representatives in the transitional government were stripped of their cabinet posts. The transitional government was then based in Baidoa, 250 kilometers from Mogadishu. After the ICU victory in Mogadishu, the transitional government voted to request foreign peacekeepers from the African Union in a mission known as IGASOM. The African Union supports the transitional government, though it did not provide forces to defend it against the advances of the ICU. The ICU rejected the need for peacekeepers (Peacekeeping), arguing Somalia needs aid, not more external troops. The Interim Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Ghedi stated he wished to meet with the ICU leaders. Somalia: Islamic courts again warn of foreign troops in Somalia, ''SomaliNet News'', 15 June 2006 This resulted in the Treaty of Khartoum of 5 September 2006, in which it was agreed the ICU and the Transitional Government would be merged; however, the ICU insisted on the precondition Ethiopian troops would leave the country beforehand. Ethiopian forces did not withdraw, and the treaty agreement fell apart. The JVA was overrun in the south, and Kismayo was taken. The remaining JVA forces aligned themselves immediately with the TFG. In December 2006—January 2007, as part of the TFG's army, they retook the lost territory of the south. In November 2006, the Islamic Courts said Puntland's forces had carried out a pre-emptive strike against their fighters who were gathering on the edge of Puntland near Galinsoor. Islamic Courts clash with Puntland, ''Al Jazeera'', 06 November 2006 The government of Puntland has vowed to resist any attack by the Islamic Courts. Puntland 'to fight Islamic courts', ''Al Jazeera'', 21 November 2006 Later, Puntland entered into combat with the ICU at the Battle of Bandiradley, which expelled the ICU from the central interior. Individual Islamic Courts Somalia In 2006, the Islamic Courts Union took over Mogadishu from CIA-backed ARPCT. Iran has been one of several nations backing the public uprising. According to Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Somalia) Ali Mohammed Ghedi, Iran, Egypt, and Libya are helping the militia. The Prime Minister accuses these countries of wanting more conflict in Somalia, which seems contradictory because of the Transitional Government's inability to extend authority beyond Baidoa, which is something the Islamic Republic sees. Somalia: Iran, Libya and Egypt helping militia : Mail & Guardian Online Abdirashid Hussein Shire was arrested by police at a hotel in the Kenyan capital Nairobi (w:Nairobi) and escorted to a flight out of the country, reportedly heading for Dubai (w:Dubai). Shire is alleged to be a supporter of the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism (w:Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism), an alliance of Somali warlords who are currently engaged in a conflict with the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union) for control over Mogadishu (w:Mogadishu), the capital of Somalia. A Somali Defence Ministry official has additionally reported that American helicopters launched an attack against ICU fighters (w:Islamic Courts Union) in Afmadow, a city near the Kenyan border, 350 kilometres southwest of Mogadishu (w:Mogadishu). The AC-130 gunship (w:Lockheed AC-130) attack killed an unknown number of civilians, alternatingly reported as 4, 19 or 31. A feud between Ghedi and the President has long been blamed for the lack of progress and inability of the government to deal effectively with the armed conflict (w:War in Somalia (2006–present)) with the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union). The rift often has been cited as frustrating for Western (w:Western world#Politcal) diplomats who support the government. Although moderate Islamists from the ARS have agreed to enter into reconciliation talks, hardliner insurgents have rejected the attempts at peace and continue to take over towns in the central and northern regions of Somalia. Since the fall of the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union), organizations like Al-Shabaab (w:Al-Shabaab) have become leading insurgent groups. A spokesman for Al-Shabaab told reporters on Sunday that they intend to impose Sharia (w:Sharia) law on all of Somalia, and that a peace deal would never be accepted. Although no one has claimed responsibility for the attack, Al-Shabab (w:Al-Shabaab (Somalia)), the militant youth group that has now taken the reigns of the insurgency in Somalia after the dissolution of the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union), is widely suspected. Al-Shabab seeks to institute the strictest sense of Shar'ia (w:Sharia) Law in Somalia and is a seam of contention for their participation in the government. Earlier this year, the newly elected Somali President agreed to implement tenets of Shar'ia into the nation's statutory codes, however negotiations quickly broke down over the details.


quot music

beyond what the Quran requires; others have beaten people for watching Bollywood films (Bollywood) and Western (Western (genre)) movies or playing "licentious" music. One famous allegation that was cited numerous times, yet was denied by the ICU, was that there was a ban on the viewing of football (soccer) matches. World Cup ban in Mogadishu denied BBC News ref>


national defense

, and, with the assistance of Ethiopian troops (Ethiopian National Defense Force), African Union peacekeepers and air support by the United States, managed to drive out the rival ICU and solidify its rule. thumb upright left Embassy (File:Somalian embassy in Paris.jpg) of Somalia

Government . In 2006, the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), an Islamist (Islamism) organization, assumed control of much of the southern part of the country and promptly imposed Shari'a law (Shari'a). The Transitional Federal Government sought to reestablish its authority, and, with the assistance of Ethiopian troops (Ethiopian National Defense Force), African Union peacekeepers and air support by the United States, managed to drive out the rival ICU and solidify its rule. ref>

and businessmen formed a successful coalition government, which came to be known as the Islamic Courts Union (ICU). The ICU seized control of the entire country, except for the town of Baidoa, which was held by the Transitional Federal Government, the internationally recognized government of Somalia. Later that same year, the Ethiopian military (Ethiopian National Defense Force) ousted the ICU and restored the internationally-recognized government, ref name "Ghost"


main military

However, other sources state that the victim had been crying, that she begged for mercy and had to be forced into the hole before being buried up to her neck in the ground.<


news world

was supported by warlord Yusuf "Indho Ade" Mohamed Siad who ruled Lower Shabelle but later became defense chief of the ICU, who aided in the defeat of the Mogadishu warlords.news world Somalia 15501 Warlord Yusuf "Indho Ade" Mohamed Siad, defense chief of the ICU Only the Northern regions (Puntland, Somaliland), and the furthest interior regions of the south were outside their control. In December 2006, the ICU lost much

firmly established in the Hawiye clan. As the courts began to assert themselves as the dispensers of justice they came into conflict with the secular warlords who

International Airport , which had been closed since the withdrawal of the international forces in 1995. The first airplane chartered by the Arab League flew from the airport for the first time in 11 years picking up Islamic Courts delegates to the Sudanese capital of Khartoum. Mohamed Abdi Farah,news world English 3290 Somalia: Reopening of Mogadishu's airport welcomed, ''SomaliNet'', July 15, 2006. ref>

Islamic Courts Union

The '''Islamic Courts Union''' ('''ICU'''; Western media often refer to the group as '''Somali (Somali people) Islamists (Islamism)'''.

Until the end of 2006, they controlled most of southern Somalia and the vast majority of its population, including most major cities such as Jowhar, Kismayo, Beledweyne, and the capital Mogadishu. The ICU was supported by warlord Yusuf "Indho Ade" Mohamed Siad who ruled Lower Shabelle but later became defense chief of the ICU, who aided in the defeat of the Mogadishu warlords. Warlord Yusuf "Indho Ade" Mohamed Siad, defense chief of the ICU Only the Northern regions (Puntland, Somaliland), and the furthest interior regions of the south were outside their control. In December 2006, the ICU lost much territory after defeats at the battles of Baidoa (Battle of Baidoa), Bandiradley (Battle of Bandiradley), and Beledweyne (Battle of Beledweyne (2006)), retreating to the capital, Mogadishu. On December 28 they abandoned Mogadishu, leaving the city in chaos while they moved south towards Kismayo, which allowed the TFG and Ethiopian troops to take over the city. Mogadishu falls to Ethiopian-backed government troops CNN -- After a stand at the Battle of Jilib, the ICU abandoned the city of Kismayo on January 1, 2007. Stripped of almost all their territory, it was speculated the ICU would pursue guerrilla-style warfare against the government.

Instead, hardline Islamists broke ranks from the ICU and formed other militant groups, such as Al-Shabaab (Popular Resistance Movement in the Land of the Two Migrations) and Hizbul Islam, to continue the war against the government.

The less-militant members of the ICU went into exile in Eritrea and Djibouti, where they formed the Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia) in September 2007. In the two years following the ICU's ouster from Mogadishu, the hardline Islamist groups concentrated their power in the south and west of Somalia, taking ground from both the TFG and ICU.

By January 2009, a reconciliation and powersharing deal was brokered between the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and the Djibouti contingent from the former Islamic Courts Union which resulted in the expansion of the Parliament and the election of Sheik Sharif Ahmed, former leader of the ICU, as President of the Transitional Federal Government.

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