was supported by warlord Yusuf "Indho Ade" Mohamed Siad who ruled Lower Shabelle but later became defense chief of the ICU, who aided in the defeat of the Mogadishu warlords.news world Somalia 15501 Warlord Yusuf "Indho Ade" Mohamed Siad, defense chief of the ICU Only the Northern regions (Puntland, Somaliland), and the furthest interior regions of the south were outside their control. In December 2006, the ICU lost much
firmly established in the Hawiye clan. As the courts began to assert themselves as the dispensers of justice they came into conflict with the secular warlords who
International Airport , which had been closed since the withdrawal of the international forces in 1995. The first airplane chartered by the Arab League flew from the airport for the first time in 11 years picking up Islamic Courts delegates to the Sudanese capital of Khartoum. Mohamed Abdi Farah,news world English 3290 Somalia: Reopening of Mogadishu's airport welcomed, ''SomaliNet'', July 15, 2006. ref>
Courts advanced to central and south Somalia regions, including the Kismayo area, before Inda'ade pledged his support, giving them control of Lower Shabelle region. Islamists extend authority in Somalia, ''Reuters '', 30 Sept 2006 In December 2006, during the intense fighting with Ethiopia, he was not present and was on pilgrimage in Mecca
. * '''Sheikh Mukhtar Robow''' who goes by the name of "Abu Mansur", was the deputy chief of security for the Islamic Courts. He had been credited with being instrumental in the victory of the Second Battle of Mogadishu against the ARPCT (Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism) (CIA-backed warlords). In December 2006, during the intense fighting with Ethiopia, he was not present and was in pilgrimage in Mecca. He was trained in Afghanistan
of the Islamic Courts Union (2006) In the year 2000, the courts formed a union of Islamic courts, partly to consolidate resources and power and partly to aid in handing down decisions across, rather than within, clan lines. Kristina Nwazota, Islamist Control of Mogadishu Raises Concern of Extremist Future for Somalia, ''Online NewsHour'', June 8, 2006 Yet the ICU remained
. Thus, after capturing Mogadishu, it brought Sharia law back to Somalia and re-instituted the constitution. In the year 2000, the courts formed a union of Islamic courts, partly to consolidate resources and power and partly to aid in handing down decisions across, rather than within, clan lines. In an interview featured in the BBC Online Somali section in June 2006, Sheik Sharif Shaykh Ahmed said "the union of Islamic courts was established
are believed to have found refuge in Eritrea. Jihadists and suicide bombers, StarTribune -->
conflict situations around the world, helping policymakers in the UN Security Council, regional organisations, donor countries and others with major influence, and in the countries at risk themselves, do better in preventing, managing and resolving conflict, and in rebuilding after it; * Providing detailed information unobtainable elsewhere on developments regarding conflict, mass violence and terrorism of particular utility to policymakers, e.g., on the Jemaah Islamiyah in Indonesia
Somalia In 2006, the Islamic Courts Union took over Mogadishu from CIA-backed ARPCT. Iran has been one of several nations backing the public uprising. According to Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Somalia) Ali Mohammed Ghedi, Iran, Egypt, and Libya are helping the militia. The Prime Minister accuses these countries of wanting more conflict in Somalia, which seems contradictory because of the Transitional Government's inability
the country, which govern over the day to day issues of justice and law. These courts have enormous independence, and so the laws and regulations in ICU territory can vary wildly from town to town based on the particular moderation or radicalism of the local court. ICU Chairman Sharif Sheikh Ahmed is seen as a moderate and repeatedly declared the objective of the ICU was the restoration of order after 15 years of violence. However, of the eleven courts composing the Union, two had reputations as radical
;KXMA.com Hindustantimes.com There were also been reports of foreign mujahideen fighting alongside the ICU. In response, the U.S. provided funding for the secular warlord alliance (ARPCT) due to these fears. However, Somalia has little history of radical Islam and the ICU had not embraced the most extreme forms of Islamic law
, such as amputation of thieves' hands. Santoro, Lara, Islamic clerics combat lawlessness in Somalia, ''Christian Science Monitor'', 13 July 1999. Harakat al-Shabaab Mujahedeen The Hizbul Shabaab, also known as Al-Shabaab, or simply as "Shabaab", is the Youth Wing of the ICU. It is a radical and somewhat independent organization under the ICU umbrella
Minister Ali Mohammed Ghedi's postponement of talks with the Islamic Courts Union (ICU). He said "We had no option but to resign because we believe if the talks are postponed again it will affect the reconciliation efforts". Eight more ministers resign from Somali government, ''Reuters'', 1 August 2006. During the War in Somalia (2006–2009), the Bay region was heavily contested between
Somalia In 2006, the Islamic Courts Union took over Mogadishu from CIA-backed ARPCT. Iran has been one of several nations backing the public uprising. According to Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Somalia) Ali Mohammed Ghedi, Iran, Egypt, and Libya are helping the militia. The Prime Minister accuses these countries of wanting more conflict in Somalia, which seems contradictory because of the Transitional Government's inability to extend authority beyond Baidoa, which is something the Islamic Republic sees. Somalia: Iran, Libya and Egypt helping militia : Mail & Guardian Online Abdirashid Hussein Shire was arrested by police at a hotel in the Kenyan capital Nairobi (w:Nairobi) and escorted to a flight out of the country, reportedly heading for Dubai (w:Dubai). Shire is alleged to be a supporter of the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism (w:Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism), an alliance of Somali warlords who are currently engaged in a conflict with the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union) for control over Mogadishu (w:Mogadishu), the capital of Somalia. A Somali Defence Ministry official has additionally reported that American helicopters launched an attack against ICU fighters (w:Islamic Courts Union) in Afmadow, a city near the Kenyan border, 350 kilometres southwest of Mogadishu (w:Mogadishu). The AC-130 gunship (w:Lockheed AC-130) attack killed an unknown number of civilians, alternatingly reported as 4, 19 or 31. A feud between Ghedi and the President has long been blamed for the lack of progress and inability of the government to deal effectively with the armed conflict (w:War in Somalia (2006–present)) with the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union). The rift often has been cited as frustrating for Western (w:Western world#Politcal) diplomats who support the government. Although moderate Islamists from the ARS have agreed to enter into reconciliation talks, hardliner insurgents have rejected the attempts at peace and continue to take over towns in the central and northern regions of Somalia. Since the fall of the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union), organizations like Al-Shabaab (w:Al-Shabaab) have become leading insurgent groups. A spokesman for Al-Shabaab told reporters on Sunday that they intend to impose Sharia (w:Sharia) law on all of Somalia, and that a peace deal would never be accepted. Although no one has claimed responsibility for the attack, Al-Shabab (w:Al-Shabaab (Somalia)), the militant youth group that has now taken the reigns of the insurgency in Somalia after the dissolution of the Islamic Courts Union (w:Islamic Courts Union), is widely suspected. Al-Shabab seeks to institute the strictest sense of Shar'ia (w:Sharia) Law in Somalia and is a seam of contention for their participation in the government. Earlier this year, the newly elected Somali President agreed to implement tenets of Shar'ia into the nation's statutory codes, however negotiations quickly broke down over the details.
initially in two areas - the military base of Daynuunay and the military base of Iidale. The ICU made calls for jihad against Ethiopia,world story 0,,1978424,00.html Somali hardliner calls for foreign jihadists which were met by international Mujahideen volunteers arriving in Somalia. The ICU lost a considerable amount of territory after defeats at the December 20–26 battles
battle", BBC News Online, 11 July 2006 publisher BBC News date 2006-07-11 accessdate 2011-07-06 That September, an impressive array of 130 technicals was used to take Kismayo from the forces of the Juba Valley Alliance. "Witnesses: Somali Islamists advance on key port". Associated Press, 13 September 2006. After the ousting of the Siad Barre regime and the ensuing Somali
- Shiirkoole (Circolo) Mogadishu, Banadir Hawiye Abdilkadir Ali Omar Salafi - ? Marka, Lower Shabelle Hawiye Yusuf Mohamed Siyaad 'Indha Adde' ? - Al-Cadaala Laascanood, Sool Darod Shiikh Axmed Cabdulaahi Shanle ? - ? Balad, Upper Shabelle Hawiye Sheikh Yusuf Turhume ? - ? Wanlaweyn, Lower Shabelle Digil-Mirifle Mahad Mohammed Liberal (Liberal movements in Islam) - ? Beletweyne, Hiraan Hawiye Farah Moallim Mohamud
The '''Islamic Courts Union''' ('''ICU'''; Western media often refer to the group as '''Somali (Somali people) Islamists (Islamism)'''.
Until the end of 2006, they controlled most of southern Somalia and the vast majority of its population, including most major cities such as Jowhar, Kismayo, Beledweyne, and the capital Mogadishu. The ICU was supported by warlord Yusuf "Indho Ade" Mohamed Siad who ruled Lower Shabelle but later became defense chief of the ICU, who aided in the defeat of the Mogadishu warlords. Warlord Yusuf "Indho Ade" Mohamed Siad, defense chief of the ICU Only the Northern regions (Puntland, Somaliland), and the furthest interior regions of the south were outside their control. In December 2006, the ICU lost much territory after defeats at the battles of Baidoa (Battle of Baidoa), Bandiradley (Battle of Bandiradley), and Beledweyne (Battle of Beledweyne (2006)), retreating to the capital, Mogadishu. On December 28 they abandoned Mogadishu, leaving the city in chaos while they moved south towards Kismayo, which allowed the TFG and Ethiopian troops to take over the city. Mogadishu falls to Ethiopian-backed government troops CNN -- After a stand at the Battle of Jilib, the ICU abandoned the city of Kismayo on January 1, 2007. Stripped of almost all their territory, it was speculated the ICU would pursue guerrilla-style warfare against the government.
Instead, hardline Islamists broke ranks from the ICU and formed other militant groups, such as Al-Shabaab (Popular Resistance Movement in the Land of the Two Migrations) and Hizbul Islam, to continue the war against the government.
The less-militant members of the ICU went into exile in Eritrea and Djibouti, where they formed the Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia) in September 2007. In the two years following the ICU's ouster from Mogadishu, the hardline Islamist groups concentrated their power in the south and west of Somalia, taking ground from both the TFG and ICU.
By January 2009, a reconciliation and powersharing deal was brokered between the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and the Djibouti contingent from the former Islamic Courts Union which resulted in the expansion of the Parliament and the election of Sheik Sharif Ahmed, former leader of the ICU, as President of the Transitional Federal Government.