was developed in the Italian Renaissance in maiolica. Tin-glazed pottery was taken up in the Netherlands from the 16th to the 18th centuries, the potters making household, decorative pieces and tiles in vast numbers, Caiger-Smith, Alan, ''Tin Glazed Pottery'', Faber and Faber, 1973 usually with blue painting on a white ground (Blue and white porcelain). Dutch potters took tin-glazed pottery to the British Isles, where it was made between about 1550 and 1800. In France, tin-glaze was begun in 1690 at Quimper (Quimper, Finistère) in Brittany, Faience-de-quimper.com followed in Rouen, Strasbourg and Lunéville. The development of white, or near white, firing bodies in Europe from the late 18th century, such as Creamware by Josiah Wedgwood and porcelain (Porcelain#European_porcelain), reduced the demand for Delftware, faience and majolica. Today, tin oxide usage in glazes finds limited use in conjunction with other, lower cost opacifying agents, although it is generally restricted to specialist low temperature applications and use by studio potters. ‘Ceramic Glazes.’ F.Singer & W.L.German. ''Borax Consolidated Limited''. London. 1960. ‘Ceramics Glaze Technology.’ J.R.Taylor & A.C.Bull. The Institute Of Ceramics & Pergamon Press. Oxford. 1986. , including Picasso who produced pottery using tin glazes. Commons:Category:Iraq WikiPedia:Iraq Dmoz:Regional Middle East Iraq
Empire tore itself apart with a series of brutal civil wars, weakening itself to such a degree that a coalition of its former subjects; the Babylonians, Chaldeans, Medes, Persians (Persian people), Parthians, Scythians and Cimmerians, were able to attack Assyria, finally bringing its empire down by 605 BC. Georges Roux - Ancient Iraq The short lived Neo-Babylonian Empire (620-539 BC) succeeded that of Assyria. It failed to attain the size, power
, as migrant workers, and Iraq, Iran, Bosnia (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Afghanistan as refugees. In the early 21st century, religious tensions between native Dutch people and migrant Muslims is increasing. After the rise of the populist politician Pim Fortuyn, who sought to defend the Dutch liberal culture against what he saw as a "backwards religion",
''Gathia Launia''), This is the hypothetical origin of the name of Catalonia, which eventually emerged from Marca Hispania. * A city on the Euphrates river in the Ramadi (district) of Iraq, between Hit, Iraq and Ramadi. * Gothia Cup in Gothenburg is the world's largest annual association football cup by number of contestants. ''Tucson'' left for her first Western Pacific deployment (maiden deployment) in February 1998. For historical context, note that prior
-deserts exist in the Syrian Desert such as Palmyra. Damascus is located on an oasis. The desert's remarkable landscape was formed by lava flows from the volcanic region of the Jebel Druze (Jabal ad Duruz) in southern Syria. The Syrian Desert is the origin of the Syrian hamster (Hamster). Career Holt spent 19 years with CBS beginning in 1981, when he was hired as a reporter for WCBS-TV in New York City. In 1982, he became a reporter and weekend anchor on KCBS-TV
-catalogues lehnert-et-landrock p-couverture300x412.jpg dead link . Historical context described in Patricia Briel, ''letemps.ch (Le Temps)'', 22 February 2006. Ces étranges portraits de Mahomet jeune The Grand Ayatollah Sistani (Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani) of Najaf in Iraq has given a fatwā declaring the depiction of Muhammad, the prophets
province in the east, Kermanshah province in the north and Iraq in the west with 425 kilometers of common border. The population of the province is approximately 540,000 people (2005 estimate). thumb right Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. The shape is an architectural trademark of craftsmen of this province. Daniel (Image:Emamzadeh-hamzeh.jpg)'s shrine, located in Khuzestan, has such a shape. The shrine pictured here, belongs to Imamzadeh Hamzeh, located between
-21 from Iraq to Israel. Amit is particularly known for his success in expanding Israel's human intelligence (HUMINT), especially in the Arab world. During the lead up to the Six-Day War in 1967, Amit had a network of informants that permeated the entire Egyptian military, providing key details for Israel's pre-emptive strike (Operation Focus) on Egyptian air bases and subsequent ground offensive. Amit also built close personal ties with the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency). U.S. Army Soldier of the Year Burnham was serving as an Evacuation Specialist with HHC, 1 5 Infantry Battalion at Fort Lewis, Washington, when he decided to compete in the preliminary competitions for the 2003 Soldier of the Year. After winning his battalion's honor, he went on to win the competition for 1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division, and later for I Corps and Fort Lewis. He then competed in, and won, the U.S. Army Forces Command Soldier of the Year competition, which afforded him the opportunity to represent the largest command in the Army at the Soldier of the Year competition. Burnham won the competition, consisting of several grueling mental and physical tasks, and was reassigned to Washington, DC to serve as an ambassador for the Army. Fort Lewis specialist is named Army Soldier of the Year, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Phuong Cat Le, October 3, 2003. Retrieved on 2008-07-09. For the next year, Burnham was stationed at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center and he represented the Army at events such as: the Association of the United States Army National Convention, the Veterans of Foreign Wars National Convention, the NASCAR Daytona 500, and a Washington Redskins football game. He also joined comedian, now Senator, Al Franken on a USO (United Service Organization) tour of Iraq and Afghanistan in December 2003. As Commander, Allied Joint Force Command Naples, he had operational responsibility for NATO missions in the Balkans, Iraq and the Mediterranean. As Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Europe he is responsible for providing overall command, operational control, and coordination of U.S. Naval forces in the European Command (U.S. European Command) area of responsibility. Blunt-nosed viper Dagestan, Algeria, Tunisia, Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Iran, Russian Caucasia (Caucasus), Armenia, Georgia (Georgia (country)), Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhistan, Tadzikhistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Kashmir. - Geographic range The Sinai (Sinai Peninsula) of Egypt, Israel, Jordan, northern Saudi Arabia, the mountains of Oman, northern and northwestern Iraq, possibly southern Syria, extreme southeastern Turkey, northwestern Azerbaijan, Iran and Pakistan to the borders of Afghanistan. The type locality (Type locality (biology)) is listed as "Perse" (Persia). According to Drumheller, the CIA, with the help of a friendly intelligence service, recruited Iraqi Foreign Minister Naji Sabri in Europe during the late summer of 2002. Sabri told the CIA in September that Saddam had no major active weapons of mass destruction programs; they had no fissile fissile material and biological weapons (Biological warfare) were almost non-existent, although he claimed that there were chemical weapons (Chemical warfare). This information was then transmitted to the White House, but it was ignored in favor of the information coming from a source known as Curveball (Curveball (informant)). SCAW opposes the occupation of Iraq, Afghanistan and Haiti, though Iraq and Afghanistan are generally more prominent in terms of activity. SCAW has also done work to help the War Resisters Support Campaign, especially in Ottawa, where SCAW-Carleton was part of a group of dozens of people who marched down Bank Street to show their support for the Campaign on January 26, 2008. "Carleton Students Rally with US War Resisters," ''The Charlatan'' (31 Jan 2008). http: www.charlatan.ca index.php?option com_content&task view&id 19695&Itemid 176. See also ''The Fulcrum''. http: www.thefulcrum.ca node 1028. The political composition of SCAW includes NDP (New Democratic Party) members, International Socialists, anarchists, left liberals and many others. - 16 August 29, 2003 Actor Larry Miller (Larry Miller (actor)), Tom McClintock, Bay Buchanan, comedian Dennis Miller, Senator Joe Biden Iraq and North Korea, Republican Party (Republican Party (United States))'s convention, influence of MTV and rap music - - 89 November 10, 2006 CNN's Candy Crowley, actor Rainn Wilson, author Salman Rushdie; via satellite, Sen. Charles Schumer and Rep. Jeff Flake 2006 elections (United States elections, 2006), plan for Iraq, Congressional earmarks (Earmark (politics)), resignation of Donald Rumsfeld - - 90 November 17, 2006 Guitarist Tom Morello of Audioslave, journalist Dana Priest, actor Richard Dreyfuss; via satellite, journalist Dan Rather and television's Norman Lear Journalistic roles ethics, strategy for Iraq, incoming Democratic Congress (110th United States Congress), O.J. Simpson book (If I Did It), future of democracy - - 91 February 16, 2007 Fmr Lt. Gov. Michael Steele (Michael S. Steele), fmr Hewlett-Packard CEO Carly Fiorina, TV host Craig Ferguson; via satellite, fmr Sen. John Edwards (D-NC) and basketball player John Amaechi Developments in North Korea, Iran, and Iraq; global warming; Mitt Romney and Mormonism; Al Franken Senate campaign - - 92 February 23, 2007 Rep. Darrell Issa, author Ayaan Hirsi Ali, actor Steven Weber (Steven Weber (actor)); via satellite, Sen. Joe Biden and filmmaker David Mamet Guantanamo Bay detention camp, clash of civilizations, developments in Iraq, David Geffen political comments, cameras in courtrooms - - 108 September 14, 2007 Journalist Carl Bernstein, Rep Jan Schakowsky (Ill.), comedian Drew Carey; via satellite, Sen Chuck Hagel (Neb.) and author Robert Draper Petraeus report (Report to Congress on the Situation in Iraq) and Middle East policy, 9 11 (September 11 attacks) anniversary and relationship to Iraq, Hillary Clinton campaign - In 871, the Caliph al-Mu'tamid appointed his brother Al-Muwaffaq (Al-Muwaffaq (vizier)) as governor of Damascus, and his son, later the Caliph Al-Mu'tadid, to succeed Yarjukh as governor of Egypt. The rebellion of the Zanji, a group of black slaves who seized control of Basra and much of southern Iraq during this decade, siphoned much of the caliphate's resources away from the provinces. In 874, ibn Ṭūlūn took advantage of the chaos in Iraq to sever relations with Baghdad and declare independence. In 871, the Caliph al-Mu'tamid appointed his brother Al-Muwaffaq (Al-Muwaffaq (vizier)) as governor of Damascus, and his son, later the Caliph Al-Mu'tadid, to succeed Yarjukh as governor of Egypt. The rebellion of the Zanji, a group of black slaves who seized control of Basra and much of southern Iraq during this decade, siphoned much of the caliphate's resources away from the provinces. In 874, ibn Ṭūlūn took advantage of the chaos in Iraq to sever relations with Baghdad and declare independence. *''Christians, Muslims, and Islamic Rage'' (Zondervan 2003) *''Churchill's Folly: How Winston Churchill Created Iraq'' (Carroll and Graf, in the USA 2004: called ''Winston's Folly'' with Constable in the UK in 2004) Commons:Category:Iraq WikiPedia:Iraq Dmoz:Regional Middle East Iraq
'' where he was a staff photographer for 27 years. http: www.washingtonpost.com wp-srv inatl balkans perkinsguzy bio_perkins.htm Perkins was first initially given the job due to a series he shot in his free time on the first class of female "middies" at the Naval Academy (United States Naval Academy). Once coming on to the paper, Perkins developed a passion for his job in covering extravagant international events. These include the Palestinian (Palestinian people) revolution, both the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, as well as wars in what was the former Yugoslavia. As well as international, Perkins has documented many local and national events all over the United States. Recently, Perkins has carried on and worked closely with the ''Post's'' online version of the paper. He has produced some of the website's first multimedia and interactive projects including the Siberia and Finland Diaries. Presently Perkins is working as both an independent photographer and videographer, concentrating on interactive media assignments and video documentaries as well as continuing documenting in photographic form. '''Mohammed A. Aldouri''' ( Commons:Category:Iraq WikiPedia:Iraq Dmoz:Regional Middle East Iraq
, Texas, flanked by his bodyguards. Bodyguards often have backgrounds in the armed forces, police or security services, although this is not required. The exception to this is in the case of bodyguards protecting heads of state; in some countries, these bodyguards must be trained in military bodyguard training programs. Military experience in foot patrol and convoys escort through urban areas in conflict or war as in Afghanistan, Iraq, West Bank, Northern Ireland, Beirut, Basque country (Basque Country (autonomous community)), Soweto and other areas under non conventional enemy stress around civilians is highly considered and difficult to match with any training time though, usually those experienced do not always seek these careers or further exposure in less stressful circumstances but familiar environments. Creation and evolution Most military dictatorships are formed after a ''coup d'état'' has overthrown the previous government. One very different pattern was the one followed by Saddam Hussein's regime in Iraq and Kim Il-sung's regime in North Korea, both of which began as one-party states, but over the course of their existence turned into military dictatorships as their leaders donned uniforms and the military became closely involved in the government. One of the most famous uses of human shields occurred in Iraq in 1990, following the Iraqi invasion (Invasion of Kuwait) of Kuwait that precipitated the first Gulf War. Saddam Hussein's government detained hundreds of citizens of Western (Western world) countries who were in Iraq for use as human shields in an attempt to deter nations from participating in military operations against the country. A number of these hostages were filmed meeting Hussein, and kept with him to deter any targeted attacks, whilst others were held in or near military and industrial targets. BBC News. "1990: Outrage at Iraqi TV hostage show". Retrieved 2 September 2007. While the United Nations debated its response to the invasion of Kuwait, several international statesmen and peace campaigners visited Iraq to try to secure the release of the human shields, many returning with around 10 or 12 each time. Commons:Category:Iraq WikiPedia:Iraq Dmoz:Regional Middle East Iraq
'''Iraq''' ( ''), is a country with an autonomous region, called Iraqi Kurdistan, in Western Asia. The country borders Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest, and Syria to the west. The capital, Baghdad, is in the center of the country and its largest city. The largest ethnic groups in Iraq are Arabs and Kurds. Other ethnic groups include Assyrians (Assyrian people), Turcoman (Iraqi Turkmens), Shabaki (Shabak people), Armenians (Armenians in Iraq), Mandeans, Circassians (Circassians in Iraq) and Kawliya form the minorities. Around 95% of the country's 36 million citizens are Shia or Sunni Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism and Mandeanism also extant.
Iraq has a narrow section of coastline measuring Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through the center of Iraq and flow into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf. These rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land.
The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers is often referred to as Mesopotamia and thought to be the birthplace of writing and the world's oldest civilizations (cradle of civilization). The area has been home to continuous successive civilizations since the 6th millennium BC. At different periods in its history, Iraq was the center of the indigenous Akkadian (Akkadian Empire), Sumerian (Neo-Sumerian Empire), Assyrian (Neo-Assyrian Empire), and Babylonian (Neo-Babylonian Empire) empires. It was also part of the Median (Median Empire), Achaemenid (Achaemenid Assyria), Hellenistic (Seleucid Empire), Parthian (Arsacid Empire), Sassanid (Sassanid Empire), Roman (Roman Empire), Rashidun (Rashidun Caliphate), Umayyad (Umayyad Caliphate), Abbasid (Abbasid Caliphate), Mongol (Ilkhanate), Safavid (Safavid Empire), Afsharid (Afsharid dynasty), and Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) empires, and under British (United Kingdom) control as a League of Nations mandate.
Iraq's modern borders were mostly demarcated in 1920 by the League of Nations when the Ottoman Empire was divided by the Treaty of Sèvres. Iraq was placed under the authority of the United Kingdom as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia. A monarchy was established in 1921 and the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from Britain in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Republic of Iraq was created. Iraq was controlled by (Ba'athist Iraq) the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (Ba'ath Party (Iraqi-dominated faction)) from 1968 until 2003. After an invasion (2003 invasion of Iraq) by the United States and its allies (Multi-National Force – Iraq), Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power and multi-party parliamentary elections (Iraqi parliamentary election, December 2005) were held. The American presence in Iraq (Iraq War) ended in 2011 but the Iraqi insurgency (Iraqi insurgency (post-U.S. withdrawal)) continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country.