Integrated urban water management in Medellín, Colombia

What is Integrated urban water management in Medellín, Colombia known for?


water quality

River to the level that required immediate and drastic measures to recuperate the river. At the same time, Medellín was lacking in urban water management e.g. wastewater and stormwater, treatment, water quality, drainage, and institutional capacity had all been neglected to some degree. In order to confront the deteriorating sanitary and environmental conditions, as well as their adverse effects on resident's health and well-being, the '''Medellín River Sanitation Program''' was approved in the 1980s. The river sanitation program included a set of projects, the first of which was estimated to cost US$232 million. An Inter-American Development Bank '''(IDB)''' loan provided US$130 million, while local funds provided the remaining US$102 million. The overall goal for the first stage, which began in 1993 and concluded in 2000, was to clean up the Medellín River and its tributaries. The program included six more objectives as well: i) partial decontamination of the river and its tributaries; ii) partial treatment of 23% of the wastewater to be collected from the first of four wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) included within the master plan for the sewer system; iii) extension of the potable water networks and sewer system to all areas lacking these services to reach 100 percent coverage; iv) optimization of the water distribution system, management of consumption and reduction of unaccounted-for water losses from 38 percent in 1993 to 30 percent in 1999; v) preparation of phase two of the sanitation program; and vi) institutional strengthening of EPM’s management system for aqueducts and the sewer system. By most of the initial criteria, the program was successful and propelled Medellín into becoming recognized as a strong example of urban water management. The physical results (i.e. new treatment plant, aqueducts, wastewater collectors, new conveyance pipes) were all very successful; the performance of EPM has been highly satisfactory. The only criteria that have not been as successful however, are the efficiency components. Investment costs and reductions in non-revenue water have yielded mixed results. Apart from fewer than expected negative results from the program, Medellín has become a successful example of good practice in urban water management. Economic and Social Medellín is located in the State of Antioquia and consists of two areas: the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley (MAAV) which includes nine other communities and the city of Medellín itself. As of 2005, the MAAV was contributing 67% of the total GDP to the State of Antioquia, while Medellín alone contributed 55% to the state GDP of 14.7 billion. Colombia has a median value of 57 Gini coefficient indicating moderate income disparity. (''source: WRI Earthtrends, 2003'') The MAAV is primarily a peri-urban population living under not only "border" economic conditions where inhabitants enter and exit the formal economy of commerce on a regular basis but also under "border" social, legal, and institutional conditions. This interception of multiple geographical, economic and social stressors constitutes a major challenge to extending water services to these areas. That being said, a '''2005 Report of the Economic Colombian Review of Proexport''' and the '''International Cooperation Agency of Medellín''' concluded that the Aburrá Valley, where Medellin is located, is the top economy in the state with a GDP of USD 7.8 billion in 2005. Medellín also contributes 8% to the national GDP of Colombia. The primary products and drivers of the Medellín economy are steel, textiles, food and beverage, agriculture, public services, chemical products, pharmaceuticals, flowers, and refined oil. Category:The Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley


incorporating

framework can address some of these shortcomings by incorporating all levels of service and investment and by integrating urban water management services into one institution. Alternatively, best practices can be developed and shared among institutions in order to integrate all of the services. '''EPM''' '''(Empresas Publicas de Medellín)''' is an integrated state owned utilities provider (water, electricity


growing

leading up to the early 1990s, Medellín had been growing rapidly as large quantities of people moved into the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley in hopes of taking advantage of economic opportunities. With so little open space, those who urbanized did so very near or alongside the Medellín River. This led to an increase in municipal runoff. These domestic effluents compounded with growing industrial effluents, and upstream agriculture activity effectively increased toxic runoff into the Medellín

surfaces both of which precipitate growing drainage problems. Urbanization Population growth coupled with urbanization had turned the Medellín River into a dump site for millions of tons of '''municipal''' household waste. At the same time, the lack of open land led people to settle on the banks of the river and along its 200 tributaries. Untreated household wastewater accumulated in these streams and they became an open sewer, threatening residents’ health, the aesthetic conditions

water resources. Land Development Law No. 41 in 1993 included decrees Nos. 1278 and 2135 with the aim of growing private investment in the irrigation sector while reducing public intervention. The Law incorporates users’ participation in design, building, and posterior operation and maintenance (O&M) by establishing a water fee which includes a fraction of the total costs. Response to challenges Water Management Plan There is a '''Water Management Plan''' of the Aburrá-Medellín


developing world

or assessing key water management issues in large cities of developing World World author Tucci, C.E.M. book publisher The World Bank year 2009 pages accessdate 12-3-09 Water treatment and sanitation EPM manages ten treatment plants across the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley. The '''Medellín River and Flowing Streams Sanitation Program''', led by EPM, aims at the decontamination of the Medellín River and a reduction of the rivers biochemical oxygen demand


coverage

decontamination of the river and its tributaries; ii) partial treatment of 23% of the wastewater to be collected from the first of four wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) included within the master plan for the sewer system; iii) extension of the potable water networks and sewer system to all areas lacking these services to reach 100 percent coverage; iv) optimization of the water distribution system, management of consumption and reduction of unaccounted-for water losses from 38 percent in 1993 to 30

; Sanitation coverage is nearly 100%. A portion representing 47% of the sanitation network is CSO (Combined Sewer Overflow). There are collectors in the tributaries and an interceptor along the Medellín River representing 9% of the network. Stormwater and drainage Urban drainage in Medellín is a substantial challenge. Drainage of stormwater includes a combination of creeks and culverts flowing from urbanized areas to the Medellín River. Flow velocity

to 3,468.2 GWh. This total represents 21.2% of the total capacity (16,340 GWh) in all storage reservoirs in Colombia. Some the noteworthy reservoirs are: Ríogrande II, Embrasures, Miraflores, Porce II, Quebradona, and the Peñol - Guatapé. Water coverage & water use Water coverage is 100% representing 10 municipalities within the Aburrá-Medellín valley and 2.8 million citizens. The actual demand for water in the basin is 10 m 3 s


providing water

, gas, and telecommunications) that is property of the Municipality of Medellín. EPM's water resource services include providing water, sanitation, a portion of stormwater, distributing potable water, and transport and treatment of wastewater. EPM is a public-sector entity that works like a private company and performance is measured by efficiency indicators that are comparable to other successful international water operators. EPM’s development and management policies are based on sustainability and efficiency. Category:The Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley


water amp

" *'''Network Connection Financing Program (NCFP)''' is an EPM initiative designed to provide access to water services to low-income households in peri-urban areas


nearby water

independence—and lack of political interference such as '''Empresas Publicas de Medellin (EPM)'''. The Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley (MAAV) is located near the equator but with a high elevation, the average climate is quite mild without great variation in temperature and rainfall. Consistent and adequate precipitation in the surrounding basins usually ensures that nearby water basins feeding the Aburrá Medellín River


quality water

and maintain quality water supply to its many citizens. This is quite remarkable given the large urbanized population in the '''The Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley ''' (MAAV) of 3.3 million, many of whom live on the slopes of the '''Aburrá Valley''' where Medellín is situated and highly prone to landslides and stormwater erosion. Sound urban water management within the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley is carried out by a set of technically strong institutions with financial independence—and lack of political interference such as '''Empresas Publicas de Medellin (EPM)'''. The Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley (MAAV) is located near the equator but with a high elevation, the average climate is quite mild without great variation in temperature and rainfall. Consistent and adequate precipitation in the surrounding basins usually ensures that nearby water basins feeding the Aburrá Medellín River basin and subsequently the MAM can store approximately 178 BCM of water for the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley. Adequate supply and good resource management has allowed nearly 100% of MAM citizens across ten municipalities to receive piped water. Substantial challenges remain however for Colombia's second largest urban and economical center in dealing with an increasing urbanization rate and the settling of inhabitants higher up the hillsides within the narrow valley. Drainage of stormwater is probably the most significant concern for the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley government and managing institutions. A stormwater management plan has been instituted to help address the adverse effects of urbanization, lack of infrastructures in poorer neighborhoods able to handle stormwater, river conservation and risk assessment. Key Historical turning point for IUWM in Medellín For many years leading up to the early 1990s, Medellín had been growing rapidly as large quantities of people moved into the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley in hopes of taking advantage of economic opportunities. With so little open space, those who urbanized did so very near or alongside the Medellín River. This led to an increase in municipal runoff. These domestic effluents compounded with growing industrial effluents, and upstream agriculture activity effectively increased toxic runoff into the Medellín River to the level that required immediate and drastic measures to recuperate the river. At the same time, Medellín was lacking in urban water management e.g. wastewater and stormwater, treatment, water quality, drainage, and institutional capacity had all been neglected to some degree. In order to confront the deteriorating sanitary and environmental conditions, as well as their adverse effects on resident's health and well-being, the '''Medellín River Sanitation Program''' was approved in the 1980s. The river sanitation program included a set of projects, the first of which was estimated to cost US$232 million. An Inter-American Development Bank '''(IDB)''' loan provided US$130 million, while local funds provided the remaining US$102 million. The overall goal for the first stage, which began in 1993 and concluded in 2000, was to clean up the Medellín River and its tributaries. The program included six more objectives as well: i) partial decontamination of the river and its tributaries; ii) partial treatment of 23% of the wastewater to be collected from the first of four wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) included within the master plan for the sewer system; iii) extension of the potable water networks and sewer system to all areas lacking these services to reach 100 percent coverage; iv) optimization of the water distribution system, management of consumption and reduction of unaccounted-for water losses from 38 percent in 1993 to 30 percent in 1999; v) preparation of phase two of the sanitation program; and vi) institutional strengthening of EPM’s management system for aqueducts and the sewer system. By most of the initial criteria, the program was successful and propelled Medellín into becoming recognized as a strong example of urban water management. The physical results (i.e. new treatment plant, aqueducts, wastewater collectors, new conveyance pipes) were all very successful; the performance of EPM has been highly satisfactory. The only criteria that have not been as successful however, are the efficiency components. Investment costs and reductions in non-revenue water have yielded mixed results. Apart from fewer than expected negative results from the program, Medellín has become a successful example of good practice in urban water management. Economic and Social Medellín is located in the State of Antioquia and consists of two areas: the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley (MAAV) which includes nine other communities and the city of Medellín itself. As of 2005, the MAAV was contributing 67% of the total GDP to the State of Antioquia, while Medellín alone contributed 55% to the state GDP of 14.7 billion. Colombia has a median value of 57 Gini coefficient indicating moderate income disparity. (''source: WRI Earthtrends, 2003'') The MAAV is primarily a peri-urban population living under not only "border" economic conditions where inhabitants enter and exit the formal economy of commerce on a regular basis but also under "border" social, legal, and institutional conditions. This interception of multiple geographical, economic and social stressors constitutes a major challenge to extending water services to these areas. That being said, a '''2005 Report of the Economic Colombian Review of Proexport''' and the '''International Cooperation Agency of Medellín''' concluded that the Aburrá Valley, where Medellin is located, is the top economy in the state with a GDP of USD 7.8 billion in 2005. Medellín also contributes 8% to the national GDP of Colombia. The primary products and drivers of the Medellín economy are steel, textiles, food and beverage, agriculture, public services, chemical products, pharmaceuticals, flowers, and refined oil. Category:The Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley


design quot

and implemented by a former city mayor and a former director of urban projects with a philosophy of using design and architecture to address some of the city's problems. Geography and climate Medellín is located in the Northwest region of Colombia

Integrated urban water management in Medellín, Colombia

Integrated urban water management '''(IUWM)''' in Medellín, Colombia is considered to be an overall success and a good example of how a large metropolitan area with moderate income disparity can adequately operate and maintain quality water supply to its many citizens. This is quite remarkable given the large urbanized population in the '''The Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley ''' (MAAV) of 3.3 million, many of whom live on the slopes of the '''Aburrá Valley''' where Medellín is situated and highly prone to landslides and stormwater erosion. Sound urban water management within the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley is carried out by a set of technically strong institutions with financial independence—and lack of political interference such as '''Empresas Publicas de Medellin (EPM)'''.

The Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley (MAAV) is located near the equator but with a high elevation, the average climate is quite mild without great variation in temperature and rainfall. Consistent and adequate precipitation in the surrounding basins usually ensures that nearby water basins feeding the Aburrá Medellín River basin and subsequently the MAM can store approximately 178 BCM of water for the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley. Adequate supply and good resource management has allowed nearly 100% of MAM citizens across ten municipalities to receive piped water.

Substantial challenges remain however for Colombia's second largest urban and economical center in dealing with an increasing urbanization rate and the settling of inhabitants higher up the hillsides within the narrow valley. Drainage of stormwater is probably the most significant concern for the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley government and managing institutions. A stormwater management plan has been instituted to help address the adverse effects of urbanization, lack of infrastructures in poorer neighborhoods able to handle stormwater, river conservation and risk assessment.

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