Integrated urban water management in Medellín, Colombia

What is Integrated urban water management in Medellín, Colombia known for?


treatment water

River to the level that required immediate and drastic measures to recuperate the river. At the same time, Medellín was lacking in urban water management e.g. wastewater and stormwater, treatment, water quality, drainage, and institutional capacity had all been neglected to some degree. In order to confront the deteriorating sanitary and environmental conditions, as well as their adverse effects on resident's health and well-being, the '''Medellín River Sanitation Program''' was approved


design

and implemented by a former city mayor and a former director of urban projects with a philosophy of using design and architecture to address some of the city's problems. Geography and climate Medellín is located in the Northwest region of Colombia

water resources. Land Development Law No. 41 in 1993 included decrees Nos. 1278 and 2135 with the aim of growing private investment in the irrigation sector while reducing public intervention. The Law incorporates users’ participation in design, building, and posterior operation and maintenance (O&M) by establishing a water fee which includes a fraction of the total costs. Response to challenges Water Management Plan There is a '''Water Management Plan''' of the Aburrá-Medellín

river basin that is being implemented by the Medellín government's office of Metropolitan development in the Aburrá-Medellín valley (''Area Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá''). The plan is composed of the following items: i) design and construction of sewerage in the Girardota municipality; ii) design and construction of sanitation interceptors for the Medellín River in the Caldes municipality; iii) cleanup of small tributaries in the Aburra-Medellín valley through proper handling of domestic


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to 3,468.2 GWh. This total represents 21.2% of the total capacity (16,340 GWh) in all storage reservoirs in Colombia. Some the noteworthy reservoirs are: Ríogrande II, Embrasures, Miraflores, Porce II, Quebradona, and the Peñol - Guatapé. Water coverage & water use Water coverage is 100% representing 10 municipalities within the Aburrá-Medellín valley and 2.8 million citizens. The actual demand for water in the basin is 10 m 3 s


community based

. The program allows reconnection of services (which are prepaid) and debt payment over 120 months charged at the DTF (Depósitos Termino Fijo) interest rate. *'''Social Financing Program (SFP) Grupo EPM''' card offers households in the Antioquia Region credit at competitive rates that vary according to the type of product or activity financed. *'''Community Organization Contracts''' has the objective of contracting community-based organizations and associations located in Aburrá Valley areas where EPM has projects on network expansion, operation and maintenance in water and sanitation services provision. *'''Water services provision peri-urban areas''' is implemented by EPM in conjunction with the Municipality of Medellín and seeks to legalize and allow access to public water services for people in peri-urban areas in Medellín. The aim is to reduce risks derived from illegal or irregular use of public services and protect private and public goods. *'''Minimum Potable Water Consumption Amount for Life'''. The World Health Organization estimates that the average quantity of potable water needed per person to meet basic human needs is 2.5m3 per month. '''Minimum Potable Water Consumption Amount for Life''' is a Municipality of Medellin initiative launched in 2009 providing subsidies paid by the municipality to cover the cost of 2.5m3 month per person. *'''National demand-side and supply-side subsidies''' is a scheme offering users with low payment capacity subsidies financed by overages in the bills of users with the best payment capacity, industrial and commercial users, and with municipality funds. Multi-lateral assistance The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) has been working periodically with Medellín on the '''Medellín River Sanitation Program''' since the program was approved in the 1980s. In the most recent phase, the IDB approved a 25-year loan to Colombia in February 2009 for US$ 450 million for a cleanup project of the Medellín River. This is the largest loan the IDB has ever issued for a river cleanup and will be used to build a treatment plant in the northern end of the Aburrá-Medellín valley. The new plant will open for operation in 2012 and will increase Medellín’s wastewater treatment capacity to 95%. In a prior phase, an IDB loan of US$130 million was used to build the San Fernando wastewater treatment plant in the southern end of the Aburrá-Medellín valley. Category:The Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley


lack

independence—and lack of political interference such as '''Empresas Publicas de Medellin (EPM)'''. The Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley (MAAV) is located near the equator but with a high elevation, the average climate is quite mild without great variation in temperature and rainfall. Consistent and adequate precipitation in the surrounding basins usually ensures that nearby water basins feeding the Aburrá Medellín River

the narrow valley. Drainage of stormwater is probably the most significant concern for the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley government and managing institutions. A stormwater management plan has been instituted to help address the adverse effects of urbanization, lack of infrastructures in poorer neighborhoods able to handle stormwater, river conservation and risk assessment. Key Historical turning point for IUWM in Medellín For many years

surfaces both of which precipitate growing drainage problems. Urbanization Population growth coupled with urbanization had turned the Medellín River into a dump site for millions of tons of '''municipal''' household waste. At the same time, the lack of open land led people to settle on the banks of the river and along its 200 tributaries. Untreated household wastewater accumulated in these streams and they became an open sewer, threatening residents’ health, the aesthetic conditions


coverage amp

to 3,468.2 GWh. This total represents 21.2% of the total capacity (16,340 GWh) in all storage reservoirs in Colombia. Some the noteworthy reservoirs are: Ríogrande II, Embrasures, Miraflores, Porce II, Quebradona, and the Peñol - Guatapé. Water coverage & water use Water coverage is 100% representing 10 municipalities within the Aburrá-Medellín valley and 2.8 million citizens. The actual demand for water in the basin is 10 m 3 s


quot design'

and implemented by a former city mayor and a former director of urban projects with a philosophy of using design and architecture to address some of the city's problems. Geography and climate Medellín is located in the Northwest region of Colombia


water quality

River to the level that required immediate and drastic measures to recuperate the river. At the same time, Medellín was lacking in urban water management e.g. wastewater and stormwater, treatment, water quality, drainage, and institutional capacity had all been neglected to some degree. In order to confront the deteriorating sanitary and environmental conditions, as well as their adverse effects on resident's health and well-being, the '''Medellín River Sanitation Program''' was approved in the 1980s. The river sanitation program included a set of projects, the first of which was estimated to cost US$232 million. An Inter-American Development Bank '''(IDB)''' loan provided US$130 million, while local funds provided the remaining US$102 million. The overall goal for the first stage, which began in 1993 and concluded in 2000, was to clean up the Medellín River and its tributaries. The program included six more objectives as well: i) partial decontamination of the river and its tributaries; ii) partial treatment of 23% of the wastewater to be collected from the first of four wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) included within the master plan for the sewer system; iii) extension of the potable water networks and sewer system to all areas lacking these services to reach 100 percent coverage; iv) optimization of the water distribution system, management of consumption and reduction of unaccounted-for water losses from 38 percent in 1993 to 30 percent in 1999; v) preparation of phase two of the sanitation program; and vi) institutional strengthening of EPM’s management system for aqueducts and the sewer system. By most of the initial criteria, the program was successful and propelled Medellín into becoming recognized as a strong example of urban water management. The physical results (i.e. new treatment plant, aqueducts, wastewater collectors, new conveyance pipes) were all very successful; the performance of EPM has been highly satisfactory. The only criteria that have not been as successful however, are the efficiency components. Investment costs and reductions in non-revenue water have yielded mixed results. Apart from fewer than expected negative results from the program, Medellín has become a successful example of good practice in urban water management. Economic and Social Medellín is located in the State of Antioquia and consists of two areas: the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley (MAAV) which includes nine other communities and the city of Medellín itself. As of 2005, the MAAV was contributing 67% of the total GDP to the State of Antioquia, while Medellín alone contributed 55% to the state GDP of 14.7 billion. Colombia has a median value of 57 Gini coefficient indicating moderate income disparity. (''source: WRI Earthtrends, 2003'') The MAAV is primarily a peri-urban population living under not only "border" economic conditions where inhabitants enter and exit the formal economy of commerce on a regular basis but also under "border" social, legal, and institutional conditions. This interception of multiple geographical, economic and social stressors constitutes a major challenge to extending water services to these areas. That being said, a '''2005 Report of the Economic Colombian Review of Proexport''' and the '''International Cooperation Agency of Medellín''' concluded that the Aburrá Valley, where Medellin is located, is the top economy in the state with a GDP of USD 7.8 billion in 2005. Medellín also contributes 8% to the national GDP of Colombia. The primary products and drivers of the Medellín economy are steel, textiles, food and beverage, agriculture, public services, chemical products, pharmaceuticals, flowers, and refined oil. Category:The Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley


title water

PA167&dq related:sGh5wpZyW8kJ:scholar.google.com &ots K7JSdPYypg&sig _2x6Hkp8yIuCd407X9FBoIBj7VU#v onepage&q &f false title Water Pollution Taxes in Colombia author Seroa de Motta, R. journal publisher year 2005 pages 167–171 accessdate 12-14-09 (excerpt below drawn from: Irrigation in Colombia) The Colombian Constitution of 1991 states that the National government shall be responsible for the sustainable use of natural resources, including


quot social

;border" economic conditions where inhabitants enter and exit the formal economy of commerce on a regular basis but also under "border" social, legal, and institutional conditions. This interception of multiple geographical, economic and social stressors constitutes a major challenge to extending water services to these areas. That being said, a '''2005 Report of the Economic Colombian Review of Proexport''' and the '''International Cooperation Agency of Medellín''' concluded that the Aburrá Valley, where Medellin is located, is the top economy in the state with a GDP of USD 7.8 billion in 2005. Medellín also contributes 8% to the national GDP of Colombia. The primary products and drivers of the Medellín economy are steel, textiles, food and beverage, agriculture, public services, chemical products, pharmaceuticals, flowers, and refined oil. Category:The Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley

Integrated urban water management in Medellín, Colombia

Integrated urban water management '''(IUWM)''' in Medellín, Colombia is considered to be an overall success and a good example of how a large metropolitan area with moderate income disparity can adequately operate and maintain quality water supply to its many citizens. This is quite remarkable given the large urbanized population in the '''The Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley ''' (MAAV) of 3.3 million, many of whom live on the slopes of the '''Aburrá Valley''' where Medellín is situated and highly prone to landslides and stormwater erosion. Sound urban water management within the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley is carried out by a set of technically strong institutions with financial independence—and lack of political interference such as '''Empresas Publicas de Medellin (EPM)'''.

The Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley (MAAV) is located near the equator but with a high elevation, the average climate is quite mild without great variation in temperature and rainfall. Consistent and adequate precipitation in the surrounding basins usually ensures that nearby water basins feeding the Aburrá Medellín River basin and subsequently the MAM can store approximately 178 BCM of water for the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley. Adequate supply and good resource management has allowed nearly 100% of MAM citizens across ten municipalities to receive piped water.

Substantial challenges remain however for Colombia's second largest urban and economical center in dealing with an increasing urbanization rate and the settling of inhabitants higher up the hillsides within the narrow valley. Drainage of stormwater is probably the most significant concern for the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley government and managing institutions. A stormwater management plan has been instituted to help address the adverse effects of urbanization, lack of infrastructures in poorer neighborhoods able to handle stormwater, river conservation and risk assessment.

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