Hungarian Soviet Republic

What is Hungarian Soviet Republic known for?


line set

) to acknowledge the new Romanian territory gains by a new line set along the Tisza river. Unable to reject these terms and unwilling to accept them, the leaders of the Hungarian Democratic Republic resigned and the Communists seized power. In spite of the country being under Allied blockade, the Hungarian Soviet Republic was formed and the Hungarian Red Army was rapidly set up. This army (Slovak Soviet Republic) was initially successful against the Czechoslovak Legions due to having been implicitly aided with food "Die Ereignisse in der Slovakei," Der Demokrat (morning edition), 4 June 1919. and weapons by Italy; Die italienisch-ungarische Freundschaft," Bohemia, 29 June 1919. which made it possible for Hungary to reach nearly the former Galitian (Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria) (Polish) border, thus separating the Czechoslovak and Romanian troops from each other. After a Hungarian-Czechoslovak cease-fire signed on 1 July 1919, the Hungarian Red Army left parts of Slovakia by 4 July, as the Entente powers promised Hungary to invite a Hungarian delegation to the Versailles Peace Conference. In the end, this particular invitation was not issued. Béla Kun, leader of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, then turned the Hungarian Red Army on the Romanian Army and attacked at the Tisza river (Hungarian-Romanian War of 1919) on 20 July 1919. After fierce fighting that lasted some five days, the Hungarian Red Army collapsed. The Royal Romanian Army marched into Budapest on 4 August 1919. The Comintern was involved in the revolutions across Europe in this period, starting with the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919. Several hundred agitators and financial aid were sent from the Soviet Union and Lenin was in regular contact with its leader, Béla Kun. Soon an official "Terror Group of the Revolutionary Council of the Government" was formed, unofficially known as "Lenin Boys". The Black Book of Communism pp. 272-5 The next attempt was the "March Action (Béla Kun#The "March Action" in Germany)" in Germany in 1921, including an attempt to dynamite the express train from Halle to Leipzig. After this failed, the Communist Party of Germany expelled its former Chairman, Paul Levi, from the party for publicly criticising the March Action in a pamphlet, Broue, P. (2006) ''The German Revolution: 1917-1923'', Chicago: Haymarket Books, pg.516 which was ratified by the ECCI prior to the 3rd congress. Broue, P. (2006) ''The German Revolution: 1917-1923'', Chicago: Haymarket Books, pg.531 A new attempt was made at the time of the Ruhr Crisis in spring and then again in selected parts of Germany in the autumn of 1923. The Red Army was mobilized, ready to come to the aid of the planned insurrection. Resolute action by the German government cancelled the plans, except due to miscommunication in Hamburg, where 200-300 Communists attacked police stations but were quickly defeated. The Black Book of Communism pp. 277-8 In 1924 there was a failed coup in Estonia (Estonian coup attempt of 1924) by the Estonian Communist Party. The Black Book of Communism pp. 278-9 At the 5th World Congress of the Comintern in July 1924, Zinoviev condemned Marxist philosopher Georg Lukács's ''History and Class Consciousness'', published in 1923 after his involvement in Béla Kun's Hungarian Soviet Republic, and Karl Korsch's ''Marxism and Philosophy''. . The Romanian control of Transylvania, which had also a Hungarian-speaking population of 1,662,000 (31,6%, according to the census data (Treaty of Trianon#Demographic consequences) of 1910), was widely resented in the new nation state of Hungary. A war (Hungarian-Romanian War of 1919) between the Kingdom of Romania and the Hungarian Soviet Republic, who also had parallel conflicts (Revolutions_and_interventions_in_Hungary_(1918–1920)) with Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, was fought mainly in 1919 and ended with a partial Romanian occupation of Hungary. The Romanian army provided weapons C. Kiriţescu: Istoria războiului pentru întregirea României, Vol. II, ed. Romania Noua, 1923, pp. 612 to support the army of Admiral Horthy, who became the regent of Hungary after the Romanian troops left Hungary in early 1920.


made large

a revolutionary wave of socialist and communist uprisings across Europe, most notably the German Revolution, the Hungarian Revolution (Hungarian Soviet Republic), Biennio Rosso and the revolutionary war in Finland (Finnish Civil War) with the short lived Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic, which made large gains and met with considerable success in the early stages; see also Revolutions of 1917-23. thumb 200px left Carantania Kingdom of Carantania (File:Regnum Carantanum.PNG) The region has had a turbulent history: it has been inhabited since the Stone Age, it was later included into the Roman Empire and subsequently into the Odoacer's Kingdom of Italy, the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths, the Kingdom of the Lombards, the Kingdom of the Avars (Eurasian Avars), the Slavic state of Samo, the Frankish Empire, the Principality of Lower Pannonia (9th century), and Arnulf (Arnulf of Carinthia)'s Kingdom of Carantania (Carantania) (9th-10th century). In the late 10th century it was invaded by the Hungarians and was under administration of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary (medieval)) until the 16th century, when former territories of this kingdom were divided between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire. Since then, Prekmurje was mostly under administration of the Habsburg Monarchy, with brief periods of Ottoman administration. Following the dissolution of the Habsburg Monarchy in 1918, the region was firstly included into the Hungarian Democratic Republic and subsequently into the Hungarian Soviet Republic. In 1919, it proclaimed independence as the short-lived Republic of Prekmurje and was subsequently included into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later known as Yugoslavia). From 1941 to 1945, Prekmurje was temporarily occupied by the Axis Powers and in 1945 it was included into the new socialist Yugoslavia (SFRY). Since 1991, it is part of an independent Slovenia. After break-up of Austria-Hungary, the town was occupied by the Czechoslovak Legions in January 1919. However, the army of the Hungarian Soviet Republic came to the town in May 1919, but control reverted to Czechoslovakia in July 1919. After the First Vienna Award in 1938, the town belonged to Hungary to the end of 1944. During the Socialist Czechoslovakia, food industry developed here, for example sugar factory was established in 1966 and meat processing plant in 1977. After Eisner's USPD had lost the elections, he decided to resign from his office. On 21 February 1919, as he was on his way to parliament to announce his resignation, he was shot by the right-wing (Right-wing politics) nationalist (Nationalism) Anton Graf von Arco auf Valley, who was rejected from membership in the Thule Society because of Jewish (Judaism) ancestry on his mother's side. This assassination caused unrest and lawlessness in Bavaria, and the news of a soviet revolution (Hungarian Soviet Republic) in Hungary encouraged communists (communism) and anarchists (anarchism) to seize power . The Romanian control of Transylvania, which had also a Hungarian-speaking population of 1,662,000 (31,6%, according to the census data (Treaty of Trianon#Demographic consequences) of 1910), was widely resented in the new nation state of Hungary. A war (Hungarian-Romanian War of 1919) between the Kingdom of Romania and the Hungarian Soviet Republic, who also had parallel conflicts (Revolutions_and_interventions_in_Hungary_(1918–1920)) with Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, was fought mainly in 1919 and ended with a partial Romanian occupation of Hungary. The Romanian army provided weapons C. Kiriţescu: Istoria războiului pentru întregirea României, Vol. II, ed. Romania Noua, 1923, pp. 612 to support the army of Admiral Horthy, who became the regent of Hungary after the Romanian troops left Hungary in early 1920.


massive agricultural

the establishment of the Hungarian Soviet Republic in March 1919, Kun set about nationalizing private industry while embarking on a massive agricultural collectivization project. He also took steps towards normalizing foreign relations with the Triple Entente powers in an effort to gain back some of the land that Hungary was set to lose in the post-war negotiations. For the 133 days that the Hungarian Soviet Republic existed, the KMP concentrated mostly on trying to fix the widespread economic


film appearance

. The Romanian control of Transylvania, which had also a Hungarian-speaking population of 1,662,000 (31,6%, according to the census data (Treaty of Trianon#Demographic consequences) of 1910), was widely resented in the new nation state of Hungary. A war (Hungarian-Romanian War of 1919) between the Kingdom of Romania and the Hungarian Soviet Republic, who also had parallel conflicts (Revolutions_and_interventions_in_Hungary_(1918–1920)) with Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, was fought mainly in 1919 and ended with a partial Romanian occupation of Hungary. The Romanian army provided weapons C. Kiriţescu: Istoria războiului pentru întregirea României, Vol. II, ed. Romania Noua, 1923, pp. 612 to support the army of Admiral Horthy, who became the regent of Hungary after the Romanian troops left Hungary in early 1920.


keeping power

Revolution of 1918–1919 , in the short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic and others like it, no other Marxist movement succeeded in keeping power in its hands. * March 15 – The American Legion forms in Paris. * March 21 – The Hungarian Soviet Republic is established by Béla Kun. * March 23 – In Milan, Italy, Benito Mussolini founds his Fascist (Fascism) political movement. The history of Budapest began with Aquincum


early membership

Party to create a front which would win over new supporters. This attempt was thwarted by the authorities, and new arrests ensued. In June 1931, he joined the communist youth organization, the Communist Young Workers' Association (KIMSZ). He joined the Sverdlov party cell, named after Soviet (Soviet people) Yakov Sverdlov. His alias (Pseudonym) within the party became János Barna. During his early membership, the party was illegal, following the crushing of the 1919 Hungarian Soviet


long live

during 1936; Hungary during 1919 (Hungarian Soviet Republic) and 1956 (Hungarian Revolution of 1956); France during 1871 (Paris Commune) and 1968 (May 1968 in France); Chile in 1973 (''cordones''); Iran during 1978-1979 (''shoras (shura)''


public support

, and the Communist Party's premises were re-opened. The leaders were permitted to receive guests in their prison, which allowed them to keep up with political affairs. On 20 March, Károlyi announced that the Dénes Berinkey government would resign. On 21 March, he informed the Council of Ministers that only the Social Democrats could form a new government, as they were the party with the highest public support. In order to form a governing coalition, the Social Democrats started negotiations

, at least, was not implemented in practice). The Communist government also nationalized industrial and commercial enterprises, and socialized housing, transport, banking, medicine, cultural institutions, and all landholdings of more than 40 hectares. These economic policies created high inflation while leading to food shortages across the land. Public support for Communists was also heavily dependent on their promise of restoring Hungary's imperial borders


period starting

, the Hungarian Red Army collapsed. The Royal Romanian Army marched into Budapest on 4 August 1919. The Comintern was involved in the revolutions across Europe in this period, starting with the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919. Several hundred agitators and financial aid were sent from the Soviet Union and Lenin was in regular contact with its leader, Béla Kun. Soon an official "Terror Group of the Revolutionary Council of the Government" was formed, unofficially known as "Lenin Boys". The Black Book of Communism pp. 272-5 The next attempt was the "March Action (Béla Kun#The "March Action" in Germany)" in Germany in 1921, including an attempt to dynamite the express train from Halle to Leipzig. After this failed, the Communist Party of Germany expelled its former Chairman, Paul Levi, from the party for publicly criticising the March Action in a pamphlet, Broue, P. (2006) ''The German Revolution: 1917-1923'', Chicago: Haymarket Books, pg.516 which was ratified by the ECCI prior to the 3rd congress. Broue, P. (2006) ''The German Revolution: 1917-1923'', Chicago: Haymarket Books, pg.531 A new attempt was made at the time of the Ruhr Crisis in spring and then again in selected parts of Germany in the autumn of 1923. The Red Army was mobilized, ready to come to the aid of the planned insurrection. Resolute action by the German government cancelled the plans, except due to miscommunication in Hamburg, where 200-300 Communists attacked police stations but were quickly defeated. The Black Book of Communism pp. 277-8 In 1924 there was a failed coup in Estonia (Estonian coup attempt of 1924) by the Estonian Communist Party. The Black Book of Communism pp. 278-9 At the 5th World Congress of the Comintern in July 1924, Zinoviev condemned Marxist philosopher Georg Lukács's ''History and Class Consciousness'', published in 1923 after his involvement in Béla Kun's Hungarian Soviet Republic, and Karl Korsch's ''Marxism and Philosophy''. . The Romanian control of Transylvania, which had also a Hungarian-speaking population of 1,662,000 (31,6%, according to the census data (Treaty of Trianon#Demographic consequences) of 1910), was widely resented in the new nation state of Hungary. A war (Hungarian-Romanian War of 1919) between the Kingdom of Romania and the Hungarian Soviet Republic, who also had parallel conflicts (Revolutions_and_interventions_in_Hungary_(1918–1920)) with Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, was fought mainly in 1919 and ended with a partial Romanian occupation of Hungary. The Romanian army provided weapons C. Kiriţescu: Istoria războiului pentru întregirea României, Vol. II, ed. Romania Noua, 1923, pp. 612 to support the army of Admiral Horthy, who became the regent of Hungary after the Romanian troops left Hungary in early 1920.


called white

autobiography" Luca's autobiography During the short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic headed by Béla Kun in 1919, Sándor served briefly on the governing council of Ung County. Sakmyster, ''Red Conspirator,'' p. 7. He managed to escape repression during the so-called "White Terror" (White Terror (Hungary)) which followed the collapse of the Hungarian Soviet regime, apparently benefiting from the 1920 Treaty

Hungarian Soviet Republic

thumb right 320px Béla Kun (File:Bela.Kun.Revolution.1919.jpg), leader of the 1919 Hungarian Revolution. thumb right 320px "To Arms! To Arms!" Bolshevik Hungarian propaganda poster from 1919. (File:Dia03.PNG)

The '''Hungarian Soviet Republic''' or '''Hungarian Republic of Councils''' ( A Forradalmi Kormányzótanács XXVI. számú rendelete (in Hungarian) or ''Magyarországi Szocialista Szövetséges Tanácsköztársaság'' Official name of the state between 23 June and 1 August according to the constitution, see: A Magyarországi Szocialista Szövetséges Tanácsköztársaság alkotmánya (in Hungarian) ) was a short-lived independent communist state established in Hungary in the aftermath of World War I.

It was the successor of the Hungarian Democratic Republic and lasted only from 21 March until 1 August 1919. The state was led by Béla Kun and was not recognized by France, the UK or the US. A Study of Crisis - Michael Brecher - Google Books It was the second socialist state in the world to be formed after the October Revolution in Russia brought the Bolsheviks to power. The Hungarian Republic of Councils had military conflicts (Revolutions and interventions in Hungary (1918–1920)) with the Kingdom of Romania, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and the evolving Czechoslovakia. It collapsed when Romanian (Hungarian–Romanian War of 1919) forces occupied Budapest, after which the Kingdom of Hungary (Kingdom of Hungary (1920–1946)) was reestablished.

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