History of the Ryukyu Islands

What is History of the Ryukyu Islands known for?

cultural studies

and dynamics of exchanges author Angela Schottenhammer editor Angela Schottenhammer volume Volume 4 of East Asian economic and socio-cultural studies: East Asian maritime history year 2007 publisher Otto Harrassowitz Verlag edition illustrated isbn 3-447-05474-3 page xiii accessdate 2011-02-04

years leading

and, eventually, joint administration by the two countries under the trusteeship of an international organization.” In March 23, 1945, the United States began its attack on the island of Okinawa, the final outlying islands, prior to the expected invasion of mainland Japan. Okinawa and World War II In the years leading up to World War II, the Japanese government sought to reinforce national solidarity in the interests of militarization. They did so by means of conscription, mobilization, and nationalistic propaganda. People of the Ryukyu Islands, having spent only a generation as full Japanese citizens, were interested in proving their value to the nation in spite of prejudice expressed by mainland Japanese people, the mainland Japanese politicians appointed to govern Okinawa, and the mainland Japanese generals commanding Okinawa military units. Kerr pgs 459–464 The Japanese government also promoted Japanese-language education in the school system to render the islanders Japanese citizens. Category:Ryukyu Islands Category:History of Japan Category:History of China

related cultural

the same ancestors. Asahi Shimbun, Apr 16, 2010 Gusuku Period thumb 200px left Wall of Gusuku (File:GusukuWall.jpg) Gusuku is the term used for the distinctive Okinawan form of castles or fortresses. Many gusukus and related cultural remains in the Ryukyu Islands have been listed by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites under the title Gusuku Sites and Related Properties of the Kingdom of Ryukyu. After the midden culture, agriculture started about the 12th century, with the center moving from the seashore to higher places. This period is called the gusuku period. There are three perspectives regarding the nature of gusukus: 1) a holy place, 2) dwellings encircled by stones, 3) a castle of a leader of people. In this period, porcelain trade between Okinawa and other countries became busy, and Okinawa became an important relay point in eastern-Asian trade. Ryukyuan kings, such as Shunten and Eiso (Eiso (Ryukyu)), were considered to be important governors. In 1291, there was an intended invasion of Mongol, but the Eiso Dynasty defended its land. Hiragana was imported from Japan by Ganjin in 1265. ''Noro'', female shaman or priests (as in shintoism), appeared. The nature of Okinawan people Early Chinese visitors noted the hospitality of the islanders as well as the sharp economic divisions between the small upper class and the impoverished masses. Category:Ryukyu Islands Category:History of Japan Category:History of China

atomic bomb

. Later, islanders unsuccessfully sued the Japanese government. Many military historians believe that Okinawa led directly to American use of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A prominent holder of this view is Victor Davis Hanson, who states it explicitly in his book ''Ripples of Battle''. Hanson, Victor Davis, (October 12, 2004). "Ripples of Battle: How Wars of the Past Still Determine How We Fight, How We Live, and How We Think", Anchor, October 12, 2004, ISBN 0

long live

be taken as prisoners. One of the Princess Lilies explained: "We had a strict imperial education, so being taken prisoner was the same as being a traitor. We were taught to prefer suicide to becoming a captive." (Moriguchi, 1992) Many students died saying "Tenno Heika Banzai (Ten thousand years)", which means "Long live the Emperor." The board of education, made up entirely of mainland Japanese, required

special actions

May 2012, p. 7 In the 1990s, a Special Actions Committee (special actions committee on Okinawa) was set up to prepare measures to ease tensions, most notably the return of approximately Category:Ryukyu Islands Category:History of Japan Category:History of China

book record

) for Okinawa (沖縄) were first written in 1719 by Arai Hakuseki, a Japanese scholar, in the book ''Record of Southern Islands''. Early history Prehistoric Period The ancestry of the modern-day Ryukyuan people (Ryukyuans) is disputed. One theory claims that the earliest inhabitants of these islands crossed a prehistoric land bridge from modern-day China, with later additions of Austronesians (Austronesian people), Demographics

history history

of the Battle of Okinawa by enemy artillery fire, making him the highest-ranking US military officer to have been killed by enemy fire during World War II. See also *History of Amami Islands (Amami Islands#History) *History of Sakishima Islands (Sakishima Islands#History) *Ethnic issues in Japan *Okinawa prefecture *Ryukyuan people (Ryukyuans) *Ryūkyū Kingdom *Okinawan Samurai (Pechin) *Gusuku *Mudan Incident of 1871 *Iha Fuyū *Shuri castle * Bernard Jean

early modern

in 1613. After 1609, the Ryūkyūan kings became vassals of Satsuma. Though recognized as an independent kingdom, Smits, Gregory. (1999). ''Visions of Ryūkyū: Identity and Ideology in Early-Modern Thought and Politics,'' p. 28. the islands were occasionally also referred to as being a province of Japan (Provinces of Japan). Toby, Ronald P. (1991). ''State and Diplomacy in Early Modern Japan: Asia and the development of the Tokugawa bakufu,'' pp. 45-46, citing manuscripts at the Historiographical Institute of the University of Tokyo; excerpt, "Ieyasu granted the Shimazu clan the right to "rule" over Ryukyu ... and contemporary Japanese even referred to the Shimazu clan as 'lords of four provinces', which could only mean that they were including the Ryūkyū Kingdom in their calculations. However, this does not mean that Ryūkyū ceased to be a foreign country or that relations between Naha and Edo ceased thereby to be foreign relations.". In the 17th century, the kingdom was both a tributary of China and a tributary of Japan. Because China would not make a formal trade agreement unless a country was a tributary state, the kingdom was a convenient loophole for Japanese trade with China. When Japan officially closed off trade with European nations except the Dutch, Nagasaki and Naha became the only trading ports offering connections between the outside world and Japan. Category:Ryukyu Islands Category:History of Japan Category:History of China

including original

miscellaneous historical topics * 沖縄の歴史情報(ORJ) Many Ryukyu historical texts. *Many documents, including original and singular translations, concerning post-WWII Okinawa *Wonder Okinawa, a comprehensive site run by the Okinawa Prefectural Government *Information concerning UNESCO

History of the Ryukyu Islands

In 1429, King Shō Hashi completed the unification of the three kingdoms and founded one Ryūkyū Kingdom with its capital at Shuri Castle.

left thumb 100 pg King Shō Shin (File:King Sho Shin.jpg)

''' '''(1465–1526; r. 1477–1526) was the third king of the Second Sho Dynasty, whose reign has been described as the "Great Days of Chūzan", a period of great peace and relative prosperity. He was the son of Shō En, the founder of the dynasty, by Yosoidon, Shō En's second wife, often referred to as the queen mother. He succeeded his uncle, Shō Sen'i, who was forced to abdicate in his favor. Much of the foundational organization of the kingdom's administration and economy is traced back to developments which occurred during Shō Shin's reign. The reign of Shō Shin also saw the expansion of the kingdom's control over several of the outlying Ryukyu Islands, such as Miyakojima and Ishigaki (Ishigaki Island) Island.

Many Chinese moved to Ryukyu to serve the government or engage in business during this period. The Ming dynasty Chinese sent from Fujian 36 Chinese families at the request of the Ryukyuan King to manage oceanic dealings in the kingdom in 1392 during the Hongwu Emperor's reign. Many Ryūkyūan officials were descended from these Chinese immigrants, being born in China or having Chinese grandfathers.

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