History of the National Park Service

What is History of the National Park Service known for?


natural historic

(1978) 1979 amendment to the General Authorities Act of 1970 has been come known as the “Redwood amendment”, as it also contained language expanding Redwood National Park. The key part of that act, as amended, is: ‘Congress declares that the national park system, which began with establishment of Yellowstone National Park in 1872, has since grown to include superlative natural, historic, and recreation areas in every major region of the United States, its territories


massive stone

to the field to assist local residents in caring for the dead or dying. More than 6,000 soldiers had been killed in action, and among 21,000 wounded hundreds more died each day. Initially interred in improvised graves on the battlefield, Curtin approved plans for a Soldier's National Cemetery. William Saunders (William Saunders (botanist)) planned Gettysburg National Cemetery. He enclosed it with a massive stone wall, the lawns were framed by trees and shrubs. The graves were laid out in a great semicircle, state by state, around the site for a sculptured central feature, a Soldier's National Monument. The Soldier's National Cemetery, as it was then called, was dedicated by President Abraham Lincoln on November 19, 1863. The speaker's platform occupied the site set aside for the Soldier's National Monument, then awaiting future design. The immortal words of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address gave this spot a historical and patriotic association. Gettysburg National Cemetery became the honored property of the nation on May 1, 1872, now a century ago. Congress recognized the importance of honoring and caring for the remains of the war dead by enacting general legislation in 1867 which provided for a system of National Cemeteries developed by the War Department. Eleven of the National Cemeteries established under that authority were added to the National Park System in 1933. The act of 1867 also provided authority for preserving an important battlefield of the Indian wars when, on January 29, 1879, the Secretary of War designated "The National Cemetery of Custer's Battlefield Reservation." National Monument line II, 1910-1933; War Department The Antiquities Act of 1906 authorized the President to proclaim National Monuments not only on western public lands but on any lands owned or controlled by the United States. Between 1906 and 1933 successive Presidents proclaimed ten National Monuments on military reservations; thumb 300 px right Fort Matanzas National Monument (File:Fortwestern.jpg) class "wikitable" border "1" - ! Year ! ! Monument - 1910 June 23 Big Hole Battlefield (Big Hole National Battlefield), Mont. - 1913 Oct. 14 Cabrillo (Cabrillo National Monument), Calif. - 1923 March 2 Mound City, Ohio (now Hopewell Culture National Historical Park) - Fort Marion, Fla. (now Castillo de San Marcos National Monument) - 1924 Oct. 15 Fort Matanzas (Fort Matanzas National Monument), Fla. - Fort Pulaski, Ga. - Castle Pickney, S.C. (abolished 3 29 56) - Statue of Liberty, N.Y. - 1925 Feb. 6 Meriwether Lewis, Tenn. (now part of Natchez Trace Parkway - 1925 Sept. 5 Father Millet Cross, N.Y. (abolished March 29, 1956) The authority to proclaim National Monuments on military reservations is still valid, no others have been proclaimed. Instead, historic but obsolete fortifications are declared surplus by the United States Department of Defense and transferred to the National Park Service, the States, or other political subdivisions following Congressional authorization. National Monument line III, 1907-1933; Department of Agriculture Between 1907 and 1933, six presidents proclaimed 21 National Monuments on National Forest (United States National Forests) lands administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture: thumb right 300 px Sunset Crater, cinder cone (File:SUCR2262.jpg) * Lassen Peak, Calif. included in Lassen Volcanic National Park * Cinder Cone, Calif. * Gila Cliff Dwellings (Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument), N. Mex. * Tonto (Tonto National Monument), Ariz. * Grand Canyon (Grand Canyon National Park), Ariz. * Pinnacles (Pinnacles National Monument), Calif. (trans. to Interior Dept. Dec. 12, 1910) * Jewel Cave (Pinnacles National Monument), S. Dak. * Wheeler (Wheeler National Monument), Colo. (abolished Aug. 3, 1950) * Mount Olympus (Mount Olympus (Washington)), Wash. included in Olympic National Park * Oregon Caves (Oregon Caves National Monument), Ore. * Devils Postpile (Devils Postpile National Monument), Calif. * Walnut Canyon (Walnut Canyon National Monument), Ariz. * Bandelier (Bandelier National Monument), N. Mex. (trans. to N.P.S. Feb. 25, 1932) * Old Kassan, Alaska (abolished July 26, 1955) * Lehman Caves, Nev. became the nucleus of Great Basin National Park in 1986. * Timpanogos Cave (Timpanogos Cave National Monument), Utah * Bryce Canyon (Bryce Canyon National Park), Utah * Chiricahua (Chiricahua National Monument), Ariz. * Holy Cross (Mount of the Holy Cross), Colo. (abolished Aug. 3, 1950) * Sunset Crater, Ariz. * Saguaro (Saguaro National Monument), Ariz. The first two National Monuments in the Department of Agriculture were Lassen Peak and Cinder Cone, created within Lassen Peak National Forest, California, on May 6, 1907, to preserve evidence of what was then the most recent volcanic activity in the United States south of Alaska. In 1916 these two monuments formed the nucleus for Lassen Volcanic National Park. Fourteen of the other Department of Agriculture National Monuments were established to preserve "scientific objects". Moved by a report of plans to build an electric railway along its rim, President Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed Grand Canyon National Monument on lands within the Grand Canyon National Forest, Arizona, on January 11, 1908. In 1919 the National Monument became the nucleus of Grand Canyon National Park. thumb right 300 px Downed Western Red Cedar (File:2000-09-23 GracieByDownedCyprus.jpg)Two days before leaving office, on March 2, 1909, Roosevelt proclaimed Mount Olympus National Monument, from lands in the Olympic National Forest, Washington (Washington (U.S. state)). It was established to protect the Olympic elk and important stands of Sitka spruce, western hemlock, Douglas-fir, and Alaska cedar and redcedar (Thuja plicata). It formed the nucleus for Olympic National Park in 1938. The authority to proclaim National Monuments on National Forest (United States National Forest) lands is still valid, only two others have been created between the Reorganization of 1933 and 1974. Both were placed under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service, Cedar Breaks, Utah, (August 22, 1933), and Jackson Hole, Wyoming, (March 13, 1943). National Park System areas by category following the reorganization of 1933 class "wikitable" border "1" - ! Date ! Natural Areas ! Historical Areas ! Recreation Areas ! National Cap. Parks ! Others ! Total Areas in N.P. System - (Category:United States National Park Service) National Park Service (Category:History of organizations) National Park Service (Category:History of the United States)


early emphasis

turned over to state control in 1895. U.S. cavalry units took up a position in California-controlled Yosemite Park in 1891 and took over some management duties. In 1906 the park was completely taken into federal control. National Monument line I, 1906-1916 Early emphasis had been on the creation of National Parks, there was another movement seeking to preserve the cliff dwellings, pueblo ruins, and early missions throughout the west and southwest. Often local ranchers would try


historic site'

Historic Site Bennington Battlefield , Vermont; Saratoga (Battles of Saratoga), Newburgh (Newburgh (city), New York), and Oriskany (Battle of Oriskany), New York; Cowpens (Battle of Cowpens), South Carolina; Monmouth (Battle of Monmouth), New Jersey; and Groton (Battle of Groton Heights), Connecticut. Of these, Cowpens is now a unit in the National Park System, and Bunker Hill, Bennington, Oriskany, and Monmouth are National Historic Landmarks. April 30, 1864, in the midst

, Missouri, USA. Some of the most important historical additions to the System between 1933 and 1964 are almost lost to sight in this long thematic list. Jefferson National Expansion Memorial was the first National Historic Site established under authority of the Historic Sites Act. More important, its 37 square blocks embraced a key urban area on the historic St. Louis waterfront — the first major effort of the Service, after National Capital Parks, to conserve and develop a large

and important urban historic site. Some architectural monuments, including the Old St. Louis Post Office and the Cathedral, have been carefully preserved, but the main feature of the area is the only major national memorial of modern design in the United States, and one of a small number in the world — Eero Saarinen's stainless steel Arch. In 1948 Congress authorized another major urban project, the Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia, the most important historical area


historical

. Lee, Ronald F.; Family Tree of the National Park System, A Chart with Accompanying Text Designed to Illustrate the Growth of the National Park System 1872-1972; 1972 -- Since 1872 the United States National Park System has grown from a single, public reservation called Yellowstone National Park to embrace over 450 natural, historical, recreational, and cultural areas throughout the United States, its territories, and island possessions. These areas

in the System by adding 12 natural areas in 9 western states and Alaska and 57 historical areas located in 17 predominantly eastern states and the District of Columbia. National Capital Parks line, 1790-1933 thumb right 200 px The Mall (File:The Mall in WDC.jpg)National Capital Parks are the oldest parks in the National Park System. These parks began with the founding of the District of Columbia in 1790. The President appointed three Federal

. These areas were not selected at random but constituted, almost from the beginning, a rational system, designed to preserve major battlefields for historical and professional study and as lasting memorials to the great armies of both sides. The National Military Park System was approaching maturity under the War Department (United States Department of War) in 1933 when all these battlefields were transferred to the National Park Service to become a significant and unique element in the National Park


professional study

. These areas were not selected at random but constituted, almost from the beginning, a rational system, designed to preserve major battlefields for historical and professional study and as lasting memorials to the great armies of both sides. The National Military Park System was approaching maturity under the War Department (United States Department of War) in 1933 when all these battlefields were transferred to the National Park Service to become a significant and unique element in the National Park System. All of the exhibits are permanent,and will always be shown in the museum. National Cemetery line, 1867-1933 thumb 300 px right Gettysburg National Cemetery (File:Gettysburg national cemetery img 4164.jpg)The National Cemeteries (United States National Cemetery) in the National Park System are closely related to the National Military Parks. The battle of Gettysburg was scarcely over when Governor Andrew Y. Curtin (Pennsylvania) hastened to the field to assist local residents in caring for the dead or dying. More than 6,000 soldiers had been killed in action, and among 21,000 wounded hundreds more died each day. Initially interred in improvised graves on the battlefield, Curtin approved plans for a Soldier's National Cemetery. William Saunders (William Saunders (botanist)) planned Gettysburg National Cemetery. He enclosed it with a massive stone wall, the lawns were framed by trees and shrubs. The graves were laid out in a great semicircle, state by state, around the site for a sculptured central feature, a Soldier's National Monument. The Soldier's National Cemetery, as it was then called, was dedicated by President Abraham Lincoln on November 19, 1863. The speaker's platform occupied the site set aside for the Soldier's National Monument, then awaiting future design. The immortal words of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address gave this spot a historical and patriotic association. Gettysburg National Cemetery became the honored property of the nation on May 1, 1872, now a century ago. Congress recognized the importance of honoring and caring for the remains of the war dead by enacting general legislation in 1867 which provided for a system of National Cemeteries developed by the War Department. Eleven of the National Cemeteries established under that authority were added to the National Park System in 1933. The act of 1867 also provided authority for preserving an important battlefield of the Indian wars when, on January 29, 1879, the Secretary of War designated "The National Cemetery of Custer's Battlefield Reservation." National Monument line II, 1910-1933; War Department The Antiquities Act of 1906 authorized the President to proclaim National Monuments not only on western public lands but on any lands owned or controlled by the United States. Between 1906 and 1933 successive Presidents proclaimed ten National Monuments on military reservations; thumb 300 px right Fort Matanzas National Monument (File:Fortwestern.jpg) class "wikitable" border "1" - ! Year ! ! Monument - 1910 June 23 Big Hole Battlefield (Big Hole National Battlefield), Mont. - 1913 Oct. 14 Cabrillo (Cabrillo National Monument), Calif. - 1923 March 2 Mound City, Ohio (now Hopewell Culture National Historical Park) - Fort Marion, Fla. (now Castillo de San Marcos National Monument) - 1924 Oct. 15 Fort Matanzas (Fort Matanzas National Monument), Fla. - Fort Pulaski, Ga. - Castle Pickney, S.C. (abolished 3 29 56) - Statue of Liberty, N.Y. - 1925 Feb. 6 Meriwether Lewis, Tenn. (now part of Natchez Trace Parkway - 1925 Sept. 5 Father Millet Cross, N.Y. (abolished March 29, 1956) The authority to proclaim National Monuments on military reservations is still valid, no others have been proclaimed. Instead, historic but obsolete fortifications are declared surplus by the United States Department of Defense and transferred to the National Park Service, the States, or other political subdivisions following Congressional authorization. National Monument line III, 1907-1933; Department of Agriculture Between 1907 and 1933, six presidents proclaimed 21 National Monuments on National Forest (United States National Forests) lands administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture: thumb right 300 px Sunset Crater, cinder cone (File:SUCR2262.jpg) * Lassen Peak, Calif. included in Lassen Volcanic National Park * Cinder Cone, Calif. * Gila Cliff Dwellings (Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument), N. Mex. * Tonto (Tonto National Monument), Ariz. * Grand Canyon (Grand Canyon National Park), Ariz. * Pinnacles (Pinnacles National Monument), Calif. (trans. to Interior Dept. Dec. 12, 1910) * Jewel Cave (Pinnacles National Monument), S. Dak. * Wheeler (Wheeler National Monument), Colo. (abolished Aug. 3, 1950) * Mount Olympus (Mount Olympus (Washington)), Wash. included in Olympic National Park * Oregon Caves (Oregon Caves National Monument), Ore. * Devils Postpile (Devils Postpile National Monument), Calif. * Walnut Canyon (Walnut Canyon National Monument), Ariz. * Bandelier (Bandelier National Monument), N. Mex. (trans. to N.P.S. Feb. 25, 1932) * Old Kassan, Alaska (abolished July 26, 1955) * Lehman Caves, Nev. became the nucleus of Great Basin National Park in 1986. * Timpanogos Cave (Timpanogos Cave National Monument), Utah * Bryce Canyon (Bryce Canyon National Park), Utah * Chiricahua (Chiricahua National Monument), Ariz. * Holy Cross (Mount of the Holy Cross), Colo. (abolished Aug. 3, 1950) * Sunset Crater, Ariz. * Saguaro (Saguaro National Monument), Ariz. The first two National Monuments in the Department of Agriculture were Lassen Peak and Cinder Cone, created within Lassen Peak National Forest, California, on May 6, 1907, to preserve evidence of what was then the most recent volcanic activity in the United States south of Alaska. In 1916 these two monuments formed the nucleus for Lassen Volcanic National Park. Fourteen of the other Department of Agriculture National Monuments were established to preserve "scientific objects". Moved by a report of plans to build an electric railway along its rim, President Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed Grand Canyon National Monument on lands within the Grand Canyon National Forest, Arizona, on January 11, 1908. In 1919 the National Monument became the nucleus of Grand Canyon National Park. thumb right 300 px Downed Western Red Cedar (File:2000-09-23 GracieByDownedCyprus.jpg)Two days before leaving office, on March 2, 1909, Roosevelt proclaimed Mount Olympus National Monument, from lands in the Olympic National Forest, Washington (Washington (U.S. state)). It was established to protect the Olympic elk and important stands of Sitka spruce, western hemlock, Douglas-fir, and Alaska cedar and redcedar (Thuja plicata). It formed the nucleus for Olympic National Park in 1938. The authority to proclaim National Monuments on National Forest (United States National Forest) lands is still valid, only two others have been created between the Reorganization of 1933 and 1974. Both were placed under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service, Cedar Breaks, Utah, (August 22, 1933), and Jackson Hole, Wyoming, (March 13, 1943). National Park System areas by category following the reorganization of 1933 class "wikitable" border "1" - ! Date ! Natural Areas ! Historical Areas ! Recreation Areas ! National Cap. Parks ! Others ! Total Areas in N.P. System - (Category:United States National Park Service) National Park Service (Category:History of organizations) National Park Service (Category:History of the United States)


interest quot

600 ft m abbr on vertical climb The Antiquities Act of 1906 was designed to protect antiquities and objects of scientific interest on the public domain. It authorized the President (President of the United States), "to declare by public proclamation historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest" that existed on public lands in the United States. The Act declared these sites to be National Monuments. It prohibited


original national

Montezuma Castle , Arizona, is one of the best preserved cliff dwellings. Petrified Forest (Petrified Forest National Park), Arizona, is world renowned for its petrified wood, Indian ruins and petroglyphs. Three of these original National Monuments later became the core of National Parks. Mukuntuweap became Zion (Zion National Park), Sieur de Monts grew into Acadia (Acadia National Park), and Petrified Forest which was expanded by Congress to become a National Park of the same name


high public

the people of the United States. The authorization of activities shall be construed and the protection, management, and administration of these areas shall be conducted in light of the high public value and integrity of the National Park System and shall not be exercised in derogation of the values and purposes for which these various areas have been established, except as may have been or shall be directly and specifically provided by Congress.’ (16 USC Ia-I) Management Policies 2001, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service; December 2000 National lakeshores thumb Grand portal at Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore (File:Pictured Rocks - Grand portal.jpg)The first national lakeshores were created in 1966 from some of the remaining unspoiled or unique coastlines of the Great Lakes. The first lakeshores were Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore in the Upper Penninsla of Michigan and the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in Indiana as a part of the Greater Chicago urban area. In 1970, two additional lakeshores were added. Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore on Michigans western shore of Lake Michigan, and Apostle Islands National Lakeshore on Wisconsins Lake Superior shore. National Heritage Area Heritage areas were first established to identify regions having a common cultural impact on the development of the United States. The Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail in the Virginia, Maryland and District of Columbia was established on March 28, 1983. Fourteen areas exited by November 12, 1996. Initially, all the heritage areas were in the east and northeast. Today, they exist from coast to coast. The entire State of Tennessee has been designated as the Tennessee Civil War Heritage Area NPS Heritage Areas Urban recreation areas During the Richard Nixon (Richard M. Nixon) presidency, public parks expanded with the creation of the two gateway parks. Golden Gate National Recreation Area in San Francisco became the western book end to Gateway National Recreation Area in New York City. Both were specifically created to serve these two major urban areas and create open space, rather than to preserve a specific scenic or cultural value. The Alaska expansion thumb Category:United States National Park Service (File:Lake Clark National Park.jpg) National Park Service (Category:History of organizations) National Park Service (Category:History of the United States)


natural

. Lee, Ronald F.; Family Tree of the National Park System, A Chart with Accompanying Text Designed to Illustrate the Growth of the National Park System 1872-1972; 1972 -- Since 1872 the United States National Park System has grown from a single, public reservation called Yellowstone National Park to embrace over 450 natural, historical, recreational, and cultural areas throughout the United States, its territories, and island possessions. These areas

and Henry David Thoreau and painters Thomas Cole and Frederick Edwin Church began to compete with prevailing view of wilderness as a challenge to overcome. Slowly unspoiled nature and spectacular natural areas of the West became better known, the idea of saving such places became of interest. In California, several state leaders sought to protect Yosemite Valley. In 1864, Sen. John Conness of California sponsored an act to transfer the valley and nearby Mariposa

in the System by adding 12 natural areas in 9 western states and Alaska and 57 historical areas located in 17 predominantly eastern states and the District of Columbia. National Capital Parks line, 1790-1933 thumb right 200 px The Mall (File:The Mall in WDC.jpg)National Capital Parks are the oldest parks in the National Park System. These parks began with the founding of the District of Columbia in 1790. The President appointed three Federal

History of the National Park Service

Lee, Ronald F.; Family Tree of the National Park System, A Chart with Accompanying Text Designed to Illustrate the Growth of the National Park System 1872-1972; 1972 (File:FamilyTree ofthe NationalParkService.jpg) -- Since 1872 the United States National Park System has grown from a single, public reservation called Yellowstone National Park to embrace over 450 natural, historical, recreational, and cultural areas throughout the United States, its territories, and island possessions. These areas include a diverse varieties of areas —National Parks, National Monuments (U.S. National Monument), National Memorials, National Military Parks, National Historic Sites (National Historic Sites (United States)), National Parkways, National Recreation Areas, National Seashores, National Scenic Riverways (National Wild and Scenic River), National Scenic Trails, and others. Lee, Ronald F.; Family Tree of the National Park System, A Chart with Accompanying Text Designed to Illustrate the Growth of the National Park System 1872-1972; 1972

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