Harran

What is Harran known for?


original water

. The women of the village are tattooed and dressed in traditional Bedouin clothes. The Assyrians who once occupied the area for thousands of years have moved to other areas, largely due to severe discrimination and Genocide (Assyrian Genocide) by the Turkish government, although there are still some Assyrian (Assyrian people) villages in the general area. By the late 1980s the large plain of Harran had fallen into disuse as the streams of Cüllab and Deysan, its original water-supply


commentary+tradition

–600 AD: Psychology (with Ethics and Religion)'', page 11. Cornell University Press After his exile, Simplicius (and perhaps some others), may have travelled to Harran, near Edessa (Edessa, Mesopotamia). From there, the students of an Academy-in-exile could have survived into the 9th century, long enough to facilitate the Arabic revival of the Neoplatonist commentary tradition in Baghdad. But in heading an attack on Harran he

, the last head of the Athenian school. From there, the students of an Academy-in-exile could have survived into the 9th century, long enough to facilitate the Arabic revival of the Neoplatonist commentary tradition in Baghdad. Richard Sorabji, (2005), ''The Philosophy of the Commentators, 200–600 AD: Psychology (with Ethics and Religion)'', page 11. Cornell University Press Death Esarhaddon had to contend with court intrigues at Nineveh

: Psychology (with Ethics and Religion)'', page 11. Cornell University Press After his exile, Simplicius (and perhaps some others), may have travelled to Harran, near Edessa (Edessa, Mesopotamia). From there, the students of an Academy-in-exile could have survived into the 9th century, long enough to facilitate the Arabic revival of the Neoplatonist commentary tradition in Baghdad. *Ibrahim (Ibrahim of Ummayyad) ibn al-Walid (744


modern+critical

(based around the movements of the Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury (Mercury (planet)), Jupiter, Venus and Saturn) found its greatest development in the community which was based in the Harran region of south-eastern Anatolia and northern Syria. Ibn al-Qayyim distinguished them as the Sabians of Harran from the south Mesopotamian ''Sābi'ūna Hunafā''. Modern critical scholarship Possible identifications for the Sabians


religion

houses (3).JPG thumb Harran beehive houses thumb Ruins of the University at Harran. It was one of the main Ayyubid buildings of the city, built in the classical revival style. (File:Harran University.JPG) The earliest records of Harran come from Ebla tablets (late 3rd millennium BCE). Holloway, Steven W. ''Aššur is King! Aššur is King! - Religion in the Exercise of Power in the Neo-Assyrian Empire'', BRILL, 2002, ISBN 9-004-12328-8, p.391 From these, it is known

had dried up. But the plain is irrigated by the recent Southeastern Anatolia Project and is becoming green again. Cotton and rice can now be grown. Religion The city was the chief home of the Mesopotamian moon god (Lunar deity) Sin (Sin (mythology)), under the Assyrians and Neo-Babylonians Chaldeans (Neo-Babylonian Empire) and even into Roman (Roman Empire) times. According to an early Arabic work known as ''Kitab al-Magall'' or the ''Book of Rolls'' (part of Clementine

. In addition the Mandean (Mandaeans) religion, a form of Gnosticism, was born in Harran. Carrhae was the seat of a Christian diocese before the First Council of Nicaea of 325, which was attended by its bishop Gerontius. In 361, its bishop Barses (List of bishops of Edessa) was transferred to Edessa, the capital of the Roman province of Osrhoene and therefore the metropolitan see of which the bishopric of Carrhae was a suffragan. The names of another eleven bishops


616

into an alliance with the Median king Cyaxares the Great, who had taken advantage of the upheavals in Assyria to free his people from Assyrian vassalage and unite the Iranic Medes and Persians, and the remnants of the Elamites and Manneans, into a powerful Median-dominated force. The Babylonians and Medes, together with the Scythians and Cimmerians, attacked Assyria in 616 BC. After four years of bitter fighting, Nineveh was finally sacked in 612 BC, after

-ishkun was marching on Babylon in an attempt to regain control. Nabopolassar seized Nippur and thus Babylonia as a whole. Nabopolassar's position, and the fate of Assyria was sealed when he entered into an alliance with another of Assyria's former vassals, the Medes, the now dominant people of what was to become Persia. The Medes, and Chaldean ruled Babylonians, together with the Scythians and Cimmerians attacked Assyria in 616 BC, and by 612 BC the alliance had sacked

encamped in Babylonia trying to unseat him. However, the Assyrian king, Sin-shar-ishkun was plagued by constant revolt in Nineveh, and was thus unable to eject Nabopolassar. The stalemate ended in 616 BC, when Nabopolassar entered into alliance with Cyaxares, king of the Medes and Persians, (who had also taken advantage of the anarchy in Assyria to free his peoples from the Assyrian yoke) and the Scythians. After 4 years of fierce fighting Nineveh was sacked in 612 BC


translating works

of dispute. The Harranians may have identified themselves as Sabians in order to retain their religious beliefs. During the late 8th and 9th centuries Harran was a centre for translating works of astronomy, philosophy, natural sciences, and medicine from Greek (Greek language) to Syriac (Syriac language) by Assyrians (Assyrian people), and thence to Arabic (Arabic language), bringing the knowledge of the classical world (Classical antiquity) to the emerging Arabic-speaking civilization


elegant appearance

. Of this marriage wrote Abbot Suger: Bohemond came to France to seek by any means he could the hand of the Lord Louis' sister Constance, a young lady of excellent breeding, elegant appearance and beautiful face. So great was the reputation for valour of the French kingdom and of the Lord Louis that even the Saracens were terrified by the prospect of that marriage. She was not engaged since she had broken off her agreement to wed Hugh, count of Troyes, and wished to avoid


commercial cultural

kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa. The location is in a district (Districts of Turkey) of Şanlıurfa Province that is also named "Harran". A few kilometers from the village of Altınbaşak are the archaeological remains of ancient Harran, a major commercial, cultural, and religious center first inhabited in the Early Bronze Age III (3rd millennium BCE) period. It was known as '''Ḫarrānu''' in the Assyrian (Assyrian Empire) period; possibly ''Ḫaran'' (


classical world

of dispute. The Harranians may have identified themselves as Sabians in order to retain their religious beliefs. During the late 8th and 9th centuries Harran was a centre for translating works of astronomy, philosophy, natural sciences, and medicine from Greek (Greek language) to Syriac (Syriac language) by Assyrians (Assyrian people), and thence to Arabic (Arabic language), bringing the knowledge of the classical world (Classical antiquity) to the emerging Arabic-speaking civilization in the south. Baghdad came to this work later than Harran. Many important scholars of natural science, astronomy, and medicine originate from Harran; they were non-Arab and non-Islamic ethnic Assyrians (Assyrian people), including possibly the alchemist Jābir ibn Hayyān. Meetings The Brethren regularly met on a fixed schedule. The meetings apparently took place on three evenings of each month: once near the beginning, in which speeches were given, another towards the middle, apparently concerning astronomy and astrology, and the third between the end of the month and the 25th of that month; during the third one, they recited hymns with philosophical content "The liturgy of the first night consisted of personal oratory; that of the second of a 'cosmic text', read under the starry heavens facing the polar star; and that of the third night of a philosophical hymn (implying a metaphysical or metacosmic theme) which was a 'prayer of Plato', 'supplication of Idris', or 'the secret psalm of Aristotle'." pg 35 of Nasr 1964 . During their meetings and possibly also during the three feasts they held, on the dates of the sun's entry into the Zodiac signs "Ram, Cancer, and Balance"), besides the usual lectures and discussions, they would engage in some manner of liturgy reminiscent of the Harranians "...the liturgy described by the Ikhwan seems to be more closely related to the religion of the heirs of the prophet Idris, that is, the Harranians who were the principal inheritors in the Middle East of what has been called "Oriental Pythagoreanism" and who were the guardians and propagators of Hermeticism in the Islamic world." pg 34 of Nasr 1964


dark green

and belonged to the Sabians of Harran, a sect of Hermeticists (Hermeticism). (Churton p. 27) Other sources credit him to be a Mandaean. http: www.mandaeanunion.org History EN_History_009.htm In either case, both sects have a great interest in astronomy, astrology, and mathematics (especially in the case of Mandaeans). After this, Edessa was again brought under Roman control by Decius and it was made a center of Roman operations against the Persian Sassanids. ''Amru'', possibly a descendant of Abgar, is mentioned as king in the Paikuli inscription, recording the victory of Narseh in the Sassanid civil war of 293. Historians identify this Amru as ''Amru ibn Adi'', the fourth king of the Lakhmid dynasty which was at that time still based in Harran, not yet moved to Hirah (al-Hirah) in Babylonia. A. T. Olmstead, "The Mid-Third Century of the Christian Era. II", ''Classical Philology'' (1942): 398-420 (see p. 399) - Nabu-na'id (Nabonidus) 556 – 539 BC Last Mesopotamian king of Babylon, originated in Harran in Assyria. Was not a Chaldean, often left rule to his son Belshazzar. - - bgcolor "#fffaf0" Ashur-uballit II 612 BC–ca. 608 to 605 BC Harran defeated by Cyaxares of Media (Median Empire) and Nabopolassar of Babylonia, Assyrian-Egyptian force defeated at Carchemish in 605 BC An early Arabic work known as ''Kitab al-Magall'' or the ''Book of Rolls'' (part of Clementine literature) states that Nimrod built the towns of Hadâniûn, Ellasar, Seleucia, Ctesiphon, Rûhîn, Atrapatene, Telalôn, and others, that he began his reign as king over earth when Reu was 163, and that he reigned for 69 years, building Nisibis, Raha (Edessa (Edessa, Mesopotamia)) and Harran when Peleg was 50. It further adds that Nimrod "saw in the sky a piece of black cloth and a crown." He called upon Sasan the weaver and commanded him to make him a crown like it, which he set jewels on and wore. He was allegedly the first king to wear a crown. "For this reason people who knew nothing about it, said that a crown came down to him from heaven." Later, the book describes how Nimrod established fire worship and idolatry, then received instruction in divination for three years from Bouniter, the fourth son of Noah. the ''Kitab al-Magall'' Other campaigns Nabopolassar waged war against Egypt (ancient Egypt) from 610 BC until his death. In 605 BC, Nabopolassar took the Assyrian city of Harran, where Assyrian forces had retreated after the fall of Nineveh. Later that year, his son Nebuchadnezzar (Nebuchadnezzar II) fought against the Pharaoh Necho II of Egypt, shortly before Nabopolassar died. Ascent Nabonidus' background is not clear. He said in his inscriptions that he was of unimportant origins. Collected in Beaulieu 1989. Similarly, his mother Addagoppe (Addagoppe of Harran), who lived to an old age and may have been connected to the temple of the moon-god (Lunar Deity) Sîn (Sin (mythology)) in Harran, does not mention her family background in her inscriptions. There are two arguments for an Assyrian background: repeated references in Nabonidus' royal propaganda and imagery to Ashurbanipal, the last great Neo-Assyrian (Neo-Assyrian Empire) king; and Nabonidus' originating from, and his special interest in Harran, an Assyrian city and the last stronghold of the Neo-Assyrians after the fall of Nineveh, their main capital (Capital city). W. Mayer, "Nabonidus Herkunft", in M. Dietrich and O. Loretz (eds.), ''Dubsar anta-men: Studien zur Altorientalistik'' (Münster: Ugarit-Verlag 1998), 245-61;

Harran

thumb Harran and other major cities of ancient Syria (File:Syria2mil.JPG) thumb Districts of Şanlıurfa (File:Şanlıurfa districts.png) '''Harran''' ( , Tahir Sezen, ''Osmanlı Yer Adları (Alfabetik Sırayla)'', T.C. Başbakanlık Devlet Arşivleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Yayın Nu 21, Ankara, p. 223. ) was a major ancient city (Cities of the ancient Near East) in Upper Mesopotamia (Al-Jazira, Mesopotamia) whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa. The location is in a district (Districts of Turkey) of Şanlıurfa Province that is also named "Harran".

A few kilometers from the village of Altınbaşak are the archaeological remains of ancient Harran, a major commercial, cultural, and religious center first inhabited in the Early Bronze Age III (3rd millennium BCE) period. It was known as '''Ḫarrānu''' in the Assyrian (Assyrian Empire) period; possibly ''Ḫaran'' ( 'Greek city') in the Early Christian period; and '''Ḥarrān''' (حرّان) in the Islamic period. David Noel Freedman ''et al.'', ''Eerdmans dictionary of the Bible'' ''s.v.'' Haran ''Encyclopedia of Islam'', ''s.v.'' Ḥarrān

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